Jumps in the ice art run

Amber Corwin - jumps of enter
Michelle Kwan - rotation
Fleur Maxwell - landing

of jumps (English. jumps or figure of skatings jumps) are ice art run elements, with which the ice art runner stands out against the ice surface and turns in air around the own axle. There are six basic jumps, one can however over one hundred further make, last last from the basic jumps is derived. Jumps can be implemented with simple, double, three-way and even quadruple rotation.

Table of contents

directions of rotation

most ice art runner inside turn after with the jumps and Pirouetten left. It gives however some, which turn after right. The few ice art runners can accomplish jumps in both directions of rotation.

For the sake of simplicity all jumps are described usually as „postleft turners “.

phases of a jump

characteristic characteristics of a correctly accomplished jump are intensity, D. h. Height and speed, and itself the jump length devoted from it.

A jump consists of four phases:

1. Intake phase
the intake phase takes place backwards on a foot, with the Rittberger on both feet. Only one runs in the Axel forward of . One wins the speed by different Anfahrten (translating or step variations).
For example a long diagonal slip of kind of rear wall on the left foot, of the center of the ice nearly always precedes the Lutz jump toward the ice-skating rink corner.

Those start before the Salchow jump goes out with three and resembles a circle.
2. Jump phase
the jump phase is different with each jump. There are two jump types: Jump a jump tapped by the ice skate edge and. The jump of the edge must be accomplished flexibly and from the knee bend over the edge point (not however from the Schlittschuhbezahnung). With a tapped jump taps briefly the play leg with the Schlittschuhbezahnung in the ice and helps thereby when jumping off.
To edge jumps belong to Axel, Rittberger, Salchow.

Tapped jumps are Toeloop, Lutz and Flip.  
3. Rotation
the rotation consists of two phases. In the first phase it concerns to win the correct height. It is to run only with small rotation. Only in the second phase one dynamisiert the rotation, in which one crosses the arms before the body. While one is in air, the body and head axle are to be exclusive in the vertical situation. The number of accomplished turns determines whether it is a simple , double , three-way or quadruple jump.
 A Axel has a half rotation more, i.e. at the time of simple execution1 ½ turns, in double execution 2 ½ etc.

Quadruple nowadays Toeloop, Salchow and Flip are jumped.
  • Most elite ice art runners accomplish three-way and quadruple jumps as their main jumps, while most elite ice art runner inside all jumps accomplish three-way, except Axel, which is normally double. Only few ladies control the three-way Axel and showed him successfully in a competition.

4. Landing phase
the landing phase takes place with all jumps backwards. Before the landing one removes rapidly the arms and the play leg from the body, whereby one slows the rotation down. One lands deeply in the knee over the ice skate point; immediately after the Schlittschuhbezahnung operates the ice, one must turn into on the edge. With the discharge one stretches the play leg to the rear. The discharge spiral should be a semi-circle with large diameter, whereby one through-stretches the bent landing leg.

With the jump combinations one differentiates eight phases: Intake, jump, rotation, landing and exit from the first jump, jump, rotation, landing and exit from the second jump.

allocation of the jumps

of jumps can be divided after the following characteristics:

1. after the four basic figures in the obligation run

A) a jump in three - senses
b) a jump in the Gegendreier - the sense
C) a jump in turn - senses
D) a jump in Gegenwende - the sense

with jumps without rotation:

a) Straight line line
b) Elbow
C) Queue line

2. to the edges

A) forward of outward
b) forward of inward
C) backwards outward
D) backwards inward

3. the jump is possible

A) forward - only with a foot of the edge
b) backwards - only with a foot of the edge, so-called. Edge jumps or with both feet with simultaneous tap with the other foot, so-called tapped jumps

4. the landing is possible

A) forward - on the jump leg, free leg or on both legs (only with spreading jumps - with a leg on the point, with other leg on the edge).
b) backwards - on the jump leg or on the free leg

5. After the rotation

A) jumps without turns
b) of jumps with turns of 180° (half jumps) up to 1440° (quadruple jumps)

by combination these possibilities can be accomplished over 130 different jumps.


calls jump elements jump element:

  • a single jump (English. individually jump)
  • a thrown jump (English. throw) in the pair run
  • a jump sequence (English. jump sequence)
  • a jump combination (English. jump combi nation)

of single jumps

of single jumps both in the single run and in the pair run are accomplished. The today's world class in the gentleman matches requires already quadruple jumps (until today there is Toeloop, Salchow and Flip); with the ladies three-way jumps are needed. However some ladies already begin to show quadruple jumps.

There are six basic jumps. All six are backwards outward landed, to have however different intake and jump phase, according to which one can differentiate them.

The following descriptions apply to „usual “ice art runners, which turn after left; to those, which turn after right, the data apply mirror-image.

Jump support leg play leg notes
Toeloop right leg, backwards outward left foot types in the ice
Flip left leg, backwards inward right foot types in the ice
Lutz left leg, backwards outward right foot taps in the ice nearly always precedes the Lutz a long diagonal slip of kind of rear wall on the left foot, (of the center of the ice into the ice-skating rink corner).
Axel left leg, forward of inward right leg swings Axel is from the rear forward the only one, which did not jump forward
Rittberger both legs, backwards (one shifts the weight on the right leg and jumps off) swinging no cutting the left leg is before the right leg crosses
Salchow left leg, backwards inward right leg swings from the rear forward

a variation is the Tano jump, with which the ice art runner stretches its arm over the head. That makes it substantially more difficult than one „for normal “jump. This variation got the name after the California ice art runner Brian Boitano, which as the first a three-way Lutz with elevated arm jumped.

a number of further jumps, which are usually accomplished with simple turn and as liaison vehicles are used in the jump sequences mostly, gives connecting jumps. These include for example:

  • Euler - approach and jump with the right foot backwards outward, after a turn landing backwards inward on the left leg (or mirror-image).
  • Three-jump (English. roll jump or three jump) - the simplest of all jumps has only a half revolution and therefore also cadet jump is called. With three one turns first from backwards on forward. the jump effected similarly as with the Axel of the left outside edge, the play leg swings from the rear forward. In air one accomplishes a half turn and lands backwards on the right leg.
  • Walley starts one on the right of backwards outward and jumps off with the right foot backwards inward after a short Schlangenbogen, after a turn lands one outward on the jump leg. Another variant is a tapped Walley.
  • Half Rittberger resembles the Rittberger. Its name interprets on a half jump, in reality accomplishes one however a whole revolution. Contrary to the Rittberger one does not land outward on the right foot, but backwards inward on the left foot. Often one uses it as connecting jump, if the ice art runner wants to add a Salchow or a Flip to the end of a jump combination.
  • Spreading jump - is any jump, with which one spreads or grätscht the legs in air after a half turn.

thrown jumps

a thrown jump (English. throw) is a few-run-specific element. The lady accomplishes a usual jump, while the man gives it with the jump an additional „impact “. For a thrown jump the height and length of the jump are characteristic. The names of the thrown jumps are derived from the single jumps: Throw Axel, throw Lutz, throw Salchow, throw Toeloop. With the competitions they are accomplished doubly or three-way.

jump sequences

a jump sequence (English. jump sequence) consists at least of two jumps, between which a foot change take place or are accomplished revolutions.

  • Jump sequences were a speciality of the German Eiskunstläuferin Marina keel Kiel. It accomplished jump sequences with five or six jumps (simple or doubles).

jump combinations

a jump combination (English. jump combi nation) consists of at least two jumps, which follow directly successively. The second jump the same edge one jumps off, on which the first jump landed (D. h. there are no revolutions or foot changes between the jumps).

number of jumps

the number of the jumps, jump sequences and jump combinations is certain both in the short program and in the cure by the ISU system of evaluation:

  • in the short program (singlerun, pair running) the number of jumps is, jump sequences and - combinations limits;
  • in the cure by in such a way specified wave balanced program recommended (singlerun, pair running)

error and evaluation

each jump element have its own basic value. The price judges arrange then the quality of the jump element within the range from +3 to -3. For each error there is an appropriate departure.

As errors are considered:

  • Landing on both feet;
  • Breakdown landing, with which the ice art runner the ice with the free foot or with the hand affected or which terminates turn on the ice (and not in air);
  • „more gemogelter a “jump;
  • a fall
  • execution forbidden of a jump (are forbidden all Salto jumps)
  • execution of more jumps, jump sequences and - combinations as permits.

“Gemogelte “of jumps

actually might not give it it. Nevertheless one finds ice art runners, which a jump „mogeln “, either because it the difficulty do not control, or because they computed their intake badly, or because they acquired themselves during the training bad habits (blunted jump, rolled up jump, incomplete turns, uncertain landing).

An example: From this regard Lutz is perhaps the most discussable jump.


one jumps backwards from the outside edge of the left foot (with the right points/teeth in the ice), turns around the own axle (once = simple Lutz, twice = double Lutz etc.) and lands backwards on the outside edge of the right foot.
“Gemogelter “Lutz One slides on the outside edge, the jump effected however from 
the inner edge of the left foot (= that is no more Lutz, but inso-called. „Flutz “ (F - of the Flip, because it jumped off the inner edge is)). If the price judges notice it, must lead to departures in the valuation.

the inventors

four of the six basic jumps carry the names of their inventors. There is:

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chronology of the jump development

1882 the Norwegian Axel Paulsen carried out with the international competition of the Viennese of ice run association the first jump (on the high-speed run ice skates!), then after it one designated - the Axel. Until today it is considered as the most difficult of all basic jumps.
, Only simple jumps, under it also the Axel, which resembled however more a Pirouette, so-called showed 1896 the German Gilbert fox, the first world champion. „more rolled up “Axel.
For the first time its jump Salchow shows 1898 the Swede Ulrich Salchow.
1910 German Werner Rittberger invents the Rittberger.
1913 the Viennese Alois Lutz implements the Lutz designated after it .
1916 the German Charlotte Oelschlegel, Eiskunstläuferin of the citizens of Berlin ice ballet company, stood for the simple Axel as a first lady.
Beginning of the 1920er creates the simple Axel with the amateurs the Austrian Herma Plank Szabo (and not the often mentioned Sonja Henie).
1920 with the olympic plays in Antwerp jump the first lady, the American Theresa Weld, the simple Salchow.
1925 Austrian Karl shepherd creates as the first the double Rittberger.
1928 double Salchow jumped from Sweden Gillis count-flow and the Canadian Montgomery Wilson.
1934 with that world championship in Helsinki present the first pair of sports, the German Maxi harsh one and Ernst Baier, a simple Axel jumped next to each other .
First doubled Lutz leads 1944 the American smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Button through.
1948 smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Button presents during the olympic winter plays in pc. Moritz first doubled Axel.
1952 with the olympic winter plays in Oslo led smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Button three double Axels successively through.
Smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Button jumped the first three-way Rittberger.
Although several ladies created the double Axel, with a match as the first the American Tenley Albright successfully created him with the olympic winter plays in Oslo.
1960 the Americans David and Alan Jenkins and also Ronald Robertson created the three-way Salchow and the three-way Rittberger.
1962 Donald Jackson accomplished the first three-way Lutz .
The Austrian Helli Sengstschmid showed 1963 the first three-way Rittberger accomplished of a lady.
1969 the Russian pair of sports Irina Rodnina and Alexei Ulanow created a double Axel accomplished next to each other with the European championship in mixing part churches as the first.
1974 with the world championship in Munich tried the American Gorden McKellen a combination „simple Axel - double Axel - three-way Axel “, fell however with the last jump. It carried out this unusual combination however with the Schlussgalavorstellung.
A jump combination led 1977 Swiss Denise Biellmann „double Axel - Euler - three-way Salchow “.
1978 the Canadian Vern Taylor creates with the world championship in Ottawa of the first three-way Axel.
Denise Biellmann created the three-way Lutz 1979 the Jugoslawin
Sandra Dubravcic as a first lady was the first lady, who a jump combination „double Axel - three-way Toeloop “ created.
1980 the Canadian Brian Orser created successfully with the world championship in Dortmund the three-way Axel
1984 Alexander Fadejew controlled with the world championship in Budapest the jump combination „three-way Axel - double Toeloop “.
1986 the Tschechoslowake Jozef Sabovčík created as the first „the quadruple Toeloop “. Unfortunately its free foot affected the ice and the jump thus was not noticed.
1988 the Canadian briefly Browning successfully accomplished the quadruple Toeloop with the world championship in Budapest.
1989 with the world championship in Paris created the three-way Axel as the first the Japanese Midori Ito.
1991 the Französin Surya Bonaly accomplished as a first lady the quadruple Toeloop with the world championship in Munich successfully.
The first jump combination carried out 1997 the Canadian Elvis Stojko „quadruple Toeloop - three-way Toeloop “with a ISU Grand Prix.
The first quadruple Salchow with the final of the ISU junior Grand Prix accomplished 1998 the young American Timothy Goebel in Lausanne .
A jump sequence accomplished 1998 the Russian Alexei Jagudin „three-way Axel and three-way Toeloop “with the European championship in Milano. With the same tournament its compatriot Jewgeni Pljuschtschenko carried out the same jump combination as Elvis Stojko 1997: „quadruple Toeloop - three-way Toeloop “.
1999 in the time interval of 90 seconds created Timothy Goebel with the Skate America of three quadruple jumps in its cure: quadruple Salchow in a combination with three-way Toeloop, a second quadruple Salchow and finally a quadruple Toeloop.
2000 with the final of the ISU Grand Prix carried out Timothy Goebel an unbelievable jump combination: „quadruple Salchow - three-way Toeloop - three-way Rittberger “. The Russian Jewgeni Pljuschtschenko created also a difficult jump combination: „quadruple - three-way - double Toeloop “.


  • Josef Dědič - „Krasobruslení - povinná A volná jízda jednotlivců “ (ice-art-run - obligation run and cure of the single runners); Prague, 1979
  • Jean Luc Auberson - Alors, Sautez Maintenant!, (2003)

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