Pin (church)

a pin (neutrum, majority: the founders or the pins) each with legacies and rights equipped is, for church purposes determined and a religious Korporation handed over (donated) institute with all persons, buildings and real estate properties due to it.

The founders were inthe rule of kings, dukes or wealthy aristocracy families. Their motivation was at the same time religiously (safety device of the own soul welfare) and political.

The oldest institutes of this kind are the monasteries, after whose model the canonical life of the clergymen at cathedrals and Kollegiatstiftskirchen turned out later. Monasti rules similarlyare the rules of the Augustiner Chorherren and the Prämonstratenser. Differently than in the monastery the members of a religious pin (Kanoniker) are however not complete part of the community, but can keep private property and income.

Contrary to the ore connected with the Kathedralkirchen and High founders with one archbishop each or bishop at the point the Kollegiatkirchen was called, with which no bishop was employed, Kollegiatstifter. The members the same lived in a building together and from the yield of a part of the pin goods and tenth were maintained. Thus the cathedral chapters formed, their members, which called themselves Canonici, Kapitularen , cathedral , choir or pin gentlemen. Due to the frequent entrance noble extracted themselves the same already in the 11. Century of the obligation of the Zusammenwohnens (examination), verzehrten their Präbenden individually in besondern office dwellings, however continual imaginedby rights and an income excellent Kollegium, which since that 13. Century on the admission of new Kapitularen to decide to lead with completion of a bishop seat (Sedisvakanz) the provisional administration of the Diözese and to select the new bishop from its center had.

Before throughthe realm deputation main conclusion of 25. Secularization had the German ore or freesings high founder Mainz, Trier, Cologne, Salzburg, Bamberg, Würzburg, Worms, Eichstätt, Speyer, Konstanz, Augsburg, Hildesheim, ordered February 1803 Paderborn , Regensburg, Passau, Trient, Brixen, Basel, Münster, Osnabrück, Lüttich, Luebeck and Chur as well as some Propsteien (Ellwangen, Berchtesgaden etc.) and gefürstete abbeys (Fulda, Corvey, Kempten in the general-outer etc.) national sovereignty and right to vote on Reichstag, therefore it also realm-direct founders were called and the principalities were directly respected.

In other countries the founders had never arrived at so high power. Also in Protestant the countries become with the reformation usually the founders and the cathedral chapters, however without a bishop and without national sovereignty, remained andtheir income was assigned as Sinekuren. Exceptions formed only the completely Protestant prince diocese Luebeck and the out mixed Kapitularen existing chapters to Osnabrück. Now all founders are indirect, D. h. the sovereignty of the national gentleman concerned subjected. With the direct high and ore founders those hadCathedral gentlemen their pin ability by 16 ancestors prove; they had become institutes for supplying for June gladly the sons of the aristocracy. While this noble Kapitularen reserved itself the benefit of all rights of its Kanonikate, the religious functions were imposed upon to the regular choir gentlemen, from where itself the difference of the lay choir gentlemen (Canoniciseculares), which the actual Kapitularen is, from which adjusted choir gentlemen (Canonici regular) writes.

The secularized and become Protestant founders kept frequently its own condition and administration; usually however their Präbenden was transformed into pensions, which are connected with scholarly places occasionally. In Prussia are thoseEvangelist cathedral chapters to Brandenburg, Merseburg and Naumburg as well as the Kollegiatstift in Zeitz remarkably. (Comparisons: Cutter, the bischöflichen cathedral chapters, Mainz 1885).

Except the ore, high and Kollegiatstiftern there are also still female founders religious and lay. First resulted from a combination of adjusted choir womenand resembled the monasteries; with the free lay founders against it those placing canon eat inside only the Gelübde of the Keuschheit and the obedience against their waiters, can however marry, if they did without their Pfründe, and have the liberty, them from the pin flowing the income tooverzehren, where they want. Only the Pröpstin and Vorsteherin together with a small number canon eat inside tend themselves to stop in the pin building. Also the Pfründen of these founders knew to attain the pinable aristocracy often exclusively for his daughters, but depends frequently the admission also on a purchase sum.Also for the daughters by earned officials Stiftsstellen were created. Canon eat inside this “free world-noble lady founder” pin ladies are usually called now.

In Austria today most monasteries “pin” are still called (majority here always: the pins).

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