Stalin cleanings

Stalin cleanings (Чистки, Tschistki) is a Euphemismus for political pursuits under Josef W. Stalin in the Soviet Union. These cleanings began with the murder at Sergej Kirow in December 1934 and reached their high point inthe so-called large cleaning from 1936 to 1938. Thus the systematic terror is allegedly meant against Stalin colluding innocent ones against, which often justifies extorted confessions as judicial pursuit camouflaged and through under torture (looking process), hundredthousands deathbrought.

Table of contents

background

background were different, each other replacing conspiracy theories, among other things against defiance crates, Titoisten and those the physician conspiracy accused Jewish physician. Just as a large part of the founders III. International ones became almost all important theoreticians of the CPSU (b) during the revolution years victims of these cleanings. Chief prosecutor from 1936 to 1938 was thatProsecutor general of the Soviet Union Andrej Januarjewitsch Wyschinski.

In addition a majority was accused and extinguished of the military top management around marshal Mikhail Nikolajewitsch Tuchatschewski - with the aid the Gestapo - of a conspiracy. Also many communists of other origin, which emigriert into the Soviet Unionwere, fell pursuits to the victim. In the year 1940 the chief executive for the execution of the cleanings Nikolai Iwanowitsch Jeschow became (1895 -1940) (called after it also Jeschowtschina), that from 1936 to 1938 boss of the NKWD (People's Commissariat for insideAffairs) and member of the central committee of the CPSU (b), just like already its predecessor gene-smells Grigorewitsch Jagoda ( 1891 -1938) had been, even to the victim of the stalinistischen terror.

victim

Stalin did not only leave its alleged political opponents, among them numerous foreign communists, who lived in the Soviet Union or were emigriert before pursuit there, during looking processes sentence, but whole peoples of the Soviet Union, were deportiert ethnical minorities, in camp (Gulag ). “Kulaken” (large farmer)and arbitrarily as such defined one, priest and monks as well as church laymen fell the cleanings to the victim. Even the members of the arrested ones did not remain spared. Thus regularly even unpolitical humans were arrested to fulfill over the production target given for it andto fill with it prisons as well as punishing camps.

punishing camps

the victims of Stalins arbitrariness were brought in labour camp (Gulag), where they had to perform forest work, road construction, canal construction, building of railways, town construction, work in mines, as well as earthwork under inhuman conditions. For examplethe white sea Baltic Sea channel, parts of the Trans-Siberian railway as well as parts of the Baikal Amur Magistrale of prisoners were built. The conditions of work and life were extremely bad. The prisoners kept partial only 300 gram and besides damp brown bread and on the day , ordered a plate Brennnesselsuppealso in the winter only over light summer clothing and lived in wooden barracks. The production target decided on the length of the working day, which was often more than 12 hours.

Many humans were exekutiert after tortures: While the large cleaning becameon the day murders on the average thousand humans.

some the prominent victims

the cleanings 40

to the victim.

number of victims

the number data of the victimsvary in the research literature strongly. Thus Stalins estimates bio count Dmitri Wolkogonow that 1929 to 1953 19.5 to 22 million humans by the so-called cleanings to death came. The American Politologe Rudolph Joseph Rummel assumes that in the entireTime of the Soviet Union 62 million humans were killed.

Stalins propaganda

Stalins propaganda, also of most communist parties abroad, in the east as in the west, until into the late 80's became to represent at full extent, justified laterthe cleanings as preventing removal of political opponents, who would have kollaboriert otherwise with Hitler or as class enemies would have become dangerous.

literature

  • Anne Applebaum: The GULAG, settler publishing house, Berlin 2003 ISBN 3-88680-642-1
  • William Mensing, of the Ruhrin the GULag victim of the Stalin mass terror from the Ruhr district, meal 2001
  • Daniel Pipes: Conspiracy. Fascination and power of the secret one, Berlin academy publishing house 1998 ISBN of 3-932425-08-1
  • looking processes under Stalin 1932 - 1952. Come off, background, victims, with a prefaceof refuge Schützler, Dietz publishing house Berlin 1990 ISBN 3-320-01600-8
  • Alexander Solschenizyn: The archipelago GULAG, joke publishing house Berne 1974 ISBN 3-502210-01-2
  • Dimitri Wolkogonow: Stalin. Triumph and tragedy. A political haven-guesses/advises, Econ paperback publishing house 1993 ISBN 3-612-26011-1

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