Stanisław Mikołajczyk

Stanisław Mikołajczyk

Stanisław Mikołajczyk [staˈɲiswaf mʲikɔˈwaɪ̯ʧɨk] (* 18. July 1901 in Holsterhausen, Germany; † 13. December 1966 in Washington D.C., the USA) was a Polish politician. He was a prime minister of the Polish government-in-exile during the second world war and vice-Prime Minister of Poland after end of war.

Table of contents

lives

youth

its family originated from floats (Poznań) in large Poland. It was born in the German Ruhr district close Dorsten, where its parents worked. With ten years it returned 1911 to Poland.

As a young person he worked in a sugar beet factory and worked in patriotic organizations. When it was 18 years old, Poland attained its independence. 1920 it attached the Polish army, fought themselves from until 1921 in the Polish-Soviet war. It was superseded, after it was wounded with Warsaw and returned on the farm of its father with floats, in order to inherit it.

party politician

starting from 1921 worked Mikołajczyk in the Polish farmer party (Polish Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe - PSL), wrote for agrarian and farmer magazines. After some offices in the Provinzialregierung of floats he was selected 1933 as youngest delegates in the Sejm. 1935 it became deputy chairmen of the Exekutivkommittees of the PSL, 1937 became it party chairman. He was an active opponent of the authoritarian regime, which was established after death by Józef Piłsudski 1935 in Poland.

After the German attack on Poland 1939 Mikołajczyk of the Polish army followed as a private first class and participated in the defense of Warsaw. After the conquest of Warsaw by the armed forces it fled to Hungary, where it was interned. It escaped again and went over Yugoslavia and Italy to Paris. Immediately after its arrival it was asked to put itself to the Polish government-in-exile as deputy chairmen of the Polish national council at the disposal. 1941 he was appointed the Minister of the Interior and deputy prime minister under Władysław Sikorski.

prime minister

after death Sikorskis with an aircraft crash in July 1943 was appointed Mikołajczyk the prime minister. In its introduction speech, which became to transfer from the broadcast to Poland, he said: We do not want to see only formal democracy in Poland, but a social democracy, which do not only protect political, religious and individual liberties, but also the social and economic liberty. Those are the four liberties, of which Franklin Delano Roosevelt spoke so correctly. In any case there is and it in Poland no place for any form of totalitarian government will give.

But Mikołajczyk was faced with large challenges. At the time of its office introduction it was clear that not the western allied ones, but the Soviet Union Poland would release from German occupation. The government-in-exile however was afraid of forcing upon that Stalin intended, communism to Poland and annektieren those eastern territories of Poland, in which the population majority was Ukrainian or Byelorussian.

In April 1943 had the German realm Reich admits given that the armed forces in the forest of Katyn mass graves with the corpses of 4.300 Polish officers had found. While the Soviet Union explained, which Germans would have the massacre of Katyn falsified and for diplomatic reasons accepted the westallied, the Polish government-in-exile required a clearing-up. For the Soviet Union a cause to extract from the government-in-exile the acknowledgment and to create a communist dominated government-in-exile.

In July 1944 the western allied ones on operation vienna clay/tone of Churchill tried to bring Gespräche between Mikołajczyk and Stalin on. The discussions failed because of unbridgeable diversities of opinion: One could agree neither on the responsibility at the massacre of Katyn, still on the European postwar borders. Stalin insisted on the fact that the eastern areas of Poland should remain in Soviet hands. Poland can receive German areas to reconciliation for it. Mikołajczyk refused accepting this suggestion. It insisted at the same time on the fact that Stalin was not allowed to use a communist government in postwar Poland.

vice-Prime Minister

after the discussions agreed Stalin of a coalition government for the released areas of Poland. Prime minister of the again-created provisional government of the national unit became the socialist Edward Osobka Morawski. The chairman of the communist party Władysław Gomułka became from two deputy prime ministers. Mikołajczyk withdrew in December 1944 as a prime minister of the government-in-exile and became a second deputy prime minister as well as Minister for agriculture.

Many Polish Exilanten opposed these measures. They believed that the new government would be only one front, behind which the communist rule in Poland are established. The Polish government-in-exile continued to exist, even if it were not recognized longer than the legal government of Poland.

Mikołajczyk began immediately to revive the Polish farmer party (PSL ) which became within fewer months the strongest party in Poland. In May 1946 it had 800,000 members. Helped Mikołajczyk straight that radical Landreform, which was implemented with the help of the communists. It created a new class of small farmers, who became a firm basis of the PSL. Because the Polish communists knew the fact that they would win never free elections in Poland began to risk them promptly everything, them to prevent, although Stalin had promised them to the conference of Jalta.

In June 1946 to a number of topics populars vote in Poland were held. The PSL decided to place itself against the referendum to the abolishment of the senate in order to test the strength of the communists. Two thirds of the voters supported Mikołajczyks PSL, but the ministry of the Interior controlled by the communists published falsified election results, which maintained the opposite. Between the populars vote in June 1946 and the parliamentary elections in January 1947 the PSL was exposed to inconsiderate pursuit. Hundreds of their candidates were prevented to lead election campaign.

The Polish parliamentary elections 1947 brought 394 seats for the democratic block controlled by the communists and 28 seats for the PSL. Everyone knew that it concerned thereby substantial election frauds. Mikołajczyk laid down the office as deputy prime ministers and separated from the government.

escape into the USA

as it in April 1947 an arrest threatened, left it Poland. The Polish government-in-exile in London regarded it as a traitor, because it had formed a coalition with the communists. Thus it emigrierte into the USA. 1948 he was selected to the chairman of the international farmer trade union, the Green international one. The organization represented emigrierte farmers from the countries of central Eastern Europe. It held this function until 1964.

1966 died Mikołajczyk in Washington D.C. In June 2000 its mortal remnants were transferred to Poland. They were publicly aufgebahrt in Warsaw king locks and again buried afterwards in floats. Its documents at the Hoover institution on was kept, revolution and Peace at the Stanford university in the USA.

writings

  • the war against the liberty: From the memoirs of Stanislaw Mikołajczyk, former Polish prime minister. Publishing house of the daily mirrors, Berlin Tempelhof 1948
  • Stanislaw Mikołajczyk: The Rape OF pole and: Pattern OF Soviet aggression. Whittlesay House [among other things], New York [among other things] 1948

literature

  • Andrzej Paczkowski: Stanislaw Mikołajczyk, czyli kleska realisty. Agencja Omnipress, Warszawa 1991, ISBN 83-85028-82-X
  • novel Buczek: Stanislaw Mikołajczyk. Century publication. Cost, Toronto 1996
  • Janusz Gmitruk: Stanislaw Mikołajczyk: trudny powrót. Muzeum Historii Polskiego Ruchu Ludowego, Warszawa 2002, ISBN 83-87838-59-4

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