One
calls statistics a statistics:
- name-giving (v. lat.: status = State of, condition; with Greek ending) (comparative) the description of state (the term of the Göttinger camera lists Gottfried oh barrier was introduced around 1749);
- those today as official statistics away-lives;
- in addition,independently of the naming already for over 5000 years as population statistics and business statistics exists;
- of it generalizing quantitative collections of all kinds, like for example for market - and public opinion poll (see quantitative methods );
- their results, their representation among other things the descriptive statistics procured;
- the inductive statistics
- the mathematical statistics;
- certain variates, e.g. a” test statistics “;
- certain models of statistic physics: Boltzmann statistics, Maxwell Boltzmann distribution, Fermi Dirac statistics, Bose Einstein statistics
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Etymologie
the word statistics comes from latin “statisticum” (“concerning the state”) and the Italian “statista” (“statesman” or “politician”). The German statistics, imported of Gottfried oh barrier (1749), designated originally the science of the data over the state, thus state theory. In 19. Century was used for the first time the word by the Englishman Sir John Sinclair in its current meaning of general collecting and evaluating of data.
overview and organization
the statistics is the summary of certain methods quantify over mass phenomena and interpret.
The statistics is divided into the following three subranges:
- descriptive statistics (describing statistics, empirical statistics)
- with available data in more suitablyWay to be described and summarized. With its methods one consolidates quantitative data to tables, diagrams and characteristic numbers. With some institutions, z. B. with the official statistics, the production of such statistics is the major task.
- inductive statistics (closing statistics, one derives mathematical
- statistics) in the inductive statistics from the data of a sample characteristics of a population . The probability theory supplies the bases for the necessary estimate and test procedures.
- explorative statistics (hypothesis-generating statistics, DATA Mining)
- methodical a Zwischenform that, however increasingly its own meaning gets both aforementioned subranges as application form. By means of descriptive procedures and inductive test methods possible connections (or differences) between data in existing volume of data are systematically looked for and tried at the same time in its strength and result security to evaluate. Thoseso found results can be understood as hypotheses, which can be regarded only then as statistically secured, after they were confirmed by test procedures based on it and inductive with appropriate (prospektiven) experimental designs.
Inductive statistics and probability theory are summarized under the generic term stochastics.
steps of the statistics
the creation and data analysis of empirical data consists ideally of the following steps:
- Experimental design / collection preparation (collection concept, questionnaire development, sample drawing),
- data gathering /collection (of samples)/use of operational data/collection of inventory and. Event masses,
- Data preparation (data validations, classifications/characteristic summaries),
- evaluation (scheduling, modelling, computation of errors and high, probability, error 1. and 2. Kind, treasures and tests) as well as
- result presentation (tables, diagrams, result interpretation, publications, CD-ROM, statistic data bases).
During itself the univariate statistics with thatDescription of the distribution of an investigation characteristic busily, is regarded in the multivariate statistics the common distribution of several investigation characteristics.
schools and thinking directions
it in text books often the impression obtain it would give only, constantly developing furtherStatistics. In contrast to it one can constitute different thinking schools, which analyze a problem quite differently, evaluates and numerically to compute:
- Causal relations: Ronald Fisher
- memory achievements, ROC - curves: Jerzy Neyman and Karl Pearson
- of judgements due to uncertain acceptance: Karl Pearson
- induction and changethe opinion:Thomas Bayes
software
the modern statistics is supported, by efficient computers, in a the position to analyze with partial computer-bound methods very large data sets. Whole subranges of the statistics have its introduction into the data analysis of new softwareto owe, to call is here the Bayes statistics and their implementation in Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure, usually shortened by MCMC procedures.
In the following some common statistic software packages are listed:
Program name | description | Platform | language | price | homepage |
---|---|---|---|---|---|
of ADVICE involution analysis OFTime Series | extremely efficient statistics and Ökonometrie software | Windows, MAC, UNIX | English | approx. 500$ | Estima |
Statistics laboratory | explorativer and interactive toolbox to the statistic analysis and visualization of data | Windows | German | open SOURCE | statistics laboratory |
GNU R | open a SOURCE variant that S programming language | Windows, MAC, UNIX | English | open SOURCE | in the net: The R project for statistical computing) |
SPSS | software of a company of the same name | Windows, MAC | English | > 600$ | [1] |
Almo | analysis particularly from mass data | Windows | German | 200 € | [2] |
Statistica | Windows | German | 1000 € | [3] | |
Dataplot] | Windows, MAC, UNIX | English | free | [4] |
- SAS - software company the products for fastidious statistic analysis provides
- S-pluses based on S programming language
- Stata
- MiniTab
- Mondrian (software to the explorativen statistic data analysis (EDA))
- NOSE (Bayesianinference Using Gibbs Sampling) open a SOURCE software to the analysis of complex statistic models by MCMC - procedure
- qa-STAT: Statistics often commodity for Industrielle data, - and process analysis
- XploRe
- WinIDAMS: free of charge made available of the UNESCO.
SomeStatistical programs consist to be supplemented of nucleus programs by modules can.
quotations
- „the statistics is not such a thing like the physics of mathematics “(author unknown)
- „trust statistics, which you did not falsify. “Of German propaganda (Joseph Goebbels) during the Second World War invented and of this vienna clay/tone Churchill attributed.
- „There of acres three of child OF read: Read, Damned read and statistics. “(Leonard Henry Courtney, frequently falsely Benjamin Disraeli attributed, Marks the Twain this quotationin its Autobiografie into the mouth.) German translation puts: „There are three kinds of the lie: Lie, condemned lie and statistics. “
- „Statistics acres like bikinis. What they reveal is suggestive, but what they conceal is vitally “. (Aaron Levenstein) GermanTranslation: „The statistics is like a Bikini: It is suggestionful, but the substantial remains nevertheless hidden. “
- „One can prove the statistics with the statistics also? “(Authors unknown)
- „statistics is for me the information means of the of age ones. Who can deal with it,can be less easily manipulated. The sentence “with statistics one can prove everything” applies only for consenting, which have no desire, to in addition-see exact. “Elizabeth Noelle Neumann
- „some use the statistics, like the drunk one the strassenlaterne: to holding, not for illuminating! “(Authors unknown)
- „a new statistics proves that 73% of all statistics are purely invented “(J.J.A. Weber)
literature
- Schulze, P.M., prince, A., Schweinberger, A.: Applied statistics and Ökonometrie with WinRATS, Oldenbourg publishing house: Munich, Vienna 2006, ISBN 3-486-58033-7
- Lindgren, Berne pool of broadcasting corporationsW.:Statistical Theory, New York 1993
- Rönz, Strohe: Encyclopedia statistics, Gabler publishing house 1994, ISBN of 3-409-19952-7
- peoples Oppitz: Gabler encyclopedia calculation of production costs, Gabler publishing house 1995, 629 S., ISBN 3-409-19951-9
- walter shopkeeper: Thus one lies with statistics, 7. over work. Edition, CampusPublishing house, Frankfurt/New York 1997.ISBN 3-593-35689-9
- Freedman, Pisani, Purves: Statistics 1998 (Third edition) ISBN 0-393-97121-x
- Jay Bennett (OD.): Statistics in sport, New York 1998, ISBN 0-340-70072-6
- Levine, Berenson, Stephan: Statistics for manager, new jersey of 1999
- Lambacher Swiss: Stochastics achievement course,For the secondary school II. LS mathematics. Hrsg. v. August forge and. William Swiss. KLETT. Nachdr. 1999. ISBN 3-12-739370-9
didactical well made, many tasks with solutions in a separate solution volume. - Driving Meier, artist, Pigeot, Tutz: Statistics. The way to the data analysis.Springer publishing house Berlin 2002.ISBN 3-540-44000-3
- hardening, Elpelt, Klösener: Statistics: Lehr and manual of the applied statistics. R.Oldenbourg publishing house Munich 2002. ISBN 3-486-25905-9
recommendable for practical men. - Peoples Oppitz/peoples Nollau: Paperback economy calculation, Carl Hanser publishing house 2003, 400 S., ISBN 3-446-22463-7
- Newbold, Carlson, Thorne:Statistics for Business and Economics, new jersey 2003
- Dietrich, Schulze: “Statistic procedures for the machine and process qualification”, 4. Edition, Carl Hanser publishing house, Munich 2003. ISBN 3-446-22077-1
- Bleymüller, Gehlert, Gülicher: Statistics for economists. Publishing house Franz Vahlen Munich2004.ISBN 3-8006-3115-6
- Dolic, Dubravko: Statistics with R, Oldenbourg 2004, ISBN 3-486-27537-2
- Benninghaus, Hans: Descriptive statistics. VS publishing house Wiesbaden. 10.Aufl. 2005.
- Sahner, Heinz: Closing statistics. VS publishing house Wiesbaden 6.Auflage 2005.
- Josef Schira: Statistic methods of the VWL andBWL theory and practice, Pearson study 2005, ISBN 3-827-37163-5
see also
Wikiquote: Statistics - quotations |
Wikibooks: Introduction to statistics - learning and teaching materials |
Wiktionary: Statistics - word origin, synonyms and translations |
- coincidence, causality, correlation, Average, median, standard deviation, average value, probability and statistics, variance, statistic significance, questionnaire, absolute frequency, factor analysis, power, parameter, census, age distribution, cluster analysis, sport statistics
- thesis, deduction, Induction (logic), Abduktion, false conclusion, null hypothesis, Rhetorik, dialectic, error 1. and 2. Kind, per cent rank, environmental statistics law
- Federal Office for statistics (Switzerland)
- Federal Statistical Office and statistic national offices (Germany)
- Magic Town
Web on the left of
- http://www.emilea.de/index.html multimedia one,Internet-based and interactive lehr and learning environment EMILe@-stat
- http://www.statsoft.com/textbook/stathome.html good overview of the most important statistic procedures (English)
- http://www.statistik.tuwien.ac.at/public/dutt/vorles/inf_bak/node1.html connected text over the bases
- http://socr.stat.ucla.edu/ statistics on-line Computational Resources (SOCR) - collection of statistic methods to on-line data analysis u.v.m. (English)
- http://www.statistik-portal.de/ statistic offices of theFederation and the countries, Germany
- http://www.statistik.admin.ch/ Federal Office for statistics of Switzerland
- http://www.statistik.at statistics Austria to lie
- Austria http://www.rosuda.org/Software/ software to the interactive statistic
- data analysis http://www.klein-singen.de/statistik/ the art with statistics: With numerous examples from politics, society, medicine and science the understanding becomesto meet the reader sharpened, future sceptical Zahlenspielereien from (wrong) experts to.
- http://isi.cbs.nl internationally Statistical of institutes