a city (althochdt of.: stat = location, place; etymologisch one also place, place; see. on the other hand state) is a larger, centralized, defined settlement with a its own administration - and supplying structure in the intersection of larger traffic routes. Thus nearly each city is at the same time a central place. Cities are - sociologically calm - thus comparatively closely and head-rich settled, firmly circumscribed settlements (municipalities) with standardizing state-legal and/or. local-legal courses like for example own market sovereignty, own government, own cult and socially strongly differentiated inhabitant shank. The latter e.g. differentiates it from camps (labour camps, punishing camps, winter accomodation of armies and others), the first. of the village. In Germany scarcely 14,000 cities and municipalities exist.
depending upon size, meaning or function of a city differentiates between one land cities, towns, medium-sized towns, large cities, towns with millions of inhabitants, metropolitan cities, city regions or population centres, satellite cities and satellite cities. While for instance in Denmark the lower bound of the total population is with an urban settlement about 200 inhabitants, there is in Germany and France 2,000, in Switzerland 10,000 and in Japan 50,000 inhabitants.
In addition steps the historical city term, which deduces itself in Europe from the medieval municipal law, which as substantial characteristics the market right, the right to autonomy, the liberty of the city citizens, the right to taxation, the jurisdiction, the abolition of the body characteristic, the Zollrecht, which contained right for the enclosure and defense as well as the right of coining money. Cities, which received the municipal law, are called also Titularstädte. Also today the exceeding of the minimum number of inhabitants is not automatically connected to need of an express resolution of a höherrangigen regional administrative body in most countries with the collection to the city still, but it, in Germany and Austria that of the Land of the Federal Republic.
With respect to Germany one differentiates legally circle-free cities, who is such, which do not belong to a district, from cities circle-belonging. The city, in whose seat the district administration (district administration office) lies, is called also district town. With respect to North Rhine-Westphalia one differentiates the large and middle cities circle-belonging with the cities circle-belonging still. With respect to Austria one differentiates between cities with own statute and other cities. A city with own statute is usually also seat the district captain shank of the surrounding countryside district, which is called also in most cases in such a way (e.g. Innsbruck city and Innsbruck country). Today each city with more than 20,000 inhabitants can request its own statute.
In Switzerland localities apply as city only if they have either more than 10,000 inhabitants or if in the Middle Ages the municipal law were lent to them, which is rare. One of the smallest cities at all is in Lower Austria in the district Hollabrunn at the border to Tschechien directly to the Thaya - the city Hardegg. Hardegg has a number of inhabitants of 1.490, the city with all eingemeindeten places 2001 has however only 78 inhabitants. The smallest city of Germany with scarcely 300 inhabitants is Arnis.
With respect to England one differentiates between town center and Town. The large city stick haven is for example no town center separates Town, whereas the city Sunderland is a town center. The administrative district Greater London is not a town center, but within this regional administrative body there is the town center OF London and the town center OF Westminster. A place may be called only town center if the queen or the king appoints these such.
The unanimity of the land development or population density won internationally since the 1990ern meaning to determine global above all the largest cities (Megacities, global Cities, city regions) independently of administrative boundaries or definition problems. Cities exhibit both historically and regionally very different developing connections and structures. Thus for example the present large cities of the early industrialized states show other structures and development-dynamic than the so-called Megacities of the development and developing countries. The development of cities follows thereby often certain models.
seen gradated city TZE
or a global settlement structure exist urban network, settlement structure world-wide after size and meaning. The latter means the structure and relations of all cities and other settlements such as villages among themselves, less the internal structure of a city or an other settlement. To urban network and settlement structure it gives for example the investigation to walter Christallers, 1933, the so-called center local theory. This had meaning for the German crew areas of the Second World War and for the post-war period of the German Federal Republic. That theory shows that the hierarchically gradated cities and other settlements in a net from certain geometrical figures extend over the national surface.
the development of the city (international)
know town development and
urban history town development are called development of the urban history, or the acceptance of the city size or the change by town planning. In the following the emphasis is on urban history and with it coherently change of the city size, which include: social composition of the urban population and town economy, city-outlined, - sketch and - broke, city land development and building materials as well as townscape, city centre and borough.
A city develops, when humans operate more, than they use, at agriculture and handicraft. Develop the specializations or occupations dealers, scholars, soldiers and rulers, who extend the power spectrum, by exchanging its achievements (trade, knowledge, war service, administration) for the agriculture and products of handicraft produced beyond self-sufficiency and with these supplying themselves. This increase of the social division of labor begins end of the Steinzeit already in naturally favorable places of the earth, runs however in different development speed, which causes historical and territorial difference in developments. Thus, when Columbus America discovers, earlycivil modern city culture of Europe on highly developed indianische cities of central and South America, which however resources-moderately, economically and thus weapon-technology on for instance the transition stage stone to Bronzezeit of Europe stand and are subject, hit.
land use pattern, Charter of Athens
nearly generally (of all political camps: Charter of Athens, socialist town construction, and. A.) recognized, not unhistorisches, the socio-economic insights considering model was and is the following. “The land use pattern of the cities is divided into: 1. the spatially limited range of the production of the material goods, the industriellen production department; 2. the limited spatial range of the conversion of the material goods into money and the money into material goods, the circulation range; 3. the spatially limited range of the consumption of the material goods by the workers to their preservation, usual or individual Konsumtionsberech; “out: The development of worker transport, in: Arch plus, October 1973, S. 19. One can add: 4. the connections between those spatially limited ranges or kinds of surface, i.e. the networks of traffic, the lines, the immaterial relations. The “Charter of Athens”, decided on a congress 1933, arranges the “functional city” already similarly, into the four ranges living, spare time, work and traffic, and wants on basis of this organization the urban lack into the grasp to get!
outline of the town, road system and city centre
the evolutionary differences cause the difference in the outside shape of cities as well as their respective social and functional structure. Since the beginnings of urban settlement development (urbanisation) forwards approx. eight thousand years are above all structural reason and diagram (or opinion and/or. Townscape, see down) the cities characterized by a continual development and change. The settlement-referred planning and organization acting of humans finds his expression in specific in each case outline of the town and townscape, who represent also the respective technological feasibility however at the same time.
Very early develop after the directions northsouth or eastwestaligned right-angled road rasters and outline of the town (z. B. old-Chinese cities, z. T. old-American cities). Likewise circular (z form. B. Bagdad), but exactly the same cities with irregular, the area adapting outlined itself (z. B. old-Greek and organically grown German medieval cities). Jericho (starting from 9000 before Christ) was after Biblical excessive quantity obviously one of the first cities with Stadtmauer. However possessed the cities old Crete no city attachment and became in such a way around 2000 before Christ victim of incident Kriegerscharen of one of the people migrations.
Regular road rasters as well as irregular road sketches in a city experience a gradation in main and side streets as well as separation in the course of history in pedestrian and driving traffic. Further places originate in and particularly starting from that to 19 in the road system central. Century left blank building blocks for generally publicly zugängige parks. If the city for example of a powerful building of rulers, a projecting ritual building (z. B. Temple) or a controlling Wirtschaftsfunktion (z. B. a port) strongly, develops there the main place depends, to which at least all main, sometimes align themselves also side streets and all land development. The whole road system and the entire city land development approach then star shaped on this city centre, z. B. on the baroque lock as in Karlsruhe. With ports the city centre from the city center shifts to the port (z. B. in Alexandria, Egypt).
townscape, land development height and building material
in the townscape, in opinion or in the height rise up cities out first due to towers (Zikkurat, so the tower to Babel, Babylon, or the medieval church towers), particularly however starting from 19. Century, D. h. the industrialization, invention of the elevator and beginning of the highrise building construction as for instance starting from 1870-80 Chicago and New York as well as today Shanghai or Frankfurt (Main). Loam, stone and wood are increasing as building material since pre and early history as well as today to concrete, steel and plastics. Important buildings are usually on the emphasized places (hills, central of places), are from the more durable materials (z. B. Stone, while the simple houses from loam or wood are) as well as artistically most fastidious arrange.
boroughs and social structure
borough form hierarchically, for D. h. the Oberschicht lives roomy in the naturally favorable cities (with much place on sturdy and healthy building ground and pleasant urban climate), lower social classes close together in the less favorable city areas (with little dwelling on possibly swampy soil and badly through-ventilated environment, z. B. in the tenement houses and backyards of Berlin, that around 1900 to seal-inhabited city of the world, Manhattans Lower East simmer up to the First World War or in Hong Kong after the Second World War). Or boroughs develop separately according to occupations and functions like certain craftsman quarters, of business quarters, industrial quarter, dockland, etc. Also in boroughs borough forms z after origin of its inhabitants. B. in Jerusalem Armenian, Christian, Muslim quarter, or in New York China Town, Harlem or Spanish Harlem.
historical important cities (until approximately 1500)
the historically meaning as well as at the same time often oldest cities correspond to the metropolises of the important epochs of mankind history and are there archaeological or delivered provable. These cities had partly already several ten thousand up to around one million inhabitants and were the largest their epoch. All those cities exhibit more or less the characteristics concerning outline of the town and townscape, boroughs represented before and social structure, however in special developments described individually in resuming literature. Whereupon here however is not received.
Historically important mankind epochs are: the recent or ending Steinzeit in small and Anterior Asia (Turkey and/or. Israel and Palestine, off approx. 9000 v. Chr.); Mesopotamien (off approx. 4000 v. Chr.); Old Anterior Asia (off approx. 3000 v. Chr.); Old Egypt (off approx. 2500 v. Chr.); Old Iran (off approx. 1000 v. Chr.); Old Greece (off approx. 1000 v. Chr.); Brightism (off approx. 400 v. Chr.); Roman realm (off approx. 200 v. Chr.); the Byzantine realm (off approx. 600); the medieval Hanse (starting from ca.1200); the Renaissance (off approx. 1400); the Islamic urban history (off approx. 650); Old China (off approx. 1000 v. Chr.); Old Japan (off approx. 200); Old India (off approx. 4000 v. Chr.); Old Southeast Asia (off approx. 500); Old America (off approx. 500 v. Chr.). Examples of historically meaning cities after epochs mentioned are:
- Recent or ending Steinzeit in small and Anterior Asia (Turkey and/or. Israel and Palestine, off approx. 9000 v. Chr.)
- Mesopotamien (off approx. 4000 v. Chr., today Iraq)
- old Anterior Asia (off approx. 3000 v. Chr.)
- Jerusalem (off approx. 1850 v. Chr., today Israel (and/or. of the PLO stresses))
- Old Egypt (off approx. 2500 v. Chr.)
- old Iran (off approx. 1000 v. Chr.)
- Persepolis (off approx. 600 v. Chr.)
- old Greece (off approx. 1000 v. Chr.)
- Athens (starting from that 7. Jh. v. Chr., bloom off approx. 500 v. Chr.)
- brightism (off approx. 400 v. Chr.)
- Alexandria (off approx. 400 v. Chr., displacement Memphis', today Egypt)
- Roman realm (off approx. 200 v. Chr.)
- Byzantine realm (off approx. 600)
- the Middle Ages (off approx. 500, latemedieval increase particularly the important of the German cities off approx. 11-1200)
- Luebeck (capital of the Hanse, off approx. 1200, today Germany)
- Renaissance (off approx. 1400)
- Islamic urban history (off approx. 650)
- old China (off approx. 1000 v. Chr.)
- Xian (starting point of the silk road and Chinese wall)
- old Japan (off approx. 200)
- Kyoto (off approx. 200)
- Old India (off approx. 4000 v. Chr.)
- Harappa (Induskultur, off approx. 4000 v. Chr., today Pakistan)
- old Southeast Asia (off approx. 500)
- Angkor (enormous temple city, today Kambodscha)
- old America (off approx. 500 v. Chr.)
modern and at present largest cities (starting from approximately 1500)
mankind distributed and do not distribute themselves not evenly over the earth, but clump in moderate or offshore earth regions, historically on the basis of the favorable nature areas as river valleys, book-rich coasts, climatically pleasant Hochebenen in the Tropics and Subtropen, and. A. The population density is more general since more jeher a weighty expression and particularly economic Leistungskraft. However that most overten-towns with millions of inhabitants lie in developing countries, however such is noticeable with above averageeconomic growth rates as in China and India. In the following enumerated cities are the largest modern (starting from approximately 1500) and present cities and/or. seal settled city regions. They have in our present often far over ten million inhabitant, represent at present global most important growth centers and often combine fifty and more per cent of all resources (population, energy, etc.) and economics of the state, in which they lie, on itself; e.g. Mexico city (approx. sixty per cent of Mexican resources and economy), Buenos Aires (approx. 50% of Argentine resources and economy) or Seoul (South Korea).
Particularly since the 1990ern, with the so-called globalization, the numbers of inhabitants of these city regions exceeded rapidly the ten-million-border. Other giant cities may follow, whereby China (similar: India) despite its urbanization degree of only around thirty per cent, but with already more than twenty cities over five million inhabitants, who approach rapidly the ten-million-border, any past dimensions blows up. Asia, most humans in cities has most overten-towns with millions of inhabitants lives however in Latin America. The largest global city regions:
- Tokyo (Japan)
- Osaka (Japan)
- Seoul (South Korea)
- Peking (China)
- Shanghai (China)
- Hong Kong (China)
- Chongqing (China)
- Shenyang (China)
- Tianjin (China)
- Guangzhou (China)
- Jakarta (Indonesia)
- Delhi (city) (India)
- Kolkata (or Calcutta, India)
- Mumbai (or Bombay, India)
- carat ski (Pakistan)
- Manila (the Philippines)
- Cebu city (the Philippines)
- Davao (the Philippines)
the development of the city in Europe and particularly Germany
the abendländische city has its roots in the Greek-Roman culture of the antique ones.
The culture of the Polis in Greece, 800-338 v. Chr., (Sparta, Korinth, Athens) spread to small Asia (Milet, Ephesos) and up to the Krim, after Magna Graecia = “large Greece”, i.e. Sicily (Syrakus) and Unteritalien (Tarent), furthermore after Southern France (Marseille), to North Africa (Kyrene, Alexandria) and front and high Asia (Antiocheia, Kandahar). Neapoleis were created by pole ice, so that often a ritual and political connection between them continued, approximately from Syrakus to the nut/mother city Korinth (see. here e.g. Timoleon). Comparable developments went through also not-Greek (phönizische, etruskische, latinische) city states, typical examples of it are Karthago, Veii or Rome.
In the Imperium Romanum developed the Roman city off. 200 v.Chr., which spread from Italy - to north Italy, North Africa (Tunesien), and Central Europe. As a bloom time of the antique city one can do the 1. to 3. See century, date many antique ruins from this time. Rome had a differentiated urban structure with nearly 1.000.000 inhabitants in this epoch. Roman cities in Germany developed primarily at Rhine and Danube: Castra Regina (Regensburg), Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsburg), Confluentes (Koblenz), Colonia Claudia era Agrippinensium (Cologne), Augusta Treverorum (Trier), Moguntiacum (Mainz), Sorviodurum (Straubing), Castra Vetera and Colonia Ulpia Traiana (Xanten). In Switzerland the following Roman cities are proven: Augusta Raurica (Kaiseraugst) and Aventicum (Avenches).
town development in the Middle Ages (bes. in Central Europe)the people migration (the most well-known in 5. Century; there were such around 4000, 2000 and 1000 before Christ in Europe, which were even global important all for the town development) purged the cities to a large extent, so that in the Middle Ages new factors led to the urbanization. The important Roman cities remained in Central Europe (e.g. Trier, Cologne, Regensburg), if also not in the built volumes and religious and cultural centers remained, those the lateRoman-Christian tradition continued and with bishop castles (cathedral castles), monasteries, king yards, Pfalzen as military and economical bases of the kings and dukes as bishop seats. In addition some few reestablishments came like e.g. Duisburg, Soest and few buyer settlements such as Wik and Haithabu. From the combination of the church with the commercial-civil root result forwards and over approx. 1000 the first medieval cities. Later from the Maas Schelde area (Gent , Antwerp) in the Rhine country (Cologne, Duisburg) and Magdeburg nut/mother cities, in Westphalia (Dortmund, develop Soest) and at the Weser (Bremen), for Elbe (Hamburg), Main (Frankfurt at the Main) up to the Danube (Ulm).
The number of cities in Central Europe remains to approx. 1100 with some hundreds still very small, often with an outline of the town grown organically. The by far largest part resulted in the following 250 years, when starting from 1120 numerous establishment cities develop, usually from an establishment act and a city draft. As the oldest city this type is considered to Freiburg in mash gau, which was created 1118 and 1120 received a progressive municipal law. Further examples of important establishments in this time are Leipzig (1150) and Luebeck (1158). Many cities had the pile right, a privilege, which remote dealers forced to offer their goods for the sales and led the remote trade routes by their city. After the sociologist max of webers is primary the “okzidentale city” a market for the remote trade.
A city could develop around a so-called germ cell. This could be a monastery, a church or a castle. A city mostly developed however around a market, which formed at a traffic junction. The church had a special meaning for the surrounding countryside and an economic function in the medieval city. Humans from the surrounding countryside pilgerten into the city around their obligations as Gläubige to fulfill. From it also the service sector of the city profited. The Gläubigen wanted to be supplied with food and accommodation. In addition they settled besides their purchases on the market also equal. An increase of the attractiveness of the churches was reached by Reliquien. Humans left their money however not only on the market, but also in the church for religious services, e.g. Drains. This money spent then the church again in the city. The church is thus an important economic factor of the medieval abendländischen city.
Like already at the beginning mentioned were a castle, a monastery/church or the market the center of the city and would fulfill either a protective function, a social or an economic function. The settlement threeness of castle/church, city and village corresponded also to the feudalen condition company: Aristocracy/Klerus, citizen and farmer.
The city and the surrounding countryside were, different than today, strongly from each other defined. The spatial separation corresponded also to the economic separation. The surrounding countryside supplied the city with food and raw materials (primary sector) and the city supplied the surrounding countryside with products and services relating to crafts (secondary and tertiary sector).
The legal position of the medieval city was coined/shaped of their status as free realm city or prince city, whereby the exact status could be very different. Generally the cities endeavored, itself from the rule of the national gentlemen, which in their residing bishops and Burgvögte (see. To release Nuremberg), which more or less successfully succeeded to them. With the establishment cities these liberties, for which older cities fought often for a long time, were already embodied in the municipal law for establishment. Many cities became very rich by trade and handicraft and could maintain ground thus for a long time opposite the territorial gentlemen, who wanted to bring cities gladly for economic and military reasons under their control. The medieval city stood thereby in sharp competition to the lay and religious territorial rule. In areas with strong territorial rule the cities had it heavily to maintain ground then there was one realm city, which had to fight Rothenburg, Augsburg or Reutlingen for its status, while for instance in territorially splintered Franconia and upper swabia powerful realm cities developed like Nuremberg in the Bavarian master country with Regensburg only.
summary of the characteristics of the medieval city
- exterior demarcation put on by Stadtmauer and associated city ditch/Gräfte, sometimes as waters
- compact settlement form with center, market places, city hall, community centres, churches, politically often in opposition to the nationalwonderful castle with castle church and/or. Bishop district,
- social differentiation of the urban population in boroughs
- legal privileged position: Autonomy and own jurisdiction, citizen right privilege
- economic function: Market sovereignty (see. Roland), remote trade, pile right, arbeitsteilige goods production, field citizen.
- On the inside the legal position of the inhabitants of a city was strictly arranged into citizens and Inwohner, Patrizier, in guilds an organized craftsman and the Klerus
- demographic was dependent it on constant influx by the country. The inflow was secured, since their inhabitants were exempted by iurisdiction and guild conditions rather from arbitrariness, what in the proverb “urban air makes freely” was expressed.
- Around 1500, at the beginning of the modern times, exist as important cities, v.a. the free realm cities:
- Cologne with 40,000 inhabitants
- Augsburg with approximately 30,000 inhabitants
- Ulm, Luebeck, Hamburg, Bremen, Nuremberg, Magdeburg and Braunschweig.
- The houses were in plots arranged
- managing and living were under a roof accommodated
- same trade settled themselves in same quarters and roads to
- the building activity of the citizens by the city were controlled, e.g. the city wrote the distance between the houses because of the fire protection
further ones ago medieval town foundation types and transition to modern times and present
the medieval establishment city is the by far most frequent type at cities in Central Europe. The wave of the town foundations ebbed in the second half 14. Century due to the plague waves and the decrease in population resulting from it. In the future few cities were only created again, which are to be assigned to one of the following types.
- Mountain city: Starting from that 12. Century and strengthens in 16. Mountain cities from montanwirtschaftlichen interests in the low mountain ranges and in the alps, in particular in the resin, develop for century ore mountains, Böhmerwald, Black Forest, z. B.: Free mountain (Saxonia) (1186), Clausthal Zellerfeld (1530), bath loud mountain (resin), Anna mountain, Schwaz and joy city.
- Plan city: The type of city plan city designates less the function of the city in its respective surrounding field, than rather the kind of their developing. With many reestablishments the opportunity was used to build an ideal city after the conceptions the time. Every now and then also the existing was torn off and developed after new plans again. Land development. In principle the planning of new quarters and satellite cities follows the same principles. Examples of such plan cities are many that far below-mentioned and among other things:
- Exulantenstadt: Exulantenstädte, occasionally also Exilantenstädte mentioned, are establishments by and/or for faith refugees 16. to 19. Century. Exulantenstädte and/or. Urban extensions developed for
- Huguenots: Berlin, attaining, Karl port, new Isenburg
- Kalvinisten and Mennoniten (Wallonen and Fleming): Altona, Wesel
- Lutheraner (salt citizen): Schlesien, Saxonia (Johanngeorgenstadt)
- church Jesu Christi of the holy ones of the last days (“Mormonen”): Salt Lake town center
- fortress town: A fortress town is a city, whose planning had to subordinate itself to the military function as fortress. The star shaped bastions, which put around the city, are typical. Fortress towns based in 17. Century, when the medieval Stadtmauern could not withstand the further developed cannons any longer. Some medieval Stadtmauer was replaced by a such city attachment, which made the city additional the fortress town. A typical example is newmash oh.
- Residenzstadt: Residenzstädte 17. and 18. Century after the model Versailles were usually established, so z. B. Karlsruhe (1715) and Ludwigsburg (1718). Frequently existing cities were extended by baroque residence quarters with lock, z. B.: Berlin Charlottenburg, Munich Nymphenburg, Hanover gentleman living or after principles of the baroque style over or new arranges like Dresden.
Renaissance and baroque, classicism and industrielle of beginnings
the Renaissance redefines outline of the town and townscape, but remains some city drafts unrealized. The carried out are often called ideal cities, which aligned built reality ideally, above all geometrically. They orient the outline of the town central on the main place in the city center, on which the main streets approach star shaped and concentrate around the important buildings of the city as individual, as well as geometrical solidiums simple emphasized thus in the townscape following the again discovered antique one (cube, cylinder, etc.). This contrasts to adapted medieval cities to grown or planned the before organically, but the natural area.
In the baroque the princes embody their seat firmly with and in the before times earlycivil governed Renaissance cities, set at the main place in the city centre their lock to the place of the previous buildings of Renaissances and ensure for uniform, in construction, height and color on the fürstliche lock leading city land development. From it completely baroque “durchgestylte” cities result such as Vienna (by Maria Theresia in 18. Century) or Karlsruhe, in addition, Rome with its places and Paris as well as Versailles give here examples. On the other hand the thorough structural, legal and city-hygenic decrees of the baroque princes prepare the accomplishment and administration of the many more extensive mass phenomena of the announcing industrialization in the cities quasi.
However that is replaced from Honoratioren and privileged one existing fürstliche administrative machinery partly revolution-like by professional, trained or experienced administrative specialists. These try already in the classicism (end of 18. , At the beginning of 19. Century) and the industriellen beginnings, the social barriers such as body characteristic to concern guilds and privileges as well as Slums or missing city hygiene. In Paris develop mass housings, which copy other cities (z. B. late Berlin, “tenement houses”). Particularly by the klassizistische England and particularly London impulses are given to include quasi nature into the close dark cities again. In the consequence city parks result in left blank building block, by opening before times fürstlicher lock parks for the city dwellers and substitution of eliminated city attachments (“sharpening”) from green belts (z. B. in Cologne). Increasingly movements for and hygenic residential areas through-become green become generally accepted, their realization however only toward end 19. Century national differently on comes.
the industrialization, characterized above all thereby that the steam engine replaces the manual enterprise and in the railway use finds, begins 17 already in England at that. , in France starting from that 18. , in the USA and Germany starting from that 19. Century as well as in Japan starting from beginning 20. Century. Other countries follow, partly until today.
The industrial age in 19. and the first half 20. Century brings an urbanisation up to city ores the society with itself. In 19. Numerous technical basis inventions and their advancements developed for century. From these new industrielle of jobs resulted within fewer years in the cities. The need at jobs, above all that the textile and mining industry, could not not be covered with the local worker reservoir any more. Thus settled many industrial companies in cities, in order to be able to adjust enough worker. Likewise many workers of the country pulled into the cities, in order to be able to work there. This dependence from each other advanced growth un the rapid industrialization of the cities. But this industrialization hangs particularly of an important invention off of the steam engine. From these innovations in the traffic technology resulted, like the railway and the steam ship. By these means of transport the processing industry was bound no more to the locations of the raw material occurrences and could settle in the city, where workers, capital and technical knowledge were present. Manufacturing plants and worker quarters with tenement houses developed in the proximity of the old parts of town. After the old parts of town in the first phase had consolidated themselves, it came then to the spatial expansion. With the help of the mass traffic means (horse course, streetcar, bicycle) off approx. 1880 to 1900 strengthen external growth. In Germany new cities are created like z. B. Bremerhaven 1827, upper living 1861, Ludwigshafen 1863, Wilhelmshaven 1873 and wolf castle 1938. The existing cities grow and change to city group areas particularly in mining districts like the Ruhr district, inUpper Silesia or in the Saargebiet. On the other hand come off approx. 1900 reform attempts and building zone orders. One tries a loosening of the strict, monotonous rectangular road sketches by more places, wound road guidance and Durchgrünung. At the same time first projects begin for the reorganization of the medieval town centres. These are completely covered, over-populated and become hygenically intolerable in some cities. By abort of whole accomodation and reconstruction, z. B. in Stuttgart or break-through of new roads, z. B. in Strasbourg or Hamburg one tried to repair the lack. The garden city movement at the beginning 20. Century was a still large reform beginning on the problems of the indutrialisierten city, which however by the First World War only very limited one converted.
first to the Second World War
1918 to 1933 - new town construction. The Weimar Republic developed similarly as the Republic of Austria new concepts of the social housing construction, in particular in Altona, Berlin and Hamburg. Locally and/or. genossenschaftlicher housebuilding in half-open and open building method was promoted, e.g. the construction of rows of buildings way; the functional change of the city became v.a. coined/shaped by the building house.
1933 to 1945 - National Socialist city ideology. The National Socialist city ideology was against big-city degeneration and for soil-connected small housing estate, had plans to a Agrarisierung, and for the dissolution of the cities. On the other hand a monumental transformation of the cities was planned. In many large cities extensive incorporations of the surrounding countryside or obligatory unions take place from cities as for instance Sulzbach Rosenberg or mixing part churches against the will of the population. The large Hamburg law of 1938 decreases/goes back still strongly on planning of the Weimar Republic . 1938 are created wolf castle as worker city for the building of Volkswagens. Larger plans were prevented by the Second World War.
reconstruction after 1945 (to approx. 1960)
In the Soviet zone of occupation, then GDR, took place 1950 the socialist soil order with abolition of the free soil market and large right of expropriation for national planning. Principles concerning town construction are implemented after Soviet model: z. B. in Hauptmagistralen like the Stalinallee/Karl Marx avenue in east Berlin. Cities are understood as a sign of the new social order, whereby in the center commerce and banks, but public buildings and also dwellings in the center were not located.
In the tri zone, then later the Federal Republic of Germany, in addition, in the GDR, the reconstruction took place after different samples: complete re-organization of the town centre with rating and new road system, for example in Pforzheim, Wesel, Hanover or Chemnitz; partial re-organization with partial rating and break-through of traffic axles as in Duisburg, meal, Dortmund, Duesseldorf, Kassel, Cologne, Bonn, Hamburg, Dresden, Magdeburg; large re-establishment of the medieval structure despite strong destruction as in Nuremberg: , But modern architecture remained surface area and Cuba door of the buildings; Cities, z destroyed reconstruction without larger re-organization in few. B. Wuppertal. New cities particularly for refugees of homeland, in addition, during industrial settlement: e.g. Espelkamp, Bielefeld Sennestadt, ironworks city initial considerations to leave open and establish in other place some strongly destroyed cities again were not anywhere realized, since still the underground infrastructure was received as for instance to drains.
1960 to 1975
in the GDR took place a retarded reconstruction in favor of stronger new construction activity in open, 5 - to 10-geschossiger construction of rows of buildings way with industriellen prefabricated elements in few standard types. The socialist residential complex was a new building quarter with approx. 10.000-30.000 inhabitants, begrünte, open multistoried building lines, a center, public mechanisms such as schools, sports sites, health center, as well as Kaufhalle, restaurant and national service building.
FRG: Large town development and urban extension projects, apparently boundless growth of the requirements at dwelling size and - quality: Building of satellite settlements, z. B. Märki quarter (Berlin), Garath (Duesseldorf), Chorweiler (Cologne), newPerl oh (Munich) and of satellite cities z. B. Wulfen, Erkrath Hochdahl, Meckenheim Merl. The close land development among other things lead to small attractiveness, consequence are partial high empty conditions, etc. The car forces the building of motorways in the city, z. B. in high and low situations as in meal, Duisburg, Duesseldorf, Cologne. External areas: Satellite settlements and suburbanization. The example was the auto+fair city center, into all persons, those to the work, purchase etc. into the city drive, which new means of transport car would use. While for rolling traffic still according to area by the development of the roads the place was created, the beginning failed finally because of area requirements for resting traffic. The building of parking lots could not walk-hold approximate with the need. With this realization the planning of new rapid-transit railway projects, z began. B. in Stuttgart (commencement of construction 1971) as well as the modernization of the old streetcars, which were shifted within the core ranges into the underground. In response the cars were displaced the city centers, as the most important shopping streets were umgewidmet to pedestrian precincts.
The European monument protection year 1975 brought a back meditation on the received cultural inheritance in the built volumes and in the consequence the old parts of town was fundamentally reorganized. Retrospectively on the war destruction and the reconstruction it can be stated that by the radical reconstruction and modernization of the city far more historical built volumes were destroyed than by the bombardment.
Into the 1970er years took place a further wave from incorporations, whereby in the course of this regional reorganization from the union of several villages new cities developed, however in the absence of a genuine center and/or. have as polyzentrische cities with the traditional city still little in common. Examples of it are about falling the city or flax field EN genuine things.
emphasis becomes the private construction of free-hold dwellings. Since the cities cannot make the surfaces available necessary for it, a kleinteiliges growth takes place in the surrounding countryside of the cities in place of large housing estates (suburbanization). Crisisful problems in centers of dense development result from drift of population and trade. The tax receipts sink with increasing social expenditures, since into those freely becoming dwellings draw socially weak families. In the surrounding countryside it comes to a substantial surface sealing and to the destruction of village structures. Since the development of the public suburban traffic cannot keep up to external growth, the traffic volume rises by the individual traffic.
A city core removal (Doughnut of cities) causes that shopping centres settle at the outskirts of a town with cheap building ground. The purchasing power is shifted there and smaller enterprises to move after. Thus a bacon belt so mentioned, rich surrounding municipalities with settlement of new industry, trade and trade, as well as influx of the wealthier population develops in the surrounding countryside, while the city must be responsible despite more sinking taxa-taken further for the infrastructure. In the consequence of desert quarters in the centers, local supply and - traffic turned out into a crisis and the motor traffic creates increasingly problems.
The town planning orients itself over on a receiving, gentle modernization. The revaluation of the occupations of service brings a distinction of industrie and service cities. Also city furniture concepts are included into these planning. In some large cities in Germany plans exist for the change of the stations, which were usually put on as head stations at the original outskirts of a town, but are “grown” in the meantime into the city and with the associated railway facilities large valuable surfaces in the city occupy. These cities are to be converted into course-technically more favorable through stations and be used concerning town construction the freed surfaces, which requires a tunnelling of the existing land development. An example of such projects is Stuttgart 21.
criticism of theoretical and methodical beginnings
historical starting point
still in 17. The Physiokraten the agriculture discovers century as source of main taxation to moderate the financial need of the French king due to splendor and expensive wars. Released by then the industrialization using already early in England English philosophers turn to the non-agricultural production departments. Affected by it the previous evening and in the course of the French revolution as well as own industrialization beginnings now French and then German scholars are directed their attention ever more strongly toward the city than place initiating industriellen and social change.
Outgoing from Lessing over Kant, Goethe, Schiller, Herder, Fichte, Schelling and Hegel Karl Marx finally studies the urban history, z. B. Venice. He formulates the city as place of the industry, the workers and pivot of social circulation as well as his territorial principle. At this beautiful looking light Marx, like at first on very limited area town economy developed in increasing contradiction to their own tightness, blows up itself like this tightness and into a more spacious town economy flows, which contains again, but on grösserräumigem level the contradiction to the tightness, which breakup and extension steer to a larger town economy, of etc., to for instance for extension on the today global megacities. At that Territorialprizip Marx develops substantially his view of the contradiction and its solution as forward-driving Kraft of all human development. Utopian socialists so mentioned formulate teachings similar and convert these into sample cities.
Altogether 19 forms from those currents. Century completely different movements for the improvement of the architects and Städtebauer different for mass phenomenon verkommenen and from the grasp cities up to today's ideas, which can be turned out. All together those conceptions could be realized so far only within certain borders. This led and leads again and again to doubts and crises in the search for as generally as possible valid proceedings for a city worth living.
in the past was represented the development of cities as a universal, linear development. Such a beginning cannot explain however many aspects of a city, as the variety of the cities, as it exists. Modern beginnings cannot only fill these gaps, but also the rigid beginning of the past completely to replace.
Three fundamental characters of a city were identified: the size of the population (population density), the networks of the city, and an own life-style in the city. None of these characters alone constitutes a city.
Until recently cities were regarded almost exclusively as part of only one line of development. This often began with the Greek city states and platzierte each city somewhere on this line of development. The step to the next stage was the logical consequence and it had only for a long time enough to be waited, until this stage is reached. For each stage there was a presenting city. Athens was often regarded as the first city; Venice represented a later Entwicklungsstufe. Later London came, and Los Angeles was often represented as the final phase of the city development. A city was regarded static unit, which could be regarded freely by place and time as a homogeneous. The resulting theories did not have to do however much with the reality. Despite many obvious lack this traditional beginning is still likes and also in outstanding publications to find.
the traditional beginning had lack defiance of the far spreading weighty lack. Like that, apart perhaps from the final stage Los Angeles , the whole beginning was extremely eurocentric. It was accepted that each city in the world can be compared with a city in of Europe history. Secondly there was no real explanation when and why changes took place, when and why a city achieves the next stage. The traditional beginning did not find it necessary for to pursue the development of an individual city around the theory to examine. Thirdly the separated view of cities is problematic. This view implies that neither the history of a city nor the culture or connections to other places possibly would have an influence on the city. This is doubtful. Fourth it missed the traditional beginning to define a city actually at all. It is unclear, why a locality is not regarded as city and another. Finally the traditional beginning regards only one history of the city. This contradicts modern beginnings, because the city was probably not alike for slaves and a Aristokraten. This point underlines the multi-dimensional view of modern beginnings.
present beginnings to cities promise to become fair these lack. But the meaning of connections and networks is particularly stressed. At the same time also the internal differences are underlined.
The connections of a city can explain the singular character of each city. Cities are seen as part of networks: cultural networks, economic networks, trade or history. Graz and Stockholm are about culturally connected, both are former cultural capitals of Europe. London and Tokyo however are economically connected, particularly by the stock exchange.
Such networks are concentrated in cities and overlap also there. This concentration of linkages cause that a city feels differently than a farmer village. The networks of a city connect these however not only with other cities, but also with the surrounding countryside. A city alone could not converse, needs it nevertheless for example the food from the surrounding area. Also for the trade networks are necessarily, both local and regional.
With networks it is possible to explain the ascent and case from cities to. This is explained with the fact that the different networks can win or lose over time at meaning. A good example is Mexico. Before the arrival of the Spanish colonial power connections to Tenochtitlán (Mexico city) were most important. After the arrival the colonial power changed the meaning of the linkages within short time: a connection to Madrid, the center of the realm was of great advantage now.
The concentration of networks in cities helps to explain urbanisation. It is the entrance to certain networks, which attracts humans. Since the most diverse networks meet in a city, the people collect themselves there. At the same time the concentration of this humans means the introduction of further networks, social connections with the places from where the Migranten comes. The concentration of humans increases also the possibility that new connections are created, because an individual meets other individuals, both, such a much larger number directly and such those different are. The openness from cities to such connections and linkages makes cities attractive in addition, uncontrollable.
A further aspect of present beginnings is a focus on internal diversification in cities. The internal differences in a city are coupled with the external networks. Cities are places where stories meet, where from different cultures and connections something new is created. Each connection of a city to other places functioned in both directions, it is taken and given? Even if usually not equal much. Many connections are expressed unequal.
Neither the internal differences nor the external connections of a place alone constitute a city. The internal differences are affected by external networks. At the same time the many networks connections make possible outward and thus area for the creation of differences from the inside. Divisions and connections in cities are thus inseparable, and if both are only regarded together, are possible it to understand a city. Immigration serves as example of it how divisions and connections are inseparable. Migranten bring along their own history, if they establish themselves in a city. They bring also their networks, for example in the form of contacts in other countries. These networks can strengthen networks also existing and affect their meaning. History, those the Migranten bring along serves also to identify or others exclude with others. This leads to divisions in cities.
Instead of diminishing the tension between connection and differences, present beginnings try to bring it under a hat. Static unit things were replaced with multi-dimensional networks, which can be formed liquid and dynamically.
see also: Urban redevelopment
special and specialized books
- Benevolo, L. The history of the city, Frankfurt 1991
- Bluem, Elisabeth, beautiful one new city. As the safety illusion the urbane environment disciplines, Birkhäuser publishing house 2003, ISBN 3-7643-6250-2
- Curdes, G.: Urban structure and urban design. Kohl hammer. Stuttgart 1993. 2. Edition 1996
- Curdes, G.: Lectures to the town construction: Periods, examples and projects of the town construction from the Middle Ages to the present. Institut for town construction and regional planning. Aachen 1993
- Curdes, G.: City-structural sketching. Kohl hammer. Stuttgart 1995
- G. Curdes (Hrsg).: City - area - lines up innovation:
- Curdes, G.; Ulrich, M.: The development Cologne urban space. The influence of examples and innovations on the form of the city. Dortmund 1997
- Haase, A.: The development of the Duisburger of urban space. The influence of innovations on areas and functions. Dortmund 1999
- Curdes, G.: The development of the Aachener of urban space. The influence of examples and innovations on the form of the city. Dortmund 1999
- Dtv Atlas
- Hotzan, Jürgen, Dtv Atlas city, from the first establishments to the modern town planning, 3. , updated and erw. Aufl., 2004
- Mueller, Werner, Dtv Atlas to the architecture, Bd. 1-2, 13. and/or. 12. Aufl., 2002
- Egli, Ernst, Geschichte of the town construction, Bd. 1-3, 1959-67
- hoping man men, Dieter the third city, Frankfurt 1993, ISBN 3-518-11796-3
- Isenmann, E., the German city in the late Middle Ages. 1250-1500 - City shape, right, city regiment, church, society, economics, Stuttgart 1988.
- Crab, Wolfgang R.: The German city in 19. and 20. Century: an introduction, a Vandenhoeck & a Ruprecht: Goettingen 1989, 224 S. (=Kleine Vandenhoeck row 1543) ISBN 3-525-33555-5
- encyclopedia of the art, Gerhard bunch (Begr.), Leipzig, sailor, different 5-7bändige expenditure., approx. 1968-94, and. A. all terms with city…
- Encyclopedia of world architecture, with a comprehensive bibliography and a local register of the illustrations, Pevsner, Nikolaus…, 3. , updated and erw. Aufl., 1992
- Meckseper, Cord: Small history of art of the German city in the Middle Ages, scientific book company, Darmstadt 1982, ISBN 3-534-08579-5
- Alexander Mitscherlich, the inhospitableness of our cities, Frankfurt A.M. 1965
- Montanari, A.; Curdes, G.; Forsyth, L. (Edit.): Urban Landscape Dynamics. A multi-level innovation Process. Aldershot (UK) 1993
- Mueller, Wolfgang, Städtebau, 4. , neubearb. Aufl., 1999
- Oswald, Franz/Baccini, Peter: Net city. Introduction to the city sketching, Basel/bad clay/tone/Berlin: Birkhäuser 2003.
- Oswald, Franz/Schüller, Nicola (Hrsg.): New Urbanität. Merging city and landscape, Zurich: gta 2003.
- Oswalt, Philipp (Hrsg.), shrinking cities. Urban change in the indication of post office Fordism and globalization, Hatje Cantz publishing house 2004.
- Jürgen Reulecke/Clemens Carpenter (Hrsg.): The city as Moloch? The country as if strength-pour? : Perceptions and effects of the large cities around 1900, Basel [among other things]: Birkhõuser 1999, (= urban research up-to-date; 76), ISBN 3-7643-6038-0
- guessing village, Werner (Hrsg): Discharge model European city? New challenges and questions at the beginning 21. Century, publishing house for science and research, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-89700-310-4
- Ronneberger, Klaus/Lanz, Stephan/Jahn, roll ago: The city as booty, Bonn: Dietz 1999.
- Sieverts, Thomas: Intermediate city. Between place and world, space and time, city and country, Vieweg, Braunschweig 1997, ISBN 3-528-06118-9
- city (municipality), in: Meyers encyclopedia, 4. Aufl. 1888, Bd. 15, S. 211 FF.
- () development of worker transport, in: Arch plus, October 1973, S. 16
- Michael Zick: Tell Chuera: Town planning before 5000 years. Picture of the science 1/2005, S. 72 - 76 (2005), ISSN of 0006-2375
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