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The study (Latin studere: „(after something), (around somewhat) strive “) are scientific learning and researching strive, in particularat universities, thus universities, academies of art and professional schools. The study at a university requires the inscription (registration), which is bound to certain conditions.
A study consists among other things of the attendance of lectures, seminars, laboratory practical courses, Tutorien and from the self-instruction. The acquired knowledge is queried either in term-accompanying partial examinations or in final examinations by examinations or verbal examinations.
The competence of the universities in Germany is regulated on Land of the Federal Republic level. The study in Germany is since someYears in some Lands of the Federal Republic no longer free of charge.
permission to the study
over at a German university to study being able, is generally the university-level graduation necessary: For a study at a University of the general university-level graduation - the Abitur,for a study at a professional school the specialized university-level graduation. At certain universities and with certain academic subjects a permission is possible to the study instead of the university-level graduation also by other proofs (vocational activity, artistic suitability).
With many academic subjects restrictions of permission exist,z. B. a number Clausus. With subjects, which are permission-limited at many universities country widely, the study places are assigned over the ZVS in Dortmund. The trend goes by however that the individual universities are to select their studying themselves. Besides existalso local restrictions of permission for individual fan at universities and professional schools.
During the permission to the study advises and. A. the university advisory service of the respective universities.
course of studies and conclusion
it give a multiplicity of different courses of studies. The expiration course of studies is sometimes partly specializedspecifically regulated, partly also by legislation of the countries of an academic training centre, can be selected also by the student quite freely. In a technical or a specialist area several courses of studies are offered predominantly, which with different conclusions (diploma, state examination, Magister, graduation) to endand thus partly also qualify for different vocational ways.
the study in the diploma course of studies is divided mostly into two parts. The three to viersemestrige basic study is usually locked with a diploma preliminary test (see also Vordiplom) or the like.Whereupon the four to sechssemestrige main study follows, at whose end the diploma lent with existed diploma examination stands. Often one takes place special the course of studies appropriate differentiation, specializations and emphasis setting only in the main study, while the basic study rather mediatingBasic knowledge, - serves talents and orientation. Thus main study meetings are felt of many students as more interesting.
At professional schools a specialized university diploma is acquired, the academic degree is with the additive „FH “in round parentheses to be provided. The legal regulations for these andall other examinations of universities are regulated in the respective study orders and test orders.
In the course of the Bologna process the diploma study except for exceptions in its past form will disappear.
in Germany gives it (exclusive at universitiesand for spirit and sociological fan) also still Magister course of studies, which is likewise divided into a basic study, at whose end an intermediate test stands, and a main study. The study usually consists of one speciality and two Nebenfächernor from two specialities and becomes substantially freer as the diploma course of studies. After acceptance of the termination work, the so-called Magisterarbeit, as well as the existence of the final examination in the respective academic subjects one attains the academic degree of a Magister Artium, shortened M.A..
in Germany become to time the single-step Magister course of studies, the single-step diploma course of studies, in addition, the state examination in the foreseeable future to run out and by the English/American two-stage Bachelor - and masters - replaces system and/or. too supplements.Already today innumerable courses of studies with these internationally more common angloamerikanischen conclusions are offered (whereby in Germany some Lands of the Federal Republic, about Bavaria, the guidance of the academic degrees also in their latin designation, thus Magister and/or. Bakkalaureus, permit). In Bologna agreed the European Union- Secretaries of cultural affairs 1998 on more comparability in the study. From 2011 on the conclusions should be Bachelor and master standard; whether this is to apply to all fan and whether other study conclusions is abolished or possibly parallel to be acquired to be able, is The subject of current discussions. The change to the Bachelor and/or. Master system is called Bologna process.
at the end of the study in the subjects jurisprudence, medicine, veterinary medicine, dental medicine, pharmacy, food chemistry and in the teaching profession courses of studiesare i.e. located in the Federal Republic of Germany national final examinations, the so-called. 1.State examination and/or. several sections of medical examinations. In these academic subjects the universities do not examine their graduates within own responsibility; due to the paramount meaning of the qualifications which can be acquired those becomeExaminations instead by national places accomplished (test offices with the law, health, ministries for education and cultural).
further one scientific conclusions
apart from Magister and diploma courses of studies gives it at smaller - church in particular - German universities, particularly in spirit-scientific subjects, the conclusion of the Baccalaureats and the Lizentiat.
of courses of studies, which aim at religious the office (minister , minister , priest) (theology), end in Germany usually with the first church exam (synonym: FirstTheologisches Examen), das dem akademischen Grad des Diploms entspricht (Diplomtheologe, Dipl.theol.) und teilweise auch so angerechnet werden kann. Afterwards the Vikariat (Evangelist) can follow, that with the second church exam ends and with the surgery to in the Evangelist churchOccupation of the minister leads. See 
at academies of art (academies of arts, colleges of music, theatre and film universities) academic degrees - frequent in form of the diploma degree - and artistic university conclusions are acquired. With teaching profession courses of studies the conclusion is the first state examination. A condition for the admission of an artistic or artistic-scientific higher education is first - as also with the universitären study - the university-level graduation (usually the Abitur), besides however as crucial permission criterion either a special qualification test, in the appropriate musischeor darstellerische abilities to prove are (for example by Vorsingen, Vordirigieren or playing of a music instrument and/or. by a play sample), or the submission of a work sample for the proof of an form-artistic or cinematic gift (for example in form of a briefcase with painted pictures, Diagrams, photographies, in the form of sculptures or plastics or in form produced [short] film or film script). (See also direction, sculpture.)
Postgraduale of courses of studies
one differentiates generally between gradualen courses of studies, tooa first university conclusion lead (Bachelor, diploma, Magister, 1. State examinations, Lizentiat, Baccalaureus), and postgradualen courses of studies (so-called. Structure study), to those the so-called in particular. Master belongs. Also a doctor study is a postgraduales study, the acquisition one - qualified in many subjects -first conclusion presupposes and at its end the so-called.Graduation stands. A further distinction is in the adjustment of the course of studies on a certain field of activity. Courses of studies, which will unite different fields of activity as interdisciplinary designated.
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- list of German universities
- German-language courses of studies
- dual of courses of studies
- faculty, Faculty development, science
- Baccalaurus course of studies
- university drop-out, university advisory service, talented promotion
- study order, test order
- Bologna process, foreign study
- Bible study