a scholarship is first a financial support for artists, and/or. Pupil, student or young scientist ( scholarship holders to be then called). Scholarships are granted either due to political and social criteria and/or due to particularly good achievements. In Austria scholarships become both from thatScholarship authority and of the Academy of Sciences or the funds of the central bank assign. In Germany one must apply for a scholarship usually with a donation, which operates talented promotion.

Some of these donations are political or church nature, D. h. one must for examplea partynear donation to prove it can that one is interested in their politics, and also publicly represents these. If this does not apply, then also the scholarship is not assured. There are however also general scholarships, e.g. high-talented pupils or student for promotion take up, withoutto pay attention to their politics or religion. Some scholarship assignment does not even pay attention to the notes. With students and scientists the conditions for a scholarship are usually only fulfilled in higher terms, there one often only starting from this time corresponding notes and/or. Performance records to show knows.

There are special foreign scholarships, with which new generation scientists can finance one foreign year.

Also within the cultural-artistic range there is a multiplicity of scholarships, which honor or price - a character have. Here only two examples: The scholarships of the mansion Massimo and those the academy of the arts (Berlin).

Contrary to employments usually no social security is such as pension insurance, maternity protection, health insurance, etc. with scholarships. inkludiert.

In many countries it is still usual that doctorate-studying, in addition, researchers are paid after its doctorate (postdocs) only by scholarships. This makes thoseResearcher career in particular for women unattractively.

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