State decay

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State decay can be understood as reversal process for state formation. A state disintegrating (failing state) is a State of, its politicalSystem in itself collapses.

A central task of the State of, its government authority, is exercised any longer, it often does not come to social or ethnical conflicts and to the civil war. It can in reverse also be however that badly worked on conflicts or lost wars let doubt the state.

Into extreme situations the state disintegrates thereupon - either in individual parts, or rebels important functions of the state take over. The national territory disintegrates thereby frequently into many individual territories, which are controlled by so-called being lords, who limit regionally a kind „state “- force exercise. The single territories and/or. theirGuidance elite is usually zerstritten among themselves and competes around power and economic advantages, particularly if the state in ruins has Bodenschätze.Interventions , even if they purely humanitarian kind are, are understood from the outside and rejected about the being lords again collectively as attack on their positions of power, late 'steers '. These procedures leave themselves particularly good in Somalia, which partly observe the Congo and in Afghanistan.

To „the states disintegrating “and/or. „failed states “count and/or. counted Azerbaijan, socialist Yugoslavia 1990/91, the democratic Republic of the Congo, Sierra Leone, Somalia and the Sudan.

To the endangered: Colombia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Tadschikistan. As weak, but stable states are considered Fiji, Haiti and Lebanon.

Also for Afghanistan and the Iraq became due to the ethnical conflicts for many years (Paschtunen - Tadschiken; Sunniten -Shiite - the situation of these states seems to stabilize Kurd) such a decay feared, after the US-American crew and the following democratization however. The government nevertheless so far still hardly possesses Karsai outside of of Kabul influence.

Table of contents

introduction

after the case of the iron curtain seemed it, as if the world of a lucky, peaceful future against-strives. The organization of the United Nations (UN) the suitable instrument seemed to be to solve all considerable conflicts of the world lastingly and successfully. With their assistance and under guidance of the secular and modern west,whereby the United States would take a guide roller, it was possible to establish a new world order.

Now,since the east west conflict is overcome, one can tackle finally problems such as nutrition, education and health. The funds for it would be available likewise, since within ranges such as armament and security politics only small investments would have to be transacted. A cheerful future seemed itself on the horizonto draw.

Today, in the year 2006, 16 years after the decay of the Soviet Union, the world public must admit itself that the optimistic prognoses of the 90's for the further development of the world were pure utopia. The messages act of child soldier, “being lord “, civil wars, mercenaries, terrorismand refugees. Terms such as denationalization of the war, unsecured power supply, religious radicalization and Marginalisierung are central topics of our security politics.

In many developing countries we find chaotic conditions. According to estimations up-to-date more than 50 states are world-wide affected by the phenomenon of the state decay.

Since the notices of terrorthe 11. Septembers 2001 move these „failing states “(dt. failed states) ever more in the center of American and European security politics, since they offer organizations frequently of terror Unterschlupf.

Terrorism is however only one of many challenges which we in connection with these „failing states “place itself must.In same measure their state decay leads to destabilization of complete regions, increase of organized criminality, refugee waves and economic fall.

The different processes running off with the decay of a state are however not yet sufficiently scientifically examined and lasting strategies in handling state State of goods in short supply.

It is one oursto prevent large international challenges the state decay and stand so-called „failing states “during the accomplishment of their problems to the side. In our current global world all countries are indirectly threatened by a destabilization of individual regions. All the more, if those regions over a majority of the world-wide Erdölreserven order.

causes

of distribution fights and potential wealth

differently than is less decisive poverty is frequently assumed for the destabilization of a state. Potential wealth however accelerates the decay of a state, if around that distribution fights are delivered. Potential wealth means the presenceimportant resources (e.g. Oil, iron ore, etc.). The consequence of distribution fights is usually a Delegitimation of the government or governing elite. Often a social group tries to attain control of important resources within a state, other groups of the society from the portion property is at the same time excluded. Thisimpossible social classes are threatened vehement in their existence, thus the anyway fragile equilibrium of many developing countries goes out of control. If distribution fights for resources and their monopolizing go beyond a certain level, breaks down the social peace in a state. Disadvantaged social classes no other choice than remainsto sit down by force of arms to the resistance.

social mismatches

strong differences between arm and realm undermine the penetration strength of national institutions. As consequence these institutions are replaced by traditional structures. The state tries to strengthen now again its institutions and changes the condition.Thus national institutions are converted to execution organs and serve not longer the public interest, but for the rule of governing elite over the population. It comes to an alienation from state and citizen.

imperialism

in the past states were created, whose borders at the drawing board developedare. The establishment of these states hardly considered ethnical and religious affiliation of different population parts. The only goal of a hegemonial power was to be expanded it their sphere of interest. These states exhibit a fragmented social structure and frequently are historically conditioned social groups within a state attachment in December (Iraq: Sunniten - Shiites).A national state could never crystallize, even if individual charismatische dictators try a kind „national feeling “to wake, this are passed however only rarely to the structures of a state.

national utility system

economic fall and crises lead to the collapse of the national infrastructure. The utility systemfrequently no more cannot be ensured. Apart from economic fall a special meaning comes to the population explosion in the third world. Natural resources are not enough to supply simply any longer out around the population sufficiently.

international assistance

during the east west conflict had wealthy states throughfinancial and military support the decay of unstable states prevents. After completion of the east west conflict however the assistance is not missing and many developing countries to be able the state decay, due to international assistance lacking, any more not stop.

see also

state peoples

to literature

  • Robert I. Red mountain (Hrsg.): State failure and State Weakness in A Time OF terror. Washington D.C., World Peace Foundation and Brookings institution 2003 ISBN 0-8157-7573-3
  • Ingo dear oh: The university-lateral humanitarian intervention in „the state in ruins “(„failed State “). Cologne, Berlin, Munich 2004, ISBN 3452-25763-0
 

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