|of these articles describes the means of transport metropolitan railway. To the railroad lines of the same name in Vienna and Berlin see Viennese metropolitan railway and/or. Berlin metropolitan railway.|
The term is not clearly defined any longer. It is used in different cities for differently minted ÖPNV traffic systems. The term metropolitan railway was in most cases introduced, around the advancement that To clarify streetcar to means of transport with high order.
Metropolitan railway distances can have - differently than the undergrounds completely separated from remaining traffic - crossings on the same level with the traffic. Most metropolitan railways are motorway railroad lines, which are led partly underground. Thus can alsoCharacteristics of an underground represented its.
In recent time metropolitan railways operate also on classical railroad lines in far distant suburbs, so that they resemble rapid-transit railways. Some pure streetcar enterprises call their nets likewise metropolitan railway (Erfurt, Gera). Thus 1996 becamethe Erfurter streetcar by town councillor resolution in „metropolitan railway “renamed. Thus the demarcation, whether it concerns a road or a metropolitan railway, is in the meantime quite flowing.
Of many metropolitan railway distances the tunnel plants removed in closely cultivated city centers as underground straining are characteristic, partly comealso a high situation to application, in order to manufacture level-free crossings. On such metropolitan railway distances in the initial phase normal streetcar cars were used. In the meantime particularly developed city railway waggons outweigh as for example in Cologne/Bonn, Rhine/Ruhr, Frankfurt/Main or Stuttgart. These are frequentalso for the enterprise on normal railroad lines after the building of railways and factory regulations (EBO) certified (Cologne/Bonn, Karlsruhe). In most nets for the metropolitan railway enterprise overhead railway pastes are put on, which make stepless entering possible into these vehicles. For ranges with low platformspossess many city railway waggons folding stages so mentioned. In recent time also city railway waggons in Niederflurbauweise developed, for example in Chemnitz or in Karlsruhe.
Table of contents
comparison average cruising speeds
on the basis an example from the city of Duesseldorf
- streetcar: 17 km/h
- city bus: 20km/h
- regional bus: 25 km/h
- metropolitan railway: 29 km/h
- rapid-transit railway: 39 km/h
- regional course: 60 km/h
- regional express: 99 km/h
development of Germany
at the beginning of the 1960er years looked for many middleLarge cities after new ways, in order to arrange more attractive public local passenger traffic. The town planners felt besides the streetcar along-swimming in the normal individual traffic increasingly as traffic hold-up. A conversion to pure bus traffic was not possible in many cases because of high transport arising. ThatBuild a pure underground system proved too expensively and temporally very lengthily, therefore also only Munich ( underground Munich) went and Nuremberg (underground Nuremberg) this way. In both cities remained however in, around by the undergroundreplaced lines reduced streetcar net as addition of the this receive. When alternative model developed the metropolitan railway, which should be led only in city areas as underground, otherwise by ramps on existing streetcar nets to be attached knew. Thus new tunnel sections can quite fast inan existing system to be integrated. Converted to the total net metropolitan railways are thus substantially cheaper than full underground distances, since the existing streetcar infrastructure can be further used.
The first metropolitan railway nets with underground straining became 1966 in Stuttgart (metropolitan railway Stuttgart) and 1968 in Frankfurt/Main (metropolitan railway Frankfurt/Main) and in Cologne (metropolitan railway Cologne) opens. Except in Frankfurt first normal streetcar vehicles were used. The Main metropolis sets on some lines to today streetcar cars with folding stages (U 5, U6). In Stuttgart become only from meter - on standard gauge reequipped distances metropolitan railway calls.
The tunnel plants were therefore laid out in such a way that these from normal streetcar cars will drive on could. Since most enterprises facility cars began, that developed in the majorityMetropolitan railway cities in the tunnel stations of Seitenbahnsteige - first in low execution. With the transition to special city railway waggons on metropolitan railway distances increases central platforms inserted. These developed equal as overhead railway pastes, the Seitenbahnsteige were too overhead railway-own converted in nearly all enterprises with city railway waggons.
In Ruhr district (metropolitan railway net Rhine Ruhr) as well as Frankfurt/Main and Stuttgart carry metropolitan railway lines from pure underground systems (Berlin, Hamburg, Munich) admitted before the line number. The entrances to the platforms or stations of the metropolitan railways are likewise equipped with this sign. In Hanover (metropolitan railway Hanover; Opening 1975) are against it only the entrances of the stops in tunnelled routes and the aboveground stations with overhead railway pastes with a modified - indications provide (coloured joggle of the upper two ends of the U). The aboveground stations becomein foreseeable future everything equipped with overhead railway pastes its, so that then all stations with are identified-drawn. Only Karlsruhe uses the rapid-transit railway symbol. In far population circles these nets are noticed therefore also as underground. The term „metropolitan railway “has itself not ingeneral Sprachgegebrauch interspersed. That is many enterprises quite, there itself the mark „- course “as very advertising effective proves. A later transition to pure subway railway facility was considered with most metropolitan railways (Frankfurt/Main, Hanover, Stuttgart), but this development appears at presentvery improbably.
The metropolitan railway net in Cologne will be divided in the future into a high corridor net with normal city railway waggon enterprise and into a net for Niederflur - metropolitan railways. The high corridor distances form 1974 with that opened Bonn metropolitan railway systems operationally a unit including two earlier railroad linesthe Cologne-Bonn railway.
In Duesseldorf (metropolitan railway net Rhine Ruhr) the military cock line at present in planning is to be operated as the first metropolitan railway line in Duesseldorf with Niederflurstadtbahnwagen.
In Hanover the transformation „of the classical “streetcar is into a pure metropolitan railway since 1996to a large extent finally, in Stuttgart this will be to 2010 the case. In other cities beside the metropolitan railway further to the classical streetcar (Duesseldorf, Frankfurt, meal), however in Niederflurausführung, one will hold. In Duisburg, Mülheim at the Ruhr,Meals and Bochum are led in the tunnel lying meter PUR-sections (except Duisburg) as strassenbahnlinien and driven on with conventional Trambahnwagen. Duisburg drives Tram and metropolitan railway lines on common distances. In Bielefeld (metropolitan railway Bielefeld) in the long term the metropolitan railway becomes as U-streetcar inMeter-purely to be operated. Re-equipment on standard gauge is however possible.
With the tunnel construction becomes between the development in streetcar manners with many crossings and branches on the same level (typical for Cologne and Stuttgart) and the building method in underground manners with usually crossing-free implemented branches (Dortmund,Frankfurt, Hanover) differentiated between. The drawing elements of the metropolitan railway tunnelled routes correspond to those an underground. However the development is partially expensive, since metropolitan railways receive their river contrary to full undergrounds by overhead lines. Therefore the tunnel section must more largely than with undergrounds driving with bus barsare held. In few cases one is used to the tunnel cover designed bus bar .
to 2003) [
work on] metropolitan railways of new generation beside the conventional metropolitan railways with tunnel plants in recent time.These followed from distance new and - development, without taking thereby tunnel sections into account, like e.g. the metropolitan railways in Erfurt (metropolitan railway Erfurt) and in Freiburg in mash gau (free citizen of traffic AG). Also resulted from including and the joint use ofRailroad lines new „provincial town course “- nets, which resemble rather a rapid-transit railway. This idea was carried out for the first time 1992 in Karlsruhe (metropolitan railway Karlsruhe), where in the context „of the Karlsruher of model “also two-system so mentioned - motor coaches to the employment come, thoseapart from the direct current of streetcar distances (750 V) also kV - alternating current from the normal railways - overhead line to refer know the 15. In Karlsruhe this net is enough into 84 kilometers removed Heilbronn, whereby in Heilbronn - of this distanceoutgoing - momentarily likewise a metropolitan railway net develops. The metropolitan railway fulfills in Karlsruhe and in Heilbronn both the tasks of a classical streetcar, and to a rapid-transit railway. The Karlsruher mixing process concept was carried out also with the Saarbahn in Saarbruecken. This model becomestoday preferentially in France as Tram Train designates.
Further metropolitan railway nets in Germany without tunnel, but with included railroad lines are in:
- Kassel (RegioTram Kassel) in the advance enterprise (with hybrid motor coaches for the transition between electrified and not-electrified distance)
- Zwickau (Diesel motor coach that Vogtlandbahn on strassenbahnschienen in the city center)
- area Gotha (Thüringerwaldbahn), the Gothaer streetcar uses since 1924 railroad lines into the northern areas of the Thüringer of forest.
- Northlive to resin in the south. This of the Harzer narrow-gauge railways operated net is oneCharacteristic, since both Diesel hybrid motor coaches and steam engines are used there.
north and South America
the German metropolitan railway concept became also abroad, before all in the USA and Canada taken over. There systems with German vehicle technology in the 1970er and 1980er years (Frankfurt type U-2) developed. A first net developed 1977 in the Canadian Calgary, which 1981 one should follow in Edmonton. Likewise 1981 opened in San Diego a metropolitan railway with German vehicles. Later Saint Louis ( with tunnelled routes) followed, Baltimore, salt Lake town center, Denver, Dallas and jersey town center (opposite lain of New York town center) and other cities. From existing streetcar distances the metropolitan railway nets becamein Pittsburgh, Newark and San Francisco develops. New metropolitan railway nets with German technique parameters with tunnel plants developed besides in the Mexican cities Mexico city, Guadalajara and Monterrey. The green line of the bad toners Metro would be according to German definition as metropolitan railway toodesignate, since streetcar cars operate here in the city area in tunnel plants, otherwise as streetcars.
Metropolitan railway systems became domestic also in Great Britain. The net in Newcastle upon Tyne exists since 1984. There beside new tunnel plants also railroad lines were included in the network. Also Manchester and Birmingham received metropolitan railway systems. In London developed with that of dock countryLight Railway a system, which is based on metropolitan railway technology with the appropriate vehicles, is operated but with current lights. A part of the cars procured there is in the meantime after changes on the Essener metropolitan railway distances in the use. In postage (Portugal) developed inrecent time likewise a metropolitan railway system, which uses new tunnelled routes and by meter on standard gauge reequipped railroad lines.
In Poland a crossing-free metropolitan railway line in floats exists. The distance carries a designation fast streetcar (Szybki tramwaj) and became in the cutand as overhead railway built. A further homogeneous distance in floats is at present in the building. Likewise a metropolitan railway line in Krakau is built, with a tunnel and two underground stations. It is to be served however by Niederflurfahrzeuge.
In the east of Asia the Philippine capital Manila received a metropolitan railway system. This became so well crossing-freebuilt and becomes with vehicles of the Belgian design of kind of streetcar condition (Lüttich, Oostende) as well as act RA cars from Czech production operated.
metropolitan railway systems are present in planning in
- Braunschweig (with Umspurung of the streetcar distances of 1100 mm on standard gauge)
are angedacht beyond that in the following cities of systems:
- Aachen (city center route for the Euregiobahn)
- Bremerhaven (realization at present improbably)
- attaining(Realization at present openly)
- Frankfurt/Main (regional tangent west)
- Hanau (realization at present improbably)
- Kaiserslautern (realization at present improbably)
- Kiel (in the planning phase)
- Regensburg (realization at present openly)
- Reutlingen (community project with Tübingen, in the planning phase)
- Schwerin (realization at present openly)
- Tübingen (community project with Reutlingen, inPlanning phase)
- Wiesbaden (realization at present improbably)
- related systems: Streetcar, underground, U-streetcar, rapid-transit railway and Tram Train
- city railway waggon B, city railway waggon type M/N
- metropolitan railway color
Web on the left of
- metropolitan railway group of photos in Flickr.com
- concept for a metropolitan railway system for Munich and its surrounding countryside
- metropolitan railways and cognate (link collection)
- undergrounds and metropolitan railways in Germany
- TramTrain those 2.Generation - a current representation to applications of mixing processes