Road

of these articles is concerned with the road as underground for progressive movement; for other meanings see road (term clarifying).

A road (of Latin [via] strata) is smoother commit and passable, and usually fastened and classified land transport way, thatby pedestrians and different vehicles, who drive on smooth surfaces contrary to rail-mounted vehicles, one uses.

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General

a road in the Eifel

under roads one understands generally the roads, ways and places dedicated for public traffic.

In addition belong:

  • the road body
(the road subsoil, the earth structures including the embankments, the road substructure, the road superstructure, those Bridges, tunnels, dams, passages, ditches, drainage facilities, retaining walls and noise protection systems)
( the roadway, the separation tires, the fastened Seitenstreifen, the flanks and the bus stop bays, the wheel and sidewalks, the parking lots, park bays and Lay-by as well as surfaces traffic-calmed down ranges
(official road sign, which transportation facilities and other plants, which serve the security, order and ease of traffic and the protection of the adjoining owners, and the planting)
  • the offsites
( the Strassenmeistereien, equipment yards, camps, stock piles, points of usage and deposit, auxiliary enterprises and - mechanisms).

The designation ways are named the traffic surfaces laid out for not motorized traffic. Here the rural ways in such a way specified form an exception. Thisare appropriate also for the motorized traffic of the land and forestry.

With respect to the range of the roads and ways one differentiates further the free distance, the local through traffic, the junction and the offsites.

With road construction roads become from bitumen, Concrete, plaster or made of fastened material ( for example crushed stones).

Roads are partitioned after road categories.

In addition count for example motorways, freeways, federal highways, landesstrassen, state roads, circle roads and local roads, country and forest-economical ways, independently ledCycle tracks, sidewalks, roundabout places, tunnels and parking lots.

Special categories e.g. are. Duty-free roads, dead ends, temporarly closed or opened roads, service roads, passport roads, racing courses etc.

In addition the term still occurs in further meanings:

usually

names (exception city center Mannheim ) have designation local roads in Germany. Highways and motorways carry numbers. They become inCircle, land, federal highways and motorways partitions. In Germany only the numbers of the federal highways and motorways are signaled to the motorist, not those of the circle and landesstrassen.

cultural meaning of the designation of freeways

designations of federal highways and motorways servedas a name patron for numerous discotheques in the proximity of these roads. The same development is to be observed in Switzerland as e.g. in Basel, where a discotheque since 2005 “N2” as the motorway is called (” national route 2 ", thus briefly “N2"). The autocult drives far its blooms, although there also a Tramverbindung exists, so that one could have baptized the discotheque just as well “Tram 14”.

history

it gave many reasons to history in the run to build roads:They offered entrance to food and accommodation, served as routes for seasonal migrations, for Wallfahrten or for the trade. The roads, how we know them today, developed from roads of the antiquity, the old routes in such a way specified. Social one and economicalDevelopments led to the introduction of vehicles, which still strengthened the traffic volume. In the course of the social differentiation one needed roads also for the entrance to work, education and maintenance. However military and national political considerations were most frequent motive for road construction. Thosefirst military vehicles (chariot) became around 2500 v. Chr. developed. From then on roads were an important aid with attack and defense, and many rulers used considerable means for their building and maintenance (e.g. see. Duty). Nearly allRoads consisted of provisional planed, naked earth. Necessarily these were very dusty with dryness and transformed with rains into mud routes. The Romans, like also different advanced cultures, had built paved roads. Where these were still present, they became in Europestill to in 19. Century inside uses. British engineer John McAdam had concerned himself for a long time with road construction. In the year 1815 he let the first geschotterte highway build with Bristol. The road bed lay more highly than the surrounding fields, therebythe rain water to flow off could do, it had an underbody from rough crushed stone, over it a situation from smaller stones and was fastened with cinder. This construction proved so well that it spread fast in other countries. Of the name McAdamthe long still common word was derived “Makadam” for this kind road construction.

In Central Europe the old routes were only replaced starting from approximately 1850 from the Chausseen, which became then the roads, as one knows them today. Particularly in newerTime also “new” roads were invented, in order them out routistic better marked to be able. There is the holidays roads, which have often also purchases to the old routes.


literature

  • M. L. Lay: The history of the road. From the trampling path toMotorway. To Campus publishing house, Frankfurt 1994

see also

Wiktionary: Road - word origin, synonyms and translations

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