Srivijaya

temple mountain of Borobudur, 9. Jh., buddhistische plant on Java

Sri Vijaya was an influential commercial realm in Indonesia, which is often changed into the today's historiography to injustice. Its supremacy in the region lasted 7 from the end . up to the end 13. Century.

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bases

for the modern historiography this State of only 1918 was discovered, as a French historian the name Sri Vijaya interpreted and with the Sribuza of the Islamic and/or. San fo tsi the Chinese sources identified.

One equates the capital with the today's Palembang on Sumatra , i.e. it lies probably buried under it (e.g. Find of a large Ganesha - Satue). Their network from monasteries, (partially. by the river system of the Musi, the holy mountain Sri Vijayas was limited for public) parks, markets and ports was probably the Bukit Seguntang.

Sri Vijaya was created probably around 500, perhaps in place of Kan t'o left or another predecessor state. Later Chinese sources spoke one century of two kingdoms on Sumatra: one in Jambi and one in Palembang, whereby Jambi was perhaps the more important kingdom, since it maintained rather relations to China. Jambi was taken over however already 686 by Sri Vijaya, about which the Pilgermönch Yijing (i-th-sing) puts certification down.

The ascent of the state was in the favorable situation Palembangs as port and/or. Movement of goods place (materials, jewels, ivory, elephant, raw silver, Ambra, fighter, spices, noble woods) between the road of Malakka and the Sundastrasse justifies. With the monsoon ships came from China, India and Arabia, so that one speaks here of the silk road of the sea. Important here favorable relations was to China, so that the ships were held, were not overreached if possible not in canton or were even expenditure-robbed.

power high point

soon stretched Sri Vijaya its sphere of influence out 650 and again 683-86 under king Jayanasa made it valid its influence to the Sundastrasse and in west Java. Of great importance one was thereby the support of the Indonesian Urbevölkerung, which under the name Orang sound (sailor) Piraterie operated, but with appropriate treatment also the backbone of the fleet placed.

Between 702 and 724 Sri Vijaya sent four legations to seaweed China. Until it had expanded 775 its rule area since the malaiische peninsula and had occupied 14 city states. At the time it could have controlled both the Malakka and the Sundastrasse. But the Javaner was with the Piratenkönig Sanjaya (around 730) at the point dangerous opponents. Only 775 it came to the peace. One specified the mutual relations with the straight Sailendra come to power - to kings Javas and strengthened her by a marriage. Around 850 even a refugee Sailendra prince could transfer the government named Balaputra to Sri Vijaya, because its nut/mother came from there.

Since Sri Vijaya owed its wealth to the trade, it arranged also with Song China and recognized themselves its emperors formally as upper gentlemen on. 905 even a king Sri Vijayas could have appeared with yards - the visitor got the title “general, who lent stranger of countries befriedet”. Anyhow the Maharaja /king Chulamanivarmadeva 992 asked unsuccessfully Chinese support against the Javaner, when both states came because of religion and commercial matters again into a state of war (990-1006). Sri Vijaya triumphed to the peace with a marriage with the conquest of the hostile capital and 1030 strengthened king Sangrama Vijayottungavarman.

the kingdom of

the Buddhismus was dominated culture and State of cultural, also still, when in India and in the neighbouring Java already by the Hinduismus one displaced. The Chinese Pilgermönch Yijing (i-th-sing) visited it on its journey to/from India (671/95). It did not find there less than 1000 scholars of international origin and an excellent library and/or. a buddhistisches center, which was located in constant contact with Nalanda. The king Balaputra transacted there even donations, in order to legitimize itself. However one may not overestimate the Indian influence also. The traffic language (lingua franca) was probably Malaiisch, with interspersed Sanskrit.

Beside the trade already described and the associated commercial taxes Sri Vijaya supported itself also by an industry for luxury and consumer goods, particularly Nipamatten, Schildpatt, Bienenwachs, aromatic woods and fighters. When collecting the natural products one took likewise the services that here Orang Asli (forest inhabitant) to Indonesian Urbevölkerung up mentioned.

The Indian inheritance coined/shaped the laws, the policy and the religion of the State of Sri Vijaya, even if it were exposed in the course of the trade to likewise Chinese and later Islamic influences. The structure of state resembled as in India a prince pyramid with a system of dependence and/or. Loyalty conditions. If a small state was attached, then it kept its free trade, had however tribute to pay, marriage connections die and without own legations do.

decay and fall

the loose state structure proved as disadvantage, as in the 11. Century with the Chola - kings also conquerers from (south) India came. The Chola kings attacked Sri Vijaya 1017, 1025 and 1068 with their again-created fleet and could some areas actually bind, although because of a durable rule, but rather at the elimination of commercial competition seemed been never to them. In each case the attack of the Chola - king Rajendra 1025 a shock - was 14 ports was geplündert and the trade with China came to a hold for some years, so that the Chinese authorities had to please even for the trade.

From then on began the descent Sri Vijayas, which disintegrated under the influence of independence efforts and Piraterie. One recognizes that by the fact that now dependent kings as of Kedah, Malayu and/or. Jambi and Kampe own legations sent. In 12. Century the kings of Jambi on Sumatra represented - and to no more in the neighbouring Palembang the Mr. Sri Vijayas. A further descent factor was apparent the increase of the Chinese navigation at the Song time, that the malaiischen intermediate trade and/or. Sri Vijaya competition made. Nevertheless Sri Vijaya possessed in early 13. Century still 15 Vasallen.

The king of Singhasari on Java, Kertanagra (move 1268-1292) conquered and/or. thereby the supremacy Sri Vijayas took over a large part of today's Indonesia around 1275-90 and terminated. The kingdom stood in the following for century under javanischer sovereignty, ended however only 1377 finally, when the troops of Majapahit Palembang conquered. Perhaps it also some more continued longer, because a rebellious prince from Sri Vijaya accepted 1414 the Islam and created Malakka.

the well-known kings up to the 11. Century:

  • 682/95 Jaya NASA
  • 702/24 Sri Indra varman
  • 728/42 Rudra Vikkama
  • approx. 775 Dharmasetu
  • 832-60 Balaputra deva
  • 960/62 Sri Udayaditya
  • 980/83 Haji
  • 1003/05 Sri Culamani Varma deva
  • 1017 Haji Sumatra bhumi
  • 1024/30 Sri Sangramu Vijayottunga varman
  • 1064 Dharmavira

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