State examination

a state examination is a nationally controlled examination. The designation state examination leads itself off from exams (lat. Zünglein at the balance, cross-examine or investigation). The Plural reads exams.

The state examination is called also state examination. It leads to the conclusion of a study or training, which is removed from a national Prüfungsausschuss (in also university professors are involved). Contents of study and examination are legally regulated. In contrast to it diploma -, Magister -, Bachelor - or master - are accomplished examinations by the visited university. The reasonfor special national control is the public interest in the quality of certain training.

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In Germany the state examination forms the conclusion of the teaching profession study, the medicine study, the study of the dental medicine, the veterinary medicine, the jurisprudence, the food chemistry and pharmacy.As a rule practical training follows or a period of instruction , at whose end a further state examination stands. With the state examination no academic degree is connected, the conclusion justified however usually for graduation. In some Lands of the Federal Republic the universities may do however additionally academic degreeslend, for which however perhaps additional achievements are to be furnished.


in the legal training are two state exams intended.

The first state examination (the junior lawyer exam in such a way specified) locks the universitäre training. For this exam there are two regular attempts. AsException applies the free attempt to those candidates, who already go after the respected university term into the examination: In the case of the nonexistence this attempt is not taken in account, in the case of the existence exists the possibility of a note improvement attempt. Contentwise contain the junior lawyer exam essentially material right under specialConsideration of academic controversy conditions.

In the first Staasexamen becomes between a “housework exam” (so in Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein) and a “examination exam” differentiated:

While the housework exam from one within a monthly housework which can be mastered, three (in North Rhine-Westphalia five) following examinations à five hours and, usually four monthslater, a about five-hour verbal examination exists, sees the examination exam between seven (bathing peppering mountain) and nine examinations (Berlin) five-hour examinations distributes on up to three weeks and, likewise about four months later, a five-hour verbal examination forwards.

After existence of the first state examination a two-year practical followsTraining (Referendariat), which with the second state examination, which Assessorexamen so mentioned locks.

This Assessorprüfung is accomplished country widely as examination exam, i.e. between seven examinations (bathing peppering mountain) and eleven examinations (Bavaria) à five hours with about five-hour verbal examination four months later.

Beside the material materialthe first exam here additionally also still the procedural law is examined, whereby for academic controversy conditions than for current iurisdiction one asks less.

food chemistry

the test orders differ somewhat from Land of the Federal Republic to Land of the Federal Republic, there the right of the food chemists Landesrecht and not as for instancewith law or medicine Federal Law is. However the responsible national Ministers agreed 1994 on a uniform framework.

In the following the situation is represented in Baden-Wuerttemberg. The deviations to other Lands of the Federal Republic is however minimal:

The state examination (called in some Lands of the Federal Republic also state examination) consists of threeParts:

  • First test section after four terms (basic study)
  • second test section after further four terms (main study)
  • third test section after practical training with an office for food investigation of one year duration

furthermore must be submitted a scientific termination work, which must be provided within one period from six months.

First test section

the following fan are examined:

  • Inorganic and analytic chemistry
  • organic chemistry
  • physical chemistry
  • physics
  • Botanik

the examination is removed from university teachers.

The examination are on an equal footing a Vordiplom in the course of studies diploma chemistry with supplementing Botanik examination or a certification over the second test section in the course of studies pharmacy.

Second test section

the following fan are examined:

  • Chemistry and analytics of the food, the Tabakerzeugnisse, the cosmetic means, other consumer articles and the water
  • technology of the food, the Tabakerzeugnisse, the cosmetic means, other consumer articles and the water
  • applied biochemistry and nourishing teachings
  • microbiology and food hygiene
  • toxicology and environmental analytics

The examination is likewise removed from university teachers.

Third test section

the examination consists of three parts:

  • a practical examination (experimental investigation and investigation)
  • three supervision work (expert opinion, to provide on the basis given analysis data)
  • verbal examination (food and consumer article right; Organization and function of the food and consumer article monitoring; Quality assurance in laboratoriesand from

a prüfungsausschuss in the national food supervisory boards one removes from enterprises) the examination.

Termination work

after the second or third Prüdungsabschnitt is to be submitted within one period of six months a termination work. The work can be provided on a university or at another suitable mechanism. ThoseWork is evaluated by two examiners, from whom at least professor must be.

teaching profession

although in many Lands of the Federal Republic the abolishment of the state examination for teachers (not least from cost reasons) is planned, is also in this range at present still another division in two state examsusually: The technical training at a university, which is terminated with the first state examination, a usually two-year Referendariat follows , which is locked with the second state examination.

In the following the situation is represented in Baden-Wuerttemberg:

  • 1. State examination at a university with practical coursesin the respective school form
  • 2. State examination after conclusion of the period of instruction

1. State examination Here there is a fundamental difference between Baden-Wuerttemberg and the remaining Lands of the Federal Republic. The training for the teaching profession at the reason, main, material and special schools takes place in Baden-Wuerttemberg at educational universities, the teaching professionfor the High School however at the universities. The training differs strongly after the respective school form. Generally the courses of studies of the educational university are closer at school practice than the very technically aligned training at the university.

2. State examination in all school forms becomes in the meantime1 ½ year old period of instruction accomplished. The training occurs thereby into an official relationship on revocation. During this time the training must hold regularly for instruction and participate by training meetings of a national seminar for didactics and teacher formation. These training meetings divide on into general Pädagogik and specialized didactics.II. State examination in North-Rhine/Westphalia consists 60 of two instruction attendance and a minütige verbal examination (colloquium). For this the other payments in advance are added like the housework and instruction attendance.


in the medicine study gives it according to the old license to practise medicine order to three state exams and a so-called preliminary testor Physikum. According to the new license to practise medicine order of 27. June 2002 are there only two state exams. Afterwards the graduates of the state examination on request receive the license to practise medicine (authorization for the practise of the profession and guidance of the job title).


the state examination in pharmacy consists of threeTest sections. The first section of the Phramazeuti examination is written, the two other parts is verbal.

First section of the pharmaceutical examination

several fan in an examination are examined in each case:

  • General, inorganic and organic chemistry
  • bases of pharmaceutical biology and human biology
  • bases of physics, thatphysical chemistry and the medicine form teachings
  • bases of pharmaceutical analytics

second section of the pharmaceutical examination

  • pharmaceutical and medical chemistry
  • pharmaceutical biology
  • pharmaceutical technology and bio pharmacy
  • pharmacology and toxicology
  • clinical pharmacy

third section of the pharmaceutical examination

  • pharmaceutical practice
  • special right areas for pharmacist


inCourse of the Bologna process, the standardization of study conclusions in Europe, the state exams are to be abolished as conclusion of the higher education to the year 2010 and be changed over to the konsekutiven Bachelor - master conclusions. Concretely prepared conversion plans do not exist for it however yet.

The Bologna process is in some courses of studies howeverdisputed (like medicine and jurisprudence). So has bspw. the large coalition in the federation 2005 the need of new conclusions in the lawyer training and the transmission of the Bologna process on these in the coalition contract (S. 145) rejected.

see also


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