Staufer

Hohenstaufen auf Ansichtskarte von 1905
high baptism on picture postcard of 1905

the Staufer (in former times also high baptism called) were a Swabian aristocracy sex, in 12. and 13. Century several German kings and emperor placed.

The name „Staufer “leads itself from the castle Stauf on thatHigh baptism (at the northern edge of the Swabian Alb with Göppingen) off.

Table of contents

history of the Staufer

the beginnings

the first in particular well-known Staufer carried the name Friedrich, for the guidance name of the aristocracy sex. From it it is only well-known thatits sister with a count Berthold in mash gau was married. The son of this Friedrich with the same name is in documents for the center of the 11. Century as Pfalzgraf in Swabia mentioned. From its son, again a Friedrich, already is the rule seat admits: a castle Büren, probably the today's Wäschenbeuren with Göppingen. Well-known marriage connections from this Staufer generation suggest that, the Staufer already in the center of the 11. Century among the most influential aristocracy families of the South West German area ranked. However seemsthe Landbesitz at this time to have been still small. Probably it was limited to three central areas around Büren and Lorch as well as the Elsass into and around Schlettstadt with the high king castle as well as with Hagenau.

The first accurately provable datefamily history and an important station for the meaning increase of the Staufer at the same time is the year 1079, as Friedrich I. by emperor Heinrich IV. the duke by Swabia and Heinrichs daughter Agnes was appointed married. Friedrich I. established also thoseCastle Stauf and donated the monastery Lorch as house monastery of the family. It and its sons Friedrich II. and Konrad expanded the landed property of the family substantially. The Staufer became at the same time the substantial allied ones of the salischen emperor house in the southwest of the realm.

Friedrich II. raised

ascent to the Königtum after becoming extinct the Salier 1125. of Swabia and later Konrad III. as sons of the last Salierin a requirement on. First however Lothar von Supplinburg became into thatOffice selected. Shortly thereafter it came between the new king and pilotfar from to fights for former salisches house property, which stressed the family for itself. The Staufer had to finally submit. After Lothar had died 1137, however 1138 became alsoKonrad III. a Staufer to the German king selected. With it it succeeded against the Welfen Heinrich the proud one, which son-in-law of the deceased emperors Lothars, which intensified the conflict between both families, already existing, designated. After that surprising death Heinrichsthe proud one 1139 Konrad refused its son under age Heinrich D. , A duke not two duchies, the follow-up in the duchy Bavaria can control lion with the reason and gave this with the hand of the widow of the deceased Welfenherzogs its babenbergischen half brother.As itself the Welfen resisted (the guidance was incumbent on at that time the uncle Heinrich D. Lion, duke Welf VI.), he took also still the duchy Saxonia to the lion and lent it 1142 the Askanier Albrecht D. Bar, itself however in Saxoniato never intersperse could. The conflict with the Welfen overshadowed of Konrad entire reign and prevented also an early Italy course for emperor coronation/culmination. In these years the first European-wide coalitions, at which Konrad reached an alliance with Byzanz, formed against thosenormannischen kings of Sicilies as well as the Welfen arranged was, by it Berta v. Sulzbach, relatives of its wife, with which ground Byzantine emperor Manuel Komnenos. Finally this alliance neither in Germany nor in Italy successes were vergönnt. Its emperor coronation/culmination becameby the 2. Crusade prevents, in which it participated 1147-49, and by the following arguments relating to domestic affairs with the Welfen. Before its crusade participation he let its oldest son Heinrich select to the German king, who deceased however to 1150 young. Its second sonFriedrich was 1152 only 6 years old. Therefore Konrad is briefly before his death his nephew, the later emperor Friedrich Barbarossa, the son of his older brother duke Friedrich II. v. Swabia, to the successor designated. This has that to reconciliationyoung Friedrich appointed its successor in the duchy Swabia. Apart from the far aggravating argument with the Welfen of Konrad was reign particularly by a moderate development pilotfishes house power in the area of its two wives (Comburg, Rothenburg) and an attachingcoined/shaped by alliances with numerous territorial rulers (Askanier, Babenberger). The Staufer pushed however fast to the territorial borders fitted by other rule areas.

Friedrich I. Barbarossa

Friedrich Barbarossa and its sons - miniature from the Welfenchronik

after deathKonrad 1152 became with Friedrich I., mentioned „Barbarossa “, a king selected, who one reconciliation between the Welfen (to which it was related mütterlicherseits) and pilotfar from thought capable of. It actually came 1156 to an agreement with Heinrich the lion,now the double duke from Saxonia and Bavaria was. In addition the Welfen in the north of the realm an actually independent interest sphere was assigned. Erst als der Welfe nicht mehr bereit war, die ambitionierte Italienpolitik seines Vetters Barbarossa ohne Gegenleistung zu unterstützen, kamit to the break and 1180 to the joggle of the powerful Welfenherzogs. Beneficiary was however not Barbarossa, but the princes, which acquired themselves the smashed rule complex of the Welfen. Barbarossa began on its 1. Italy course 1154/55 large restoration politics in Italy (Reichstagof Roncaglia), with which it wanted to again extract many earlier imperial rights (regalia) from the cities. The conflict between emperors and Pope became ever clearer. But it undertook some Italy courses, with which it however after the epidemic before Rome of1167 to large parts failed (references:honor imperii and sacrum imperium), whereby the alexandrinische Papstschisma in such a way specified contributed its part, there itself the emperor against the Pope Alexander III. selected by the majority of the Kardinalskollegiums.placed, as emperor hostileapplied. In the following struggle for power Alexander III. found. Support with the upper-Italian cities striving for autonomy, which united to 1167 to the Lombardenbund. Barbarossa, which let several Gegenpäpste raise, knew its goals (on a subjecting of the cities and a strongerIndependence from the papacy would be run out, whereby the Pope would have had to do without rights to favour of the emperor) also militarily not to intersperse, so that it 1177 in peacetime of Venice Alexander III. recognized and shortly thereafter also peace with the lombardischenCities closed. It succeeded to arrange Friedrich however the marriage of its secondaryoldest son Heinrich with the Normannenprinzessin Konstanze.

On the field to the house power politics Barbarossa some successes arrive. Thus 1156 became the Pfalzgrafschaft with Rhine under its half brother Konrad (until 1193) pilot fish and in the Elsass and in Swabia (where since 1167 Friedrichs third-oldest son Friedrich V. from Swabia ) pilotfishes house property governed centralized administered, whereby it even succeeded to Barbarossa, the welfische house property in Swabia available from Welf VI.tooacquire. After 1167, it succeeded to the year of the malaria disaster before Rome to Barbarossa to acquire some goods it obligated count houses in Swabia and to compose of it with its old properties a relatively closed administrative territory in Swabia.1190 deceased the emperor however upa crusade in small Asia.

Heinrich VI. and the throne fight

Friedrichs son and successor Heinrich VI. operated a policy, which come down to the combination of the Imperiums with the southItalian Normannenreich (Unio regni ad imperium). Aftersome setbacks could it this also in the year 1194 reach. That pilotfishes Imperium extended thereby from the north and Baltic Sea until Sicilies. The moreover one reached it by the capture of smelling pool of broadcasting corporations lion heart a leaning dependence of England. But hadHeinrich not always so much success: Thus for example the hereditary realm plan angedachte by it failed. With death Heinrichs 1197, which besides due to its Italy politics with the papacy überworfen themselves had, was inflamed a throne fight for many years between the Staufer Philippby Swabia and the Welfen Otto IV.. After death Philipps 1208 (by the first murder of a German king) and the beginning of aggressive Italy politics on the part of Otto, called Pope Innozenz III., which had supported the Welfen before,to the choice of a new king up.Friedrich, that at the time of the death of his father son under age Heinrichs VI., was selected 1211 by a circle of stauferfreundlicher realm princes. Heinrich VI. the only son was Barbarossas, which had a male descendant.It represented thereby a clear narrowing of the family tree pilotfishes main line. Due to its z. T. concerning cruel proceeding the Italy politics becomes Heinrich VI. in the historiography extremely negatively described.

Friedrich II. - stupor mundi

Friedrich II., mentioned by contemporaries later stupor mundi (the astonishment of the world), is considered than the miracle nature among the Roman-German emperors of the Middle Ages. It was highly educated, spoke several languages and showed its life long interest in the Islam, which it not of itheld to pursue Christian Häretiker with all sharpness. Grown up under uncertain conditions in the Kingdom of Sicily loved by him, he pulled 1212 to Germany. That pilotfishes southwest was assigned to it fast and Otto IV. had to withdraw itself northward.Characteristically the decision fell to favour Friedrichs however not in Germany, but in France, where in the battle of Bouvines, one of the few decisive battles of the Middle Ages, with that Otto with Friedrich, allied with the English kingallied French king Philipp II. was subject. Soon thereafter Otto deceased, and Friedrich was thereby unrestricted Roman-German king.

Friedrich was crowned 1220 also to the emperor, but left it Germany to its son Heinrich and rather worried about the interests of itsSicilian realm. There it centralized the administration, tackled numerous reforms and created also the first state university. Besides it fought the Sarazenen on Sicilies and arranged it, when they were subject, its body guard. With the papacy it came toConflict, when Friedrich applied not immediately to the promised crusade and also Barbarossa took up the anti-local policy of its grandfather. It became thereupon of Pope Gregor IX. gebannt, 1228 traveled however nevertheless to the holy country, where he without fight, only by diplomacy,an armistice reached and in Jerusalem themselves the crown of the Kingdom of Jerusalem on the head sat down.

Castel del Monte
Castel del Monte

again in Italy came it to fights with papal troops, which had broken in into the Regnum. Friedrich could maintain ground howeverand 1230 peace with the Pope close. It turned now to the problems in Germany, where its son had acted arbitrarily against the national princes. Friedrich set it off and had under duress 1232 the rights of the national princes contractually to recognize (Statutum in favorem principum; similar concessions had it already the religious prince in the year 1213 made), whereby it gave several royal rights up. Konrad IV., Friedrichs secondaryoldest son, was selected to the king and the emperors went now against thoseinsurgent lombardischen cities forwards. It could strike it 1237 with Cortenuova, but Friedrich by the Pope was shortly thereafter gebannt again, who the Italy politics of the Staufers did not fit.

The following years were coined/shaped by a fight between Imperium and Sacerdotium,with that both universal powers not only military, but increasingly also propagandistic means began and mutually heavy reproaches made themselves. To operate Friedrich called anti-Christian, while the emperor accused to the Pope, only pure power politics and it for his part to, Apostrophierten Friedrichs trailer explained anti-Christians the emperor however every now and then as Messiah. Also Gregors successor, actually a Ghibelline (a term for the emperor-faithful, arising in this time), continued the hard line. Pope Innozenz IV. Friedrich extracted 1245 those- A unique incident, which was taken up predominantly negatively in the world controlled by the catholicism.

Friedrich could maintain ground nevertheless, deceased however surprisingly to 13. December 1250. The emperor died as Gebannter, but makes its will clear thatit had wished itself a communication with the papacy of hearts. It is also designating that Friedrich II. never raised a Gegenpapst. Friedrich II. however no modern Renaissance prince was despite all his abilities (like it J. Burckhardt gladly to see wanted),separate the ideals of the universal-Christian dock ore around deeply obligated monarch.

the end of the Staufer

after death Friedrichs II. fallow powerful position pilotfishes together, first in Germany, a little later also in Italy. Konrad IV. deceased 1254,the last male Staufer in direct line, Konradin, ended 1268 in Neapel under the Henkerbeil Karl von Anjou. The Staufer, which had so far climbed, suffered a deep fall and an end, which accelerated the fantasy of future generations.For Germany the Interregnum began, for the universal Kaisertum meant this development however the last-finite mortal blow, even if it came in the late Middle Ages to zaghaften restoration attempts (see above all Heinrich VII.).

The Tragik of the Staufer lies in the fact justified thatthey did not try to retain with partly relatively modern means an old idea (those of the universal dock ore around, whose roots were enough into late ancient times) thereby however to the questions the time a valid answer found. The Prussian Hohenzollern tried, the Staufermythosto use for itself, by it emperors Wilhelm I. as Barbablanca (see. Barbarossa) made a sea protest.

important Staufer

particularly since the time of theHuman moved the tragic fate of the last Staufers Konradin, which was executed 1268 in Neapel, not only the scholars. After the Interregnum in such a way specified the having citizens with Rudolf of having castle were established as new king dynasty.

To the relational relationsthe Staufer see:Master list of the Staufer

literature

  • Odilo of angel: The Staufer. 8. Edition. Kohl hammer, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-17-017997-7. (Standard work)
  • Knut Görich: The Staufer. Ruler and realm. Munich 2006, ISBN 3406535933. (Introduction)
  • pure house gentleman (Hg.): The time of the Staufer. History, art, culture. 5 Bde., Stuttgart 1977-1979.

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