Stockholm

of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see Stockholm (term clarifying).
Stockholm< /td>

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Coat of arms
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Map
Lage von Stockholm in Schweden</td> </tr>

Base data< /th>

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Province (län): </td> Of Stockholm län< /td>

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Historical province (land cape): </td> Uppland, then the one country</td>

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Municipality (kommun): </td> Stockholm< /td>

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Geographical situation: </td>
Coordinates: 59° 19 ' 30 " N, 18° 4 ' 0 " O
59° 19 ' 30 " N, 18° 4 ' 0 " O< /td>

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Number of inhabitants: </td> 766.747

(30. June 2005)< /td> </tr>

Surface: </td> 188 km ²< /td>

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Height: </td> ü de 15 m. NN< /td>

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Stockholm Tondokument ? / License is the capital of Sweden and with its 767,000 inhabitants (conditions 2005) at the same time largest city of Scandinavia. It is located at the Baltic Sea and becomes toothe most beautiful cities of the world counted. Admits is it for its high quality of life.

Stockholm is residence of the pair of kings, seat of the Swedish parliament and the Swedish government, seat of a university and several universities. In Stockholm is thatSeat of the catholic church of Sweden.

The landscape of Stockholm changed in the history of the city due to the Scandinavian land elevation strongly. Parts, which belong today to the mainland, were before some hundred years still islands.

A sea bosom of the Baltic Sea encloseswith numerous bays, promontories, about 24,000 crowds (small islands) and lakes like a labyrinth the city. This area is called crowd yard.

Stockholm is because of the discharge of the Mälarsees into the Baltic Sea. The Mälarsee extends 120 km after the west inInterior.Slussen, an air-lock in the middle in Stockholm, separates the fresh water of the Mälarsees lying west from the seawater of the Baltic Sea lying east.

About are covered 30 per cent of the city surface with water. The high water quality permits it, in the middle in the city center of salmonto fish. The city extends today over 14 islands, which are connected by 53 bridges. A large part of the city consists of forest regions.

In north-south direction an ice-age Kiesmoräne , which had been broken through by the discharge, pulls itself. The islandsin the river are remainders of this back.

Because of the situation in the north of Europe the nights of the months are very long Decembers and January. In the summer however it remains pleasantly also at night brightly.

Table of contents

politics

Stockholm is population-moderately the largest of the 290 Swedish municipalities and lies in the province of Stockholm län. The localActivity of the city Stockholm is organized politically as follows:

city council

the highest resolution-seizing political organ is the every four years selected city council (Swedish kommunfullmäktige), which consists of 101 delegates. In the choice from 2002 the following becameParties into the city council selected: the conservative moderate collection party (27 mandates), the liberal people's party (17 mandates), the Christian democrats (5 mandates), the Greens (6 mandates), the social-democratic labour party of Sweden (35 mandates) and the left wing party (11 mandates).

city government

roadin the Stockholm old part of town

the city government (Swedish kommunstyrelse), those from 13 members exists (five Social Democrats, three moderate ones, two liberals, a Christian democrat, a Green, a representative of the left wing party), according to the elections on the basis of proportional representation principle is selected, i.e. that in the city council the representedParties also in the city government are represented.

The resolutions of the city government are prepared and accomplished by the town councillor commission (Swedish borgarrådsberedningen), that consists of twelve town councillors ( Swedish borgarråd), who are selected every four years by the city council. One differentiatesbetween governing town councillors (Swedish styrande borgarråd) and oppositional town councillors (Swedish oppositionsborgarråd). The current town councillor commission consists of eight governing town councillors (six Social Democrats, a representative of the left wing party and a Green), who at the same time leaders of departments (Swedish rotel) is, andfour oppositionals town councillors without portfolio (three moderate ones and a liberal). The financial town councillor is usually at the same time a chairman of the town councillor commission and the city government - thus mayors. This is at present the social-democracies Annika Billström.

district committees

inlarge part of the responsibility for the perception of the local tasks is at the 18 district committees (Swedish stadsdelsnämnd), that are active in the 18 urban districts (Swedish stadsdelar). The district committees, those depending upon size of the city district from eleven or 13Members exist, by the city council are appointed and are directly subordinated to the city council. There are 18 urban districts:

see also: List of the urban districtsin Stockholm

specialized committees

certain one spreading fields of activity become from central specialized committees (schwed. facknämnd) taken off, like e.g. the education committee, the sport committee or the election commitee.

urban enterprises

a part of the local services in corporations one paged out,in those the city the stock majority possesses. Thus become for instance the municipality dwellings, which water supply, which administers Stockholm city theatres and different one from corporations, which under a company line, which Stockholm Stadshus is OFF, summarized.

partnerships between cities

history

the emergence of the city

environment of Stockholm around 1888

it do not give historical vouchers for an existence of Stockholm before the center 13. Century. Possibly there were however older defensesto the safety device of the entry in the Mälarsee. A settlement cannot be proven however. Stockholm (stick = stick, trunk; cross-beam = small island) was mentioned for the first time 1252 as place of issue in two documents of the Jarls Birger Magnusson,sometimes that as founders of the city is mentioned. In addition, but historical vouchers are missing. But Stockholm under the government Birger Magnussons and the king Magnus Ladulås developed in the following decades to an important commercial town, which above all throughContracts with the Hanseatic city Luebeck one promoted. Around 1270 Stockholm in documents was called city and 1289 were described the city as the most densely populated city of Sweden. The first secured acceptance for the size of the city refer to the center15. Century, when Stockholm had about 1,000 households, thus approximately 5,000 to 6,000 inhabitants. From the same century (1436) also the first privilege letter originates.

The main reason for the rapid development of the city was their strategic situation. Stockholm controlled thoseApproach road to the Mälarsee, which opened a region economically important due to the agriculture and the iron production. The expansion of the city was limited at this time to the island Stadsholmen ( today Gamla stan). The island was smaller around a thirdas today, and the rivers more substantially further.

the Kalmarer union

the strategic and economic meaning of the city made Stockholm an important power factor in the arguments between the Danish kings of the Kalmarer union and the national movement of independencein 15. Century. Thus erfocht to 14. October 1471 Sweden under Sten stubborn one in the proximity of the city at the Brunkeberg (today a part of the city district Norrmalm) with support of the Stockholm citizenry a shining victory over the Danish king Christian I. Its grandchildren Christian II.if the city besieged 1518 in vain, it took however 1520 after a new FE storage by betrayal. To 8. November 1520 came it into Stockholm in the context of the coronation/culmination ceremonies to a mass execution of oppositionals,Stockholm blood baths. This massacre introduced that rebellion, which finally led to the final collapse of the Kalmarer union.

Exhibition 1897 (Stockholmsutställningen)
Kungsträdgården around 1895

the Vasa time

with the introduction Gustav Vasas 1523 and the structure of oneStockholm developed strong king power also to an important Residenzstadt. Beside the middle class now also the royal yard began to coin/shape the townscape. The city island did not offer any longer enough place, and 1529 became Södermalm and Norrmalm under the rule of Stockholmplaced. The city grew and reached by 1600 a number of inhabitants of 10.000 inhabitants.

17. Century

in 17. Century ascended Sweden to the great power. This was reflected also in the development of the city Stockholm again - of1610 to 1680 versechsfachte itself the number of inhabitants.Ladugårdslandet, the today's Östermalm, and the island Kungsholmen became in in common December. 1634 became Stockholm officially the capital of the Swedish realm. After the political ascent soon also the economic ascent followed this eventthe city. Stockholm received the pile right and thus the monopoly on the trade between the foreign country and Svealand, Norrland and Österbotten (today's Finland).

In this time also some the large buildings and palaces, those developed power of theCountry and its aristocracy to symbolize should, like for example Riddarhuset, the Oxenstierna palace, the Tessin palace and the old realm bank. On the eingemeindeten islands and in Östermalm borough in a right-angled road system developed.

18.Century

in the years 1713 to 1714 was afflicted Stockholm by the plague. After the end of the large Nordi war and the associated area losses in the year 1721 the city stagnated. The population grew hardly more and the economic recoverytook place only very slowly. Stockholm kept however its role as political center of the country and under Gustav III. developed it also to the cultural center. Stockholm locks and the royal opera are architectural expression of this epoch.

19. Century

Stockholm around 1888

with beginning 19. Century decreased the economic meaning of Stockholm further. Norrköping became the largest Manufakturstadt and Göteborg developed due to its favorable situation at the North Sea the most important port of exportation of Sweden.Only in the second half of the century Stockholm transferred again a prominent role in the economy of the country. On the one hand a number of important industrial companies was created, on the other hand one Stockholm developed to an important handels and service center as well as to a traffic junction.

Alsothe population grew in the second half 19. Century by Zuwanderung strongly on. Toward end of the century were not even 40 per cent of the inhabitants in Stockholm born. The settlement seized it beyond the city boundaries and developed a rowof slum areas, in addition, mansion quarters in the country and at the coast.

Stockholm continued to develop also its position as cultural center. One strove to get higher educational facilities to Stockholm. In 19. Century got Stockholm several scientific institutes, like e.g.Karolini Institut (Karolinska Institutet) and technological Institut, who became 1877 a technical university. 1878 was held also the first training meetings at the again-created Stockholm university, but it should take almost 100 years, to it to the universityone raised.

20. Century

after 1910 came it to the incorporation of large areas, which are attached traffic-technically by strassenbahnlinien to the city. Subsequently, developed suburbs, garden cities and areas with leisure little houses.

Economically it came to oneRestructuring. Labor intensive enterprises in low wage industries were received, while capital-intensive enterprises and enterprises within the high technology range grew. An example of it is the urban district Kista, which itself into the 1990er years to the IT - center of Sweden developed. Starting from years those took the 1950erOccupation ratio of the industry off and is today with approximately 10 per cent. On the other hand the service range continued to increase.

1950 were opened the first underground line in Stockholm. Along the underground lines and at their terminator points so-called ABC suburbs developed, like Vällingby in the Fünfzigern and Farsta, and since the center of the 1960er up to the center of the 1970er years the large housing estates such as Rinkeby , Tensta, being and others, built in the context of the million-program. Despite a relatively high portion of immigrated fellow citizens in these quarters(over 40 per cent of the inhabitants into Tensta, Rinkeby or being come from the non-European foreign country) one cannot speak of a Ghettoisierung, even if the quite existing segregation tendencies are more clearly noticeable since end of the 1990er years.

Stockholm panorama of the Stadshuset (city hall)

From 1909 on the Social Democrats as well as the liberals had the majority in Stockholm local council. In the first local elections after the general right to vote 1919 the political achieved a left majority in the local council, which kept it into the 1950er years.Beginning of the 1920er years received a new political organization, which still applies in its fundamentals also today to Stockholm. 1923 moved the Stockholm ones „to government “into the newly built city hall (Stockholm stadshus). 1967 were integrated Stockholm into the administrative province of Stockholm län.

In the year 1986 prime minister Olof palm on open road was shot, the murderer was never found. In September 2003 Foreign Minister Anna Lindh in a department store was deadly hurt by a measurer assassin.

The European union appointed Stockholm in the year 1998 Culture capital of Europe.

inhabitant development

Stockholm had at the 1. January of 2004 somewhat more than 761,000 inhabitants. Of it were 70,584 foreigners (corresponds about 9 per cent). The city registered a population growth of over 10 per cent in the last ten years.

Approximately 80 per cent of the population are members of the Evangelist church, which was to a few years ago national church. Sweden is a high-grade secularized country.

The level of education of the population lies clearly over the realm cut: Only 13 per cent of the population between 20and 64 years have no Gymnasialabschluss (realm cut 19 per cent), but 48 per cent of the population have postgymnasiale training (realm cut: 32 per cent).

Open unemployment in Stockholm amounted to at the end of of 2003 about 3.8 per cent, which clearly under the realm cut of over 5Per cent was.

In the following the numbers of inhabitants of the municipality Stockholm are specified after the respective area conditions.

Entwicklung der Einwohnerzahl Stockholms
Development of the number of inhabitants of Stockholm
Year Inhabitant
1570 9,100
1610 8,900
1630 15,000
1650 35,000
1690 55,000
1730 57,000
1750 60,018
1770 69,000
1800 75,517
1810 65.474
1820 75,569
1830 80,621
1840 84,161
1850 93,070
1860 113.063
Year Inhabitant
1870 136,016
1880 168,775
1890 246,454
1900 300,624
1910 342,323
1920 419,429
1930 502,207
1940 590,543
1950 745,936
1960 808,294
1970 740,486
1980 647,214
1990 674,452
2000 750.348
culture [
work on] theatre

Sergels

torg with Kulturhuset

in

Sergels torg mit Kulturhuset
Stockholm there are 2005

771,038 [work on] a set of theatres, under it the royal opera, the royal dramatic theatre (Dramaten) and Stockholm city theatres (Stadsteatern)as well as private theatres like the people opera (Folkoperan), modern trend the dance theatre (Moderna dansteatern), China, Göta Lejon, MOS cheek, OSCAR theatre and many other stages.

museums

to Vasamuseum from the water side seen

under the numerous museums in Stockholm givesit national museums like the museum of architecture, the biological museum, the Ethnografi museum, the historical museum, the marine-historical museum (Sjöhistoriska museet), the museum for modern trend art (Moderna museet), the national museum, the nature-historical realm museum, the technical museum, the Vasamuseumand others. The history and presence of Stockholm are prepared educational in the medieval museum (Medeltidsmuseet), in Stockholm city museums and in the Stockholm Länsmuseum. In Stockholm locks are several museums for the history of the kings.

See also: List of the museums in Stockholm.

sport

of the sporty mechanisms Stockholm olympia stadiums and the globes arena stand out . Both are used also for concert meetings.

National championships in the man football could win so far three of the associations from Stockholm. From these Djurgårdens IF has eleven Meistertitel, AIK ten and Hammarby IF a title. The woman Mrs. Djurgårdens IF/Älvsjö, which could penetrate 2005 in the final of the UEFA Women's Cup, was internationally most successful.

objects of interest

of Stockholm old part of town

Stockholm townscapes and itsArchitecture is coined/shaped from the special situation of the city on the banks eastward of the discharge of the Mälarsees, the elevator back of the Gletschermoräne and the central city island running running of the west in northsouthern direction in the middle in the river.

In the city givesit numerous small parks.

In the following some islands of the city are lit up more exactly. Here the political arrangement of the city remains into urban districts unconsidered.

Stadsholmen/Gamla Stan

the old part of town on the city island (Stadsholmen) points still the medievalRoad system with the roads running from north to south over the island (east he and Västerlånggatan) and narrow Gäs dropping to the water up. Center in it is the German church (Tyska kyrkan). Another impression make in the norththe island the palaces of the great power time like the knight house and bond ash the palace in the north to the water convenient, the Oxenstierna palace and the Tessin palace in the proximity of the Storkyrkan, Stockholm cathedral, and naturally the royal lock, whose points middle axle to the Norrbro (north bridge), those the old part of town over the island Helgeandsholmen with Norrmalm, for which northern banks, connects. A majority of the old part of town is auto-free.

Helgeandsholmen and Riddarholmen

the island Helgeandsholmen accommodate only twoBuilding, the medieval museum and the Swedish Reichstag. The island Riddarholmen in the east of the city island is today judicial center of the country. In the Wrangel palace and the other buildings are different courts. Besides is also the Riddarholmskirche, grave church many SwedishKings.

Einkaufsstrasse in Norrmalm
one looks to Norrmalm

shopping street in Norrmalm from the royal lock over Helgeandsholmen away on Norrmalm and sees rose bath, the seat of the government of the Swedish government, the Sager house, the official residence of the prime minister, the palace of the hereditary prince(Arvfurstens palats), today State Department, and the opera with the famous restaurant Operakällaren.

But behind it begins the city center, the modern Stockholm, which developed into the 1950er to 1970er years, after one over 400 buildings of the quarter of Klara torn offand by at that time a center modern after taste had replaced. Achtzehnstöckige buildings were established, established in the center the Sergels Torg (Sergelsplatz) as symbol of the modern welfare state on two levels. He may appear to some today as violating mark, see othersto lend in it the attempt social visions architectural expression. At his side is Stockholm cultural centers with the city theatre. The Drottninggatan is a modern shopping street with modern department stores.

The Kungsträdgården is meeting place for young people. Here find inFrequently concerts instead of, in the winter one knows summers in the middle in the city center in lock proximity ice skate running.

Östermalm

east of Norrmalm extends Östermalm, coined/shaped from the right-angled road system of the Swedish great power time. Above all the water front, the beach-vague,was and is of Stockholm most representative address, which the period of promoterism houses show in historistischem style. Where the beach-vague begins, the royal-dramatic theatre Dramaten lies. Before the theatre the Berzelius park, in which Berne, theatre and restaurant are, lies its redRoom by Strindbergs novel the red room became famous. In Östermalm lie the Östermalms torg (Östermalmsplatz), because of which the Hedvig Eleonora church is, and which star shaped Karlaplan.

Djurgården

ship Vasa
Stockholms Skansen um 1895
Stockholm Skansen around 1895

of the Karlaplan the Narvavägen leads across the Djurgårdsbrücke on the peninsula Djurgården, which is also today still predominantly a nature park and a trip and a recreation area for the Stockholm ones. Over the bridge one comes along the Djurgårdsvägen to a set of museums, howe.g. the Vasamuseum, the Nordi museum and Liljevalchs arts center, entertainment places, like e.g. Gröna Lund and Circus, and hotels from that 19. Century, like the Hasselbacken perpetuated in the literature. In the proximity of the Hasselbacken is also the main entrance to of Sweden first and largest open air museum Skansen. On the promontory Waldemarsudde is appropriate the mansion of the prince Eugen, those today for museum is and pictures of the prince and its contemporaries shows and thus a fine overview overthe Swedish painting of the turn of the century (1900) gives. From Djurgården a ferry leads back on the city island.

Blasieholmen, Skeppsholmen and castellet cross-beams

between the city island and Djurgården are appropriate for Blasieholmen, Skeppsholmen and castellet cross-beams. On Blasieholmen are the pompöse Grand hotel, whose main front points to the city island, and which Swedish national museum, Skeppsholmen and its appendages castellet cross-beams accommodated in former times mechanisms of the war navy, in 20. Century taken over by museums (for example East Asian museum, modern museum, museum of architecture) are.

Kungsholmen

one turns on the city island toward northwest, sees themselves one the eastern pointed of the island Kungsholmen with Stockholm city halls (Stockholm stadshus), in its blue one resounds annually the Nobelfest takes place - the flank in honours of the Nobelpreisträgerfollowing the solemn award of the Nobelpreise in the concert hall.

Kungsholmen accommodates parks and bath places.

Södermalm

Södermalm
Södermalm

at the southern end of the city island is Slussen, the air-lock, over which one with the boat of mark arene inthe Baltic Sea comes.Slussen connects also Stadsholmen with the island Södermalm (in the vernacular Söder), which rises here over 50 meters from the water. With that 52 meters high Katarinalift arrives one from Slussen to MOS cheek torg,two theatres are. In the proximity the Katarinakirche, a masterpiece from that is appropriate for 17. Century. In the east of the island on the hills Åsöberget and Vita still small timber buildings save, like them for with the Sofiakirche give itthe settlement 17. and 18. Century were typical.

The inside of the island is with blocks of flats from the second half 19. Century and the turn of the century cultivates, during the southern part land development from that 20. Century exhibits. Completely more againand architecturally interesting quarters end of the 1980er was established years in the area of the station Stockholm Södra (western the Medborgarplatzes).

economics and infrastructure

traffic

Centralstationen - der Hauptbahnhof
cent ral stations - the main station

Stockholm is junction of the Swedish Eisenbahnnetzes. It has an international airport in the something removed Arlanda; besides there is an airport with Skavsta and a regional airport in Bromma.

In addition Stockholm is an important port with connection after Helsinki, sank Petersburg, Turku and Tallinn.

Serve public traffic the underground (Tunnelbana), rapid-transit railway-similar Vorortzüge (Pendeltåg), different Buslinien, individual metropolitan railway lines in the outlying districts as well as the streetcar for the Djurgården. The Tunnelbana, the metropolitan railway, the streetcar and the Buslinien become throughthe STARTING FROM of breakdown Stockholm Lokaltrafik operated.

In the reference to the traffic Stockholm with other European capitals can measure. The motorway E4 leads past west the city centre. A large part of the motor traffic is in the next years under the earth putbecome. Thus in October 2004 a 4.5 kilometer of long tunnels (Södra länken) was inaugurated south the town centre. A homogeneous project is planned in the north. The reduction of traffic in the city at the beginning of became January 2006 by way of trial to at the end of of July 2006a city center duty, the so-called Trängselskatt, imported.

transmission mechanisms

resident enterprise

high technology center Kista

Stockholm is of Sweden service center. 85 per cent of all persons employed work in the public and private service range, but only 10 per centin the manufacture industry. Stockholm belongs nevertheless to the largest industrial areas of Sweden. The missing heavy industry leaves the city to one of the cleanest metropolises of the world becomes.

The rising number of enterprises within the high technology range weighed the drift in the last decades more traditionallyIndustrial companies up. To the large industrial enterprises in the region today Ericsson, IBM Svenska count and Electrolux, the medicament manufacturer AstraZeneca, graphic enterprises of the Bonnier - company and other one. In the north of the city (Kista) developed in the latterDecade one of the largest IT-centers of Europe.

Stockholm is also the medium center of the country with four supraregional daily papers and a number of small newspapers, publishing houses (among other things the Bonnier - company), seat of the national broadcast (SR) and the public television company SVT as well as furtherMedium enterprise.

Also the Swedish banks (so for example Föreningssparbanken, mercantile banks and Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken, which belong to the ten largest enterprises in Stockholm) have their head office in Stockholm, where also the Swedish stock exchange is. Together with thatHead offices of the insurance companies (Skandia and others) and of Investmentunternehmen they make for Stockholm the most important financial center of Sweden.

Altogether the head offices of over 40 per cent of all Swedish enterprises with more than 200 employees are in Stockholm. But not only enterprise centers, butalso the central authorities of the national administration as well as the national political institutions (like government and Reichstag) in Stockholm make the city the center of power of the country.

In the last years also the tourism became an important industry. Since 1991the number of overnight accomodation with 80 per cent of four rose to over seven million. Festivals like the Stockholm Waterfestival and large Sportveranstaltungen like the Stockholm Marathon are important attractions.

Since 2005 the European center for epidemic prevention ECDC has itsSeat in Stockholm.

So that the economy can present itself and attach further contacts, Stockholm has also a fair (Stockholmsmässan) with a close program.

education

in Stockholm gives it to 16 universities and universities.Of outstanding importance here the University of Stockholm ( Stockholm universitet) with their is about 35,000 studying (conditions 2004) and the royal technical university (Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan), the probably largest technical university of Scandinavia.

Beside it all are followingfurther universities mentioned.

  • Danshögskolan (university for dance, Choreographie and Tanzpädagogik)
  • Dramatiska Institutet (university for film, radio, television and theatres)
  • Ersta & Sköndal högskola
  • Handelshögskolan i Stockholm
  • Idrottshögskolan i Stockholm (university for sport)
  • Karolinska Institutet (medical university, lies in the neighbour city Solna)
  • Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan
  • Konstfack (academy of art)
  • Kungliga Konsthögskolan
  • Kungliga Musikhögskolan
  • Lärarhögskolan i Stockholm (university for teacher training)
  • Operahögskolan i Stockholm
  • Stockholm Musikpedagogiska Institutet (university for Musikpädagogik)
  • Stockholm universitet
  • Södertörns högskola
  • Teaterhögskolan i Stockholm
  • Teologiska Högskolan

beside the research establishments of the universitiesand there are universities a number of further national and private research institutions in Stockholm.

Stockholm is likewise seat of the Swedish academy, the royally Swedish academy of the sciences, the royal academy for literature, history and antiques, the Nobelstiftung and furthercultural and scientific institutions.

sons and daughters of the city

to the well-known personalities born in Stockholm belong among other things the singer, musician and ABBA - to member Benny Andersson one, the poet Carl Michael Bellman, the field marshal ErikJonsson Dahlberg, the discovery traveler Sven Hedin, the actress Greta Garbo, the child book authoress Barbro Lindgren, the chemist and inventor Alfred Nobel, the Dichterin H. C. Nordenflycht, the twice Swedish prime minister Olof palm, the author driver Keke Rosberg as well as the composer, pianist and conductor William Stenhammar.

See also: List of the sons and daughters of the city Stockholm

literature

  • that national geo graphics Walker Stockholm. Mairdumont, 2004, ISBN 3936559090 (travel guides with practical maps)
  • Gudrun trained: Stockholm discover. Rainbow, 2000, ISBN 3858621536 (describes the city in the flow text)

see also

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