|of these articles is concerned with the French city Strasbourg in the Elsass, for further meanings sees Strasbourg (term clarifying).|
|coat of arms||map|
|Département:||Bas Rhin (Unterelsass)|
|Arrondissement:||Strasbourg Ville (circle-free city)|
|Surface:||78.26 km ²|
|geographical situation:|| |
Coordinates: 48° 35 ' 04 " N; 7° 44 ' 55 " O 48° 35 ' 04 " N; 7° 44 ' 55 " O
|height:||143 m and. NN|
|population density:||3,489 inhabitants /km ²|
|postal zip codes:|| F-67000|
| address |
of the city administration:
| 1, park d'Étoile|
|Oberbürgermeisterin:||Fabienne cellar (UMP)|
Strasbourg (frz. Strasbourg [stʀasˈbuːʀ], elsässische discussion Schdroosburi) is the historical capitalthe Elsass. The city is capital of the region Elsass as well as prefecture of the Départements Unterelsass (Bas Rhin). The prefecture administers also the two Arrondissements Strasbourg campaign and Strasbourg Ville (from 1871 to 1919 the circles “Strasbourg (country)” and “Strasbourg (city)”), itconsist of 8 and/or. 10 cantons. Strasbourg is town center and largest municipality in the Elsass, in Bas Rhin and in the greater Strasbourg (CUS).
The city is because of the river Ill, which branches out in the city. The eastern quarters with thatPort border on the Rhine. Because of the opposite eastern Rhine bank the city Kehl is on side of the German Federal Republic. Strasbourg is the terminator point of the Rhine Marne channel.
Table of contents
Strasbourg was created under the Roman emperor Augustus as Argentoratum. It was first a military outguard in the province Germania Superior. Strasbourg was starting from that 4. Century bishop seat and became in 5. Century by Alemannen, Hunnen and Franconia conquers. 842 was sworn here the Strassburger of oaths, which represent the oldest document in French language. These oaths are in two languages (old-high-German and old-French) delivered. The language of city and region was at that time old high German.
in the Middle Ages developed Strasbourg to an important economic center and was from 1262 to free realm city. 1439 were finished the southern tower of the Strassburger Münster (the northern tower was never built). Münster remaineduntil 1874 the highest building of the world and belongs still to the highest church towers of the world. In the reformation it became lutherisch. On Reichstag to Augsburg the 1529 put Strasbourg down likewise a confession for reformation. Strasbourghowever not the “Protestanten” the” Confessio Augustana “followed, but put with Memmingen, Konstanz and Lindau a its own, from Martin Bucer and Capito written confession, after the four cities the so-called. Tetrapolitana off.After 1648 stroveFrance the Rhine as border on, whereby the Reichsvogtei won in the Westfäli peace was made usable for the own purposes over the elsässischen realm cities; Strasbourg remained however first excluded of it. Only in the context of the 1679 Reunionspolitik begun of king of Ludwig XIV.turned outalso Strasbourg in the visor. After the city in this connection had been occupied in the middle in September 1681 in peacetime by the Frenchmen, this
1770 and 71 studied here Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. In these years the city became a crystallization point of the literary movement “storm and urge “. The Jakobs Michael Reinhold spring and Johann Gottfried of Herder lived here.
In the time of the French revolution those becameCity to one point of attraction for republicans from Germany. The most well-known of them is Eulogius cutter. In the following years and decades it became the exile for German Oppositionnelle and revolutionaries, like e.g. for George Büchner.
at present the industrialization in 19. Century trebled itself the number of inhabitants on 150.000. 1871, after the French-German war, became Strasbourg of the again created German one ReichCapital of the realm country Elsass Lorraine explains. During the war Strasbourg by German troops one had besieged and one had violently fired at, whereby the state library with the majority of its valuable existence was destroyed.
beside Metz and Cologne was removed Strasbourg after 1871 to one of the most important fortresses in the west of the German Reich. In the course of the urban extension developed a modern Umwallung, which referred older barrier sections from the French time. Are from the barrier plants remainders of the citadel from Vauban , above all however large parts of the Prussian attachments within the range of the station receive. Here today still ditch weirs made of iron are to be seen, at that time and today an absolute rarity. Beside these internal Umwallung developed in far periphery around thoseCity a belt from Forts, from which most still stand today.
Politically the situation was complex after the French-German war of 1871 and the recovery of Elsass Lorraine by the German Reich. The majority of the elsässischen population stood 1871an integration into the again created German realm rejecting opposite, which showed up in the realm tag elections after 1871, in which to 1890 the autonomousists, which faced the new political order rejecting, the majority obtained. In the years after 1871however a strong upswing of the city Strasbourg resulted and the Elsass on economic side, which reconciled at least a part of the population with the Prussian-German rule. In addition showed an efficient German administration, those contrary to the centralistic French administration alsothe municipalities an own organization clearance left, its positive effects. However it came again and again to crises, because in particular from Prussia “imported” higher officials extraordinarily unsensibel publicly acted. An example for this was the Zabern affair.
After the First World War Strasbourg becamein accordance with the Versailler contract slammed shut of 1919 again France. The Annexion by France took place in accordance with the 14 points from US president Wilson without popular vote. As date of the transfer the day of the armistice (11 became retroactive. November 1918) fixed. It appears questionable,whether a referendum would have gone out in Strasbourg in favor of France, since the political parties, which erstrebten an autonomy of the Elasses or a connection at France, into which last realm tag and local elections only small numbers of votes obtained. Before the First World War was Strasbourg practically the only large city in authoritarianly governed German realm, in which Social Democrats and liberals determined considerably the local government policy and in among mayors Rudolf Schwander for the time at that time an exemplary local social politics were operated.
between the German invasion in Poland at the 1. September 1939 and the British-French declaration of war at the 3. Septembers 1939 to the German Reich were evacuated all inhabitants of Strasbourg, as with all other close to the borderLocalities also. Up to the invasion of the armed forces troops in the middle of June 1940 ten months long nobody was in the city, with exception of the kasernierten soldiers. Strasbourg remained occupied until 1944 by the armed forces. After the Second World War the city became due tothe commitment of the langjähigen Strassburger of mayor and leading politician Pierre Pflimlin for the symbol of the French-German reconciliation and the European agreement.
|22 000||49 943||75 565||85 654||178,891||,166,767||,193,119||,175,515||,200,921|
objects of interest and architectural monuments
Strasbourg well received historical old part of town Île de la Cité is flowed around of the Ill, a tributary of the Rhine. She was explained 1988 as the world cultural heritage. Landmark of the city is that 1176 - 1439 build Roman and gothical Strassburger Münster. The cathedral Muenster belongs to the most beautiful European city places. Dominated of the west front of Münster, here numerous, partial four to fünfgeschossige half timbered houses stands in the alemannisch South German style. The steep roofs with up to four attics are characteristic.At the north side of the cathedral Muenster the well-known stands, richly verzierte for house chamber cell (see picture above).
Touristisch much likes is the “Gerberviertel in such a way specified “(frz. “La Petite France”) on the bank of the Ill and several channels with its pictorial Half timbered houses, small lanes and the typical dormer-ventilators. In former times a military hospital lay on this island, in which soldiers were treated with the so-called “Frenchman illness” - one did not call in such a way devaluing the Syphilis at times, Strasbourg yet Frenchwas. From this term the name for the quarter is derived. According to another theory the name is derived from French soldiers, who regarded the sheets of the pastures standing there as welfare SAM.
For thoseConception of the parking lot and streetcar stop in Hoenheim north  received Zaha Hadid to the bad van the raw price for European architecture 2003.
- the Opéra national you Rhin with own ballet and orchestra, the Orchestre Philharmonique de Strasbourg, can guest appearances of point star the concert world offer and has a faithful subscription public, outthe entire area of the Upper Rhine comes.
- of the Kabarettist Roger Siffer operates its own Kabarett, the “Théâtre de la Choucrouterie” since 1984, a former sauerkraut factory, at the edge of the Strassburger old part of town. Its Revues run at the same time on French and on of Alsace intwo halls. Into the Choucrouterie annually more than 20,000 visitors come.
culture around and in Münster
- guidance by the Strassburger Münster for the visitor history and aesthetics of an architectural high point of the gothic open.
- To the Christmas season offersStrasbourg one the most beautiful Weihnachtsmärkte at all, the Christkindelsmärik. To the attendance invite: the situation around Münster, the elsässischen specialities, the enormous Weihnachtstanne from the Vogesen on the Place Kléber, those of a working group annually another decoration, up to Weihnachtskonzerten in the churches and Münster receives.
- the Musée Beaux kinds painting of old masters presents, among other things Hans Memling, El Greco, Goya, Correggio, Rubens, Tintoretto, Veronese, Canaletto, Giotto, Van Dyck and Watteau.
- In the Musée Alsacien people art and arts and crafts from the Elsass one issues.
- Is the “museum for modern and contemporary art” far away admits, the Musée d'Art modern et contemporain, with its salient horse statue on the roof and its large collection of works of Gustave Doré, Jean Arp and Victor brown one.
- In the Centre Tomi Ungerer is to be seen the graphic and graphic life's work of the famous elsässischen artist.Toy, photographies and family archives supplement the singular collection.
- Since 2005 the “Le Vaisseau “[ 2], a science and a technique center for children and a young person enriches the Strassburger museum landscape between 3 and 15 years.
- Archaeological museum in the palace Rohan,2, place you Château. The museum offers the oldest history of the Elsass: from prehistory to the beginning of the Middle Ages. The department of “the Roman Elsass” offers a reichaltige collection of finds of the 1. - 5. Jh. n. Chr.
- Musée del'Œuvre Notre-Dame (“woman house museum”) 3, place you Château, with masterpieces of the gothic and the Renaissance (original sculptures, Glasfenster and structural drawings of the Strassburger Münster, Bilder von Hans Baldung and Sebastian Stoskopff); art of the Upper Rhine of the 11. to 17. Century.
High School, which was raised 1556 into the rank of an academy and transformed gradually into a university (1621, created educational facilities the University of Johannes storm) and into a royal university (1631). In the runthe university disappears to the French revolution.1870 were again created it. After it had become again French 1918, the university left Strasbourg during the Second World War and the annektierte Elsass, in order to establish itself in Clermont Ferrand. After 1945 it turned afterStrasbourg back.
The University of Strasbourg is connected in the “European Konföderation of the universities on the upper Rhine” (EUCOR) with that the University of Karlsruhe , Basel , Mülhausen and the Albert Ludwig university Freiburg. It orders because of the church-legal privileged position of the Elsass asonly in France over two nationally financed theological faculties (catholic and Protestant).
In the 70's 20. Century the University of Strasbourg was divided:
- Université Louis Pasteur (Strasbourg I)
- Université Mark of Bloch (Strasbourg II)
- Université Robert Schuman (StrasbourgIII) In addition there is in Strasbourg
- the Centre régional the œuvres universitaires et scolaires de Strasbourg (Crous)
Strasbourg is seat of the French administration university ENA (École national d'administration).
The largest and/or. most important libraries of Strasbourg are:
- Bibliothèque national one et Universitaire
- Bibliothèque Municipale
- Racing Strasbourg plays since the season 2002/03 again in the highest French soccer game class, the Ligue 1.
- Strasbourg Illkirch Graffenstaden Basket won the French championship of basketball 2004/05.
of sonsand daughters of the city
- Johannes Tauler (* around 1300 in Strasbourg - † 1360 in Strasbourg), German theologian and Mystiker
- Sebastian Brant (* 1457 in Strasbourg - † 10. May 1521 in Strasbourg), lawyer, writer and human
- Johannes of baths (* 1487 in Strasbourg, † 16. August 1545 in Landau in the Pfalz ) Lutheri theologian and Reformator
- Jakob storm of storm-hit a corner (1489 - 1553), reformed mayor of the city; Evangelist anniversary 30. October
- Jacob Frey (* forwards1520), writer
- Martin Montanus (* after 1537 in Strasbourg, death date unknown), German varying poet and dramatist
- Johann fish type (* 1546 or 1547 in Strasbourg - † 1590 in Forbach), writer
- Sebastian Stoskopff (* 1597 - † 1657), most important quiet life painterits time, starting from 1930 one rediscovered; Works in Strasbourg and Saarbruecken.
- Albrecht Kauw towards. the older one (* 1621 - † 1681), painter
- Johann Christof baron von Bartenstein (* 23. October 1689 - † 6. August 1767 in Vienna),Statesman and diplomat at the Viennese yard
- Henriette Karoline of Pfalz Zweibrücken (* 9. March 1721 in Strasbourg - † 30. March 1774 in Darmstadt), land countess of Hessen darmstadt
- Jean Frédéric nobleman (* 5. May 1749, composer, † 14. July 1794 in Paris
- Philipp Jakob Loutherbourg (the younger one) (1740 - 1812), painter
- Jean Baptiste Kléber (* 9. March 1753 in Strasbourg), general of the French revolution army, it died 1800 on Napoléon Bonapartes Egypt campaign.
- Anton wants (* 1756 in Strasbourg -† 12. September 1827 in Munich) was a German veterinarian - the medical profession.
- Gustave Doré (* 6. January 1832 in Strasbourg - † 23. January 1883 in Paris), painters, commercial artists and Illustrator.
- Charles Friedel (* 12. March 1832 in Strasbourg - † 20. April 1899 in Montauban), French chemist
- Émile forest devil (Charles Émile Lévy) (* 9. December 1837 in Strasbourg - † 12. February 1915 in Paris), composer, French “tome king”
- Paul Émile appeal (*1855 in Strasbourg - † 1930 in Paris), French mathematician
- Hugo Becker (* 13. February 1863 - † 30. July 1941 in hostage gas paste), Cellist, cello teachers and composer
- Hans or Jean Arp (* 16. September 1886 in Strasbourg - † 7. June 1966 in Basel), French-German painter, sculptor and poet of the Dadaismus and Surrealismus
- Charles Münch (* 26. September 1891 in Strasbourg, † 6. November 1968 in smelling moon (Virginia)), Conductor, important exponent of French music 19. and20. Jhts.
- Rudolf black (* 15. May 1897 in Strasbourg - † 3. April 1961 in Cologne), German architect particularly of catholic buildings of churches
- Hans Bethe (* 2. July 1906 in Strasbourg; † 6. March 2005 in Ithaca, New York), physicists and Nobelpreisträger for physics (1967)
- max of Bense (* 7. February 1910 in Strasbourg - † 29. April 1990 in Stuttgart), German philosopher for science theory, logic, aesthetics and semiotic as well as writer andJournalist
- Camille Claus (1920 - 2005), painter
- Marcel Marceau (* 22. March 1923), Pantomime
- Germain Mueller (* 11. July 1923 - † 10. October 1994) was a Strassburger culture politician, a very popular Kabarettist and elsässischer poet
- Tomi Ungerer (* 28. November 1931), draughtsman, Illustrator, commercial artists
- Wolfgang Huber (* 12. August 1942), bishop and EKD - advice chairmen
- Arsène Wenger (* 1949), football coach
- Valerien Ismael (* 1975), football players with Bavaria Munich
- Salomé Haller, Sopran
- Mehdi Baala, (* 1978), athlete
- Paul-Henri Mathieu (* 1982), tennis professional
- Jakob Twinger of king yards (1346 - 1420), Strassburger chronicler and Kanonikus of the pc. - Thomas church
- Johann Geiler of Kaysersberg (* 16. March 1445 in work living - † 10. March 1510 called in Strasbourg),
- Prediger Hans Baldung, Grien (* 1484 or 1485 in Swabian Gmünd - † September 1545 in Strasbourg), one of the best German painters, draughtsmen and Kupferstecher that Renaissance
- Martin Bucer (1491 - 1551), Prediger and theologian of the reformation.
- Johannes storm (* 1507 in Schleiden - † 1589 in Strasbourg), scholar and paedagogue, founder of the European-wide influential Protestant High School.
- Johannes Calvin (1509 - 1564)was several times in Strasbourg, among other things with Bucer.
- Johann Carolus, founder of the first printed, appearing weekly newspaper (1605)
- Jesaias Rompler of lion stop (* 1605 in Dinkelsbühl - † after 1672 in Strasbourg), poets of the German Barocklyrik
- Andreas's silver man (* 1678 - 1734, since 1701 in Strasbourg), important organ farmer of the baroque
- Franz Xaver judge (* 1. December 1709 in hell-look, Mähren; † 12. September 1789 in Strasbourg), composer and important representative of the “Mannheimer school”.
- Eulogius cutter (* 20. October 1756 in Wipfeld at the Main; † 1. April 1794 in Paris), German Jakobiner, lived in Strasbourg
- Johann Wolfgang Goethe studied 1770/1771 in Strasbourg law; in Sesenheim (frz. Sessenheim) he became acquainted with the minister daughter Friederike Brionand „the Sesenheimer of songs wrote “with the poems „welcomes and parting “and „Heidenröslein “.
- George Büchner (1813-1837), writer (“spring”), studied medicine Ludwig Friedländer
- in Strasbourg (* 16. July 1824 in king mountain, East Prussia - † 16. December 1909 in Strasbourg), GermanAltphilologe and culture historian
- Fustel de Coulanges (1830 - 1889), informed history at the Strassburger University of
- George Simmel (* 1. March 1858 in Berlin - † 28. September 1918 in Strasbourg), German sociologist and culture philosopher, founder „of the formal sociology “
- Albert Schweitzer (* 1875 - † 1965) philosopher, theologian, physician, music scientist, minister, organ artist, Nobel peace prize carrier
- Mark of Bloch (* 6. July 1886 in Lyon; † 16. June 1944 close Lyon), one of the most important historians 20. Jh., taught from 1919until 1937 at the university Strasbourg, founder „of the Annales d'histoire économique et sociale “
- Hans Pfitzner, (1869 - 1949), composer, one decade long head conductor of the city.
- Ernst von Dobschütz (* 9. October 1870 in resounds (Saale);† 20. May 1934 ebenda), ev. Theologian; 1904 it was appointed successors by Heinrich Holtzmann at the University of
- Strasbourg Otto Klemperer, ( 1885 - 1973), conductor, from Hans Pfitzner after Strasbourg.
- Hans Rosbaud, (1895 - 1962), conductor
- Emmanuel Lévinas (1906 - 1995, studied here from 1923 to 1927
- Pierre Pflimlin (* 5. February 1907 in Roubaix, Flanders - † 27. June 2000 in Strasbourg), Strassburger mayor from 1959 to 1983, repeated MinisterIV. and V. Republic of, Prime Minister, president of the European parliament, made Strasbourg the European city
- Ernest Bour (1913 - 2001), for conductor, in Strasbourg was trained and buried.
- Jean Marie lean (* 1939 in Rosheim (Bas Rhin)), Nobelpreis forChemistry 1987
- Bernard Marie Koltès (1948 - 1989), stage author and Dramaturg, worked a time long on the Théâtre national de Strasbourg.
- Barbara honey man (* 12. February 1949 in Berlin), German authoress, lives since 1984 in Strasbourg
- Ségolène Royal (* 1953), the point politician of the portion of Socialiste went into Strasbourg to the school.
- Mireille Delunsch, (* 1962), Sopran
the “Dernières nouvelles d'Alsace “is bilingual Natives of Alsace a daily paper from Strasbourg, which amounts to German editionabout ten per cent of approx. 250 000. In Strasbourg also the program of the French-German television station ARTE is produced. Newspaper oriented towards the right and the autonomousistic new Elsass Lorraine appears fourteen daily.
the European institutions in Strasbourg
course: Strasbourg is an important junction of the French SNCF. The TGV from Parisoperated not until Germany; the German ICE does not cross yet the border to Strasbourg. Starting from summer 2007 direct TGVs of Paris over the LGV Est européenne to Strasbourg will operate. International TGVs becomes Paris with Strasbourg - Kehl - Karlsruhe and Stuttgart connect and by Basel to Zurich operate. The international TGVs between France and Switzerland is managed presumably under the mark “TGV LYRIA” to operate and by Lyria, a subsidiary of the SNCF and the SBB.
BernoitVan Bos, Strasbourg - Münster, Verlag fast + Steiner Regensburg. 400 S., 38 color. and. 166 Duoton Abb., 16 x 26 cm, ISBN 3-7954-1387-7.
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|Commons: Strasbourg - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
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|Wiktionary: Strasbourg - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- the official sides of the city Strasbourg
- Strassburger tourism office
- the Théâtre national de Strasbourg
- the Opéra you Rhin
- the Orchestre Philharmonique de Strasbourg
- the E cole N ationale d' A dministration
- LesMusées de Strasbourg
- history of the Jewish municipality in Strasbourg
- on the traces of Goethe in the Elsass and in Strasbourg
- on the traces of the Stürmer & Dränger by the Elsass and by Strasbourg
- Unesco Weltkulturerbe, RealPlayer video (14 min.)
- ÖPNV in Strasbourg