Strasbourg

of these articles is concerned with the French city Strasbourg in the Elsass, for further meanings sees Strasbourg (term clarifying).
Strasbourg
coat of arms map
Wappen von Straßburg
Lage von Straßburg
base data
state: France
region: Elsass
Département: Bas Rhin (Unterelsass)
Arrondissement: Strasbourg Ville (circle-free city)
Surface: 78.26 km ²
geographical situation:
Coordinates: 48° 35 ' 04 " N; 7° 44 ' 55 " O
48° 35 ' 04 " N; 7° 44 ' 55 " O
height: 143 m and. NN
inhabitant: 273.100 (2004)
population density: 3,489 inhabitants /km ²
postal zip codes: F-67000
telephone:
Kfz characteristic: 67
address
of the city administration:
1, park d'Étoile
67076 Strasbourg
Website: www.strasbourg.fr
politics
Oberbürgermeisterin: Fabienne cellar (UMP)

Strasbourg (frz. Strasbourg [stʀasˈbuːʀ], elsässische discussion Schdroosburi) is the historical capitalthe Elsass. The city is capital of the region Elsass as well as prefecture of the Départements Unterelsass (Bas Rhin). The prefecture administers also the two Arrondissements Strasbourg campaign and Strasbourg Ville (from 1871 to 1919 the circles “Strasbourg (country)” and “Strasbourg (city)”), itconsist of 8 and/or. 10 cantons. Strasbourg is town center and largest municipality in the Elsass, in Bas Rhin and in the greater Strasbourg (CUS).

The city is because of the river Ill, which branches out in the city. The eastern quarters with thatPort border on the Rhine. Because of the opposite eastern Rhine bank the city Kehl is on side of the German Federal Republic. Strasbourg is the terminator point of the Rhine Marne channel.

Table of contents

history

Strasbourg was created under the Roman emperor Augustus as Argentoratum. It was first a military outguard in the province Germania Superior. Strasbourg was starting from that 4. Century bishop seat and became in 5. Century by Alemannen, Hunnen and Franconia conquers. 842 was sworn here the Strassburger of oaths, which represent the oldest document in French language. These oaths are in two languages (old-high-German and old-French) delivered. The language of city and region was at that time old high German.

Historical map ofStrasbourg from the year 1888

in the Middle Ages developed Strasbourg to an important economic center and was from 1262 to free realm city. 1439 were finished the southern tower of the Strassburger Münster (the northern tower was never built). Münster remaineduntil 1874 the highest building of the world and belongs still to the highest church towers of the world. In the reformation it became lutherisch. On Reichstag to Augsburg the 1529 put Strasbourg down likewise a confession for reformation. Strasbourghowever not the “Protestanten” the” Confessio Augustana “followed, but put with Memmingen, Konstanz and Lindau a its own, from Martin Bucer and Capito written confession, after the four cities the so-called. Tetrapolitana off.

After 1648 stroveFrance the Rhine as border on, whereby the Reichsvogtei won in the Westfäli peace was made usable for the own purposes over the elsässischen realm cities; Strasbourg remained however first excluded of it. Only in the context of the 1679 Reunionspolitik begun of king of Ludwig XIV.turned outalso Strasbourg in the visor. After the city in this connection had been occupied in the middle in September 1681 in peacetime by the Frenchmen, this
opinion from Strasbourg was confirmed in the year
1493 change of rule conditions 1697 finally. Protestanten became from publicOffices impossible, which became Münster rekatholisiert. The abolition of the Toleranzedits was finally legalisiert by Nantes in the year 1685 with that the suppression of the protest anti-mash in France, applied however in the Elsass no and it prevailed to freedom of religion, although the FrenchAuthority was endeavored to favour the catholicism where always possible. The lutherische, German coined/shaped university of Strasbourg (one of the most well-known students was the young Goethe) continued to exist. In addition the Elsass was more l'étranger until 1789 as a province à l'instar deeffectif by along the Vogesen running customs border separately from the remaining France, thus tariff-legally foreign country, while there was no customs border in relation to the realm. Therefore the city and its surrounding countryside remained German-language and culturally German coined/shaped.

1770 and 71 studied here Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. In these years the city became a crystallization point of the literary movement “storm and urge “. The Jakobs Michael Reinhold spring and Johann Gottfried of Herder lived here.

In the time of the French revolution those becameCity to one point of attraction for republicans from Germany. The most well-known of them is Eulogius cutter. In the following years and decades it became the exile for German Oppositionnelle and revolutionaries, like e.g. for George Büchner.

In Strasbourgcomposed Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle the Marseillaise.

Strasbourg around 1895

at present the industrialization in 19. Century trebled itself the number of inhabitants on 150.000. 1871, after the French-German war, became Strasbourg of the again created German one ReichCapital of the realm country Elsass Lorraine explains. During the war Strasbourg by German troops one had besieged and one had violently fired at, whereby the state library with the majority of its valuable existence was destroyed.

Straßburg um 1900Haus Kammerzell neben dem Münster
Strasbourg around 1900
house chamber cell beside Münster

beside Metz and Cologne was removed Strasbourg after 1871 to one of the most important fortresses in the west of the German Reich. In the course of the urban extension developed a modern Umwallung, which referred older barrier sections from the French time. Are from the barrier plants remainders of the citadel from Vauban , above all however large parts of the Prussian attachments within the range of the station receive. Here today still ditch weirs made of iron are to be seen, at that time and today an absolute rarity. Beside these internal Umwallung developed in far periphery around thoseCity a belt from Forts, from which most still stand today.

Politically the situation was complex after the French-German war of 1871 and the recovery of Elsass Lorraine by the German Reich. The majority of the elsässischen population stood 1871an integration into the again created German realm rejecting opposite, which showed up in the realm tag elections after 1871, in which to 1890 the autonomousists, which faced the new political order rejecting, the majority obtained. In the years after 1871however a strong upswing of the city Strasbourg resulted and the Elsass on economic side, which reconciled at least a part of the population with the Prussian-German rule. In addition showed an efficient German administration, those contrary to the centralistic French administration alsothe municipalities an own organization clearance left, its positive effects. However it came again and again to crises, because in particular from Prussia “imported” higher officials extraordinarily unsensibel publicly acted. An example for this was the Zabern affair.

After the First World War Strasbourg becamein accordance with the Versailler contract slammed shut of 1919 again France. The Annexion by France took place in accordance with the 14 points from US president Wilson without popular vote. As date of the transfer the day of the armistice (11 became retroactive. November 1918) fixed. It appears questionable,whether a referendum would have gone out in Strasbourg in favor of France, since the political parties, which erstrebten an autonomy of the Elasses or a connection at France, into which last realm tag and local elections only small numbers of votes obtained. Before the First World War was Strasbourg practically the only large city in authoritarianly governed German realm, in which Social Democrats and liberals determined considerably the local government policy and in among mayors Rudolf Schwander for the time at that time an exemplary local social politics were operated.

Die Mimram-Brücke, eine neue Fußgängerbrücke zwischen Kehl und Straßburg (Juli 2004)
The acting like RAM bridge, onenew footbridge between Kehl and Strasbourg (July 2004)

between the German invasion in Poland at the 1. September 1939 and the British-French declaration of war at the 3. Septembers 1939 to the German Reich were evacuated all inhabitants of Strasbourg, as with all other close to the borderLocalities also. Up to the invasion of the armed forces troops in the middle of June 1940 ten months long nobody was in the city, with exception of the kasernierten soldiers. Strasbourg remained occupied until 1944 by the armed forces. After the Second World War the city became due tothe commitment of the langjähigen Strassburger of mayor and leading politician Pierre Pflimlin for the symbol of the French-German reconciliation and the European agreement.

demography

1684 1789 1851 1871 1910 1921 1936 1946 1954
22 000 49 943 75 565 85 654 178,891 ,166,767 ,193,119 ,175,515 ,200,921
1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2004
228,971 ,249,396 ,253,384 ,248,712 ,252,338 ,264,115 ,273,100

objects of interest and architectural monuments

In der Altstadt
In the old part of town
Münsterplatz
cathedral place
Gerberviertel
Gerberviertel

Strasbourg well received historical old part of town Île de la Cité is flowed around of the Ill, a tributary of the Rhine. She was explained 1988 as the world cultural heritage. Landmark of the city is that 1176 - 1439 build Roman and gothical Strassburger Münster. The cathedral Muenster belongs to the most beautiful European city places. Dominated of the west front of Münster, here numerous, partial four to fünfgeschossige half timbered houses stands in the alemannisch South German style. The steep roofs with up to four attics are characteristic.At the north side of the cathedral Muenster the well-known stands, richly verzierte for house chamber cell (see picture above).

Touristisch much likes is the “Gerberviertel in such a way specified “(frz. “La Petite France”) on the bank of the Ill and several channels with its pictorial Half timbered houses, small lanes and the typical dormer-ventilators. In former times a military hospital lay on this island, in which soldiers were treated with the so-called “Frenchman illness” - one did not call in such a way devaluing the Syphilis at times, Strasbourg yet Frenchwas. From this term the name for the quarter is derived. According to another theory the name is derived from French soldiers, who regarded the sheets of the pastures standing there as welfare SAM.

Temple St. Paul
Temple pc. Paul

of the 1908 established Temple neuf in the old part of town is the largest Protestant church of France. Further monuments from the time of the German empire are the station and the university.

The Synagogue de la Paix was established 1958 in place of the destroyed old synagog.

For thoseConception of the parking lot and streetcar stop in Hoenheim north [1] received Zaha Hadid to the bad van the raw price for European architecture 2003.


See also: Acting like RAM bridge, Kléberplatz, Strassburger Münster

culture

representing art

Palais du Rhin (Kaiserpalast), Sitz der Zentralkommission für die Rheinschifffahrt
palaceyou Rhin (emperor palace), seat of the central commission for the Rhine navigation
  • the Opéra national you Rhin with own ballet and orchestra, the Orchestre Philharmonique de Strasbourg, can guest appearances of point star the concert world offer and has a faithful subscription public, outthe entire area of the Upper Rhine comes.
Straßburger Nationaltheater
Strassburger national theatre
  • of the Kabarettist Roger Siffer operates its own Kabarett, the “Théâtre de la Choucrouterie” since 1984, a former sauerkraut factory, at the edge of the Strassburger old part of town. Its Revues run at the same time on French and on of Alsace intwo halls. Into the Choucrouterie annually more than 20,000 visitors come.

culture around and in Münster

  • guidance by the Strassburger Münster for the visitor history and aesthetics of an architectural high point of the gothic open.
  • To the Christmas season offersStrasbourg one the most beautiful Weihnachtsmärkte at all, the Christkindelsmärik. To the attendance invite: the situation around Münster, the elsässischen specialities, the enormous Weihnachtstanne from the Vogesen on the Place Kléber, those of a working group annually another decoration, up to Weihnachtskonzerten in the churches and Münster receives.

museums

Museum für moderne Kunst
museum for modern art
  • the Musée Beaux kinds painting of old masters presents, among other things Hans Memling, El Greco, Goya, Correggio, Rubens, Tintoretto, Veronese, Canaletto, Giotto, Van Dyck and Watteau.
  • In the Musée Alsacien people art and arts and crafts from the Elsass one issues.
  • Is the “museum for modern and contemporary art” far away admits, the Musée d'Art modern et contemporain, with its salient horse statue on the roof and its large collection of works of Gustave Doré, Jean Arp and Victor brown one.
  • In the Centre Tomi Ungerer is to be seen the graphic and graphic life's work of the famous elsässischen artist.Toy, photographies and family archives supplement the singular collection.
  • Since 2005 the “Le Vaisseau “[ 2], a science and a technique center for children and a young person enriches the Strassburger museum landscape between 3 and 15 years.
  • Archaeological museum in the palace Rohan,2, place you Château. The museum offers the oldest history of the Elsass: from prehistory to the beginning of the Middle Ages. The department of “the Roman Elsass” offers a reichaltige collection of finds of the 1. - 5. Jh. n. Chr.
  • Musée del'Œuvre Notre-Dame (“woman house museum”) 3, place you Château, with masterpieces of the gothic and the Renaissance (original sculptures, Glasfenster and structural drawings of the Strassburger Münster, Bilder von Hans Baldung and Sebastian Stoskopff); art of the Upper Rhine of the 11. to 17. Century.

1538

the Protestant

High School, which was raised 1556 into the rank of an academy and transformed gradually into a university (1621, created educational facilities the University of Johannes storm) and into a royal university (1631). In the runthe university disappears to the French revolution.1870 were again created it. After it had become again French 1918, the university left Strasbourg during the Second World War and the annektierte Elsass, in order to establish itself in Clermont Ferrand. After 1945 it turned afterStrasbourg back.

The University of Strasbourg is connected in the “European Konföderation of the universities on the upper Rhine” (EUCOR) with that the University of Karlsruhe , Basel , Mülhausen and the Albert Ludwig university Freiburg. It orders because of the church-legal privileged position of the Elsass asonly in France over two nationally financed theological faculties (catholic and Protestant).

In the 70's 20. Century the University of Strasbourg was divided:

  • Université Louis Pasteur (Strasbourg I)
  • Université Mark of Bloch (Strasbourg II)
  • Université Robert Schuman (StrasbourgIII) In addition there is in Strasbourg
  • the Centre régional the œuvres universitaires et scolaires de Strasbourg (Crous)

Strasbourg is seat of the French administration university ENA (École national d'administration).

The largest and/or. most important libraries of Strasbourg are:

  • Bibliothèque national one et Universitaire
  • Bibliothèque Municipale

sport

  • Racing Strasbourg plays since the season 2002/03 again in the highest French soccer game class, the Ligue 1.
  • Strasbourg Illkirch Graffenstaden Basket won the French championship of basketball 2004/05.

personalities

of sonsand daughters of the city

other personalities

media

the “Dernières nouvelles d'Alsace “is bilingual Natives of Alsace a daily paper from Strasbourg, which amounts to German editionabout ten per cent of approx. 250 000. In Strasbourg also the program of the French-German television station ARTE is produced. Newspaper oriented towards the right and the autonomousistic new Elsass Lorraine appears fourteen daily.

the European institutions in Strasbourg

European parliament
the European parliament, the Council of Europe, the European Court of Justice for human rights and the euro corps have their seat carrier in the city.

traffic

Bahnhof bei Nacht
station at night

course: Strasbourg is an important junction of the French SNCF. The TGV from Parisoperated not until Germany; the German ICE does not cross yet the border to Strasbourg. Starting from summer 2007 direct TGVs of Paris over the LGV Est européenne to Strasbourg will operate. International TGVs becomes Paris with Strasbourg - Kehl - Karlsruhe and Stuttgart connect and by Basel to Zurich operate. The international TGVs between France and Switzerland is managed presumably under the mark “TGV LYRIA” to operate and by Lyria, a subsidiary of the SNCF and the SBB.

Traffic:Strasbourg is starting point of the French motorway A4 direction Metz and Paris. An extension direction Kehl as motorway does not exist yet.

The international airport of Strasbourg is appropriate for about 20 km in Entzheim, southwest from Strasbourg.

literature

BernoitVan Bos, Strasbourg - Münster, Verlag fast + Steiner Regensburg. 400 S., 38 color. and. 166 Duoton Abb., 16 x 26 cm, ISBN 3-7954-1387-7.

Web on the left of

Commons: Strasbourg - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wikiquote: Strasbourg - Quotations
Wiktionary: Strasbourg - word origin, synonyms and translations

 

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