Sputnik

of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see Sputnik (term clarifying).

Sputnik 1 /ˈsputnʲik/(Russian Спутник = „the going away “) was the first artificial satellite in the earth orbit. The word is in Eastern Europe inSynonymously for earth satellites. Its first syllable (s-PUT) means „together on the way “. The first 10 Soviet satellites, which reached an orbit, received a Sputnik designation. Afterwards the name no more was not used for the designation of earth satellites.

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Sputnik 1 - the beginning of space travel

Sputnik 1

during the preparations for the International Geophysical Year quit the US-American president Dwight D. Eisenhower to 29. July 1955 the agency for an earth satellite on. The Soviet Unionreacted only four days later with the announcement of a similar program.

Already to 4. October 1957 - for the western world unexpectedly fast - started the Soviet Union of the space station Baikonur from the spherical satellites (diameter 58 cm) with the help of oneeasily modified intercontinental missile of the type R-7. The 83.6 kg heavy earth satellite contained Funksender, which was 21 days active exactly and a short wave signal (20 MHz and 40 MHz) radiated. Sputnik moved on its orbit first in approximately96 minutes once around the earth. It glowed 57 days after the start, when it occurred again deeper layers of the terrestrial atmosphere.

The beeping signals of the Sputnik Tondokument ? / License could be received in all world. In Western Europe it caughtDr.Heinz fire-place ski in the people observatory Bochum as the first up. The realization that the Soviet Union was for the start of the first artificial satellite able, released an immense threat feeling in the west: Sputnik made clear suddenly that the USA also Intercontinental missiles from the Soviet Union were attainable. This also phenomenon called Sputnik shock led in consequence to the establishment of NASA and to restructuring and intensified efforts within the education range of the western industrial nations.

altogether those started

the further Sputnik missionsSoviet Union ten Sputniki, the latter to 25. March 1961, only 18 days before the flight of Juri Gagarin. All starts took place from Baikonur using reequipped intercontinental missiles, which became to provide 4 starting from Sputnik with an additional stage.

Also for the further Sputniki at least in each case a complete innovation was intended:

Sputnik 2

model Sputnik 2 from the poly-technical museum in Russia
booster rocket of Sputnik 2 before the start

the second body created by human handin the orbit Sputnik was 2, to 3. November 1957 was started and the first organism into an earth orbit brought, the dog Laika. A return device to the earth was not intended - and technically also yet not at all possible.This fact excited multiple compassion - were shown in particular as the first indistinct television pictures - in addition, enormous interest. Probably Laika survived the start with its mixture from noise, vibrations and accelerations only some hours, to it throughStress and to large heat in the close cap died.

Originally it was planned that Laika should 10 days survive and sufficient data of their bodily functions produce - and it with portioniertem poisoned food a fast death was then granted. Sputnik 2glowed because of his larger measures clearly later than Sputnik 1, i.e. to 14. April 1958 after 162 days in the orbit and about 2,250 orbits around the earth - scan time around the earth in 103.7 minutes.

Sputnik 2 excited with a takeoff weight about 500kg disbelieving being astonished of the western specialists. This shows clearly, the booster rocket, which was identical to the carrier system of Sputnik 1, possessed which power reserves. The course height of the earth satellite amounted to 1,500 kilometers during a flight path angle from 65 degrees to the equator.

Sputnik 3

at the 3. February 1958 should be started Sputnik 3, the start failed however and became to 15. May 1958 with a spare satellite repeats. Sputnik 3 carried several scientific measuring instruments into space, which the radiation beltthe earth to examine should - which however likewise failed. Sputnik 3 glowed to 6. April 1960. The course height of the satellite amounted to up to 1,880 kilometers and orbited in 106 minutes once the earth. The Van Allen belt was in January 1958from the first American Explorer discovers and after the instrument developer designated.

Sputnik 4

Sputnik 4 (also Korabl Sputnik 1 or Weltraumschiff 1 called) became finally to 15. May 1960 started. This was the 1. Prototype for off1961 in laws Wostok - space cap for manned flights. The course height of the satellite amounted to between 312 and 369 kilometers, later between 307 and 690 kilometers. The scan time around the earth amounted to 91.2 minutes.

Sputnik 5

Sputnik 5 (alsoKorabl Sputnik 2, and/or. Weltraumschiff 2) started to 19. August 1960 and carried among other things two dogs into space: Strelka and Belka. After 18 orbits around the earth in a course height of 306 to 330 kilometers and during an orbit around the earth in 90.7 minutes, 20 landed to. August 1960 both dogs surely the earth. This was the 2. Flight of the prototype of the Wostok - space cap for manned flights - and a crucial step for the technology of the soft landing.

Sputnik 6

Sputnik 6 (or Korabl Sputnik 3 and/or. Weltraumschiff 3) was the third prototype of the Wostok - spaceship and carried at the 1. December 1960 the dogs Pchelka and Mushka in the universe. The cap became to 2. December 1960 with the returnto the earth destroys. Sputnik 6 was in a course height between 187,3 and 265 kilometers and had a scan time of 88.6 minutes.

Sputnik 7

Sputnik 7 (Venera-1 or Weltraumschiff 4) was one to 4. February 1961 with a Molnija - rocket started Venus - space probe, which did not leave the earth orbit due to a problem with the upper stage of the rocket. It circled the earth in a course height between 223,5 and 327.6 kilometers during a flight path angle to the equator of 64up to 57 degrees. An orbit around the earth took 98.8 minutes.

Sputnik 8

Sputnik 8 (Venera-2) was one to 12. February 1961 with a Molnija - rocket started Venus - space probe.

Sputnik 9

Sputnik 9 (or Korabl Sputnik4 and/or. Weltraumschiff 5) was the 4. Flight of the Protoypen of the Wostok - space cap. It started to 9. March 1961 with the dog Chernushka on board. The cap was successfully saved after an orbit around the earth.

Sputnik 10

Sputnik 10(or Korabl Sputnik 5), the USSR started the last of altogether ten Sputniks to 25. March 1961 as test for the flight Juri Gagarins in April 1961. This was the 5. Flight of the prototype of the Wostok - space cap.

For the application inall cases came on the R-7 intercontinental missile based carrier systems, which carried an additional rocket stage starting from Sputnik 4 (Wostok - rocket). Sputnik 7 and 8 used the 4-step Molnija - rocket. All starts took place from Baikonur in Kasachi CSSR, thatas something similar used, regularly rocket areas of the USA and later also the ELDO than „space station “was designated.

The word Sputnik belongs to the 100 words 20. Century.

see also

space travel

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