Silent movie

table of contents

technology during

the early period of the cinema there still no satisfying possibility were 6 Stummfilmfestivals of taking up and of playing picture and clay/tone synchronously, why the films sosilent movies mentioned were. The action had to be transported thus to a large extent over the pictures, why early films were usually very body-stressed and the gestures of the actors exaggerated particularly in dramas from the today's focus work may (the so-called. over acting).

The advantage of the silent movie was to the fact that it was universally understandable. German films could be demonstrated without understanding problems an American public and in reverse. Particularly in the USA this universal understanding barness of advantage, since a great many immigrants lived there, was thosethe English were not powerful. They formed the group of principal purposes of the early American film industry.Denmark had a prominent position on the international film market at the silent movie time.

If the necessity existed to explain actions until 1908 Filmerklärer were used unsystematically, afterwards usually text boardswith explaining Zwischentiteln. In the Japanese cinema it gave off approx. 1908 one or more Benshi, which explained the films and live spoke all roles during the demonstration. To all silent movies music ran, either in form of one for the filmwritten score or as improvisation of a musician. As of Germany a most well-known silent movie pianist Willi Sommerfeld is considered, in Austria is Gerhard Gruber the most important silent movie companion at the piano.

The extent and the quality of the musical company depended on the cinema, for Galaveranstaltungen becamepartial whole orchestras for company engages. Some cinemas ordered over particularly designed cinema organs which noise effects made possible.

From beginning of the Filmprojektion the desire existed on to equip the mute films with clay/tone. Newspaper criticisms to the first film demonstrations spoke, with all admirationfor the “living photography”, the lack of the mute pictures clearly out. To the first film demonstrations e.g. in East Frisia by the moving cinema pioneer as background hintergrundvertonung military music was played by means of the Phonographen. Starting from 1904 the Wanderkinos on the fairs led those by means of needle clay/tone proceduresso-called. “Clay/tone pictures”, particularly for the films produced records, up. These clay/tone pictures could hold themselves still into the early period of the first shop cinemas in the program of each cinema. The quality was bad and the plates ran nearly never synchronously to thatPictures; for off approx. 1915 usual longer films had the records at that time also a much to short running time, so that the “clay/tone pictures” disappeared soon again.

the end of the silent movie era

in the late 1920er and the early 1930er years was replaced the silent movie by the Tonfilm (in the USA “Talkie” mentioned), with which clay-purely also on the film was. The first Tonfilm was the 1927 turned film of the jazz singers with the first set of “WAIT Aminute, you ain't heard nothin' yet! “.

In Hollywood prepared the transition unite for artists large difficulties, some star of the silent movie time turned out completely in oblivion and other one, as Charlie Chaplin deplored that the Tonfilm restricts their artistic liberties. A problem gave italso for immigrants: European ones of filming acre such as Pola Negri had an accent, which the Filmstudios did not want to zumuten to its spectators.

Experts estimate that of 80 to 90 per cent all silent movies are irreparably lost. This is particularly on that at that timeused Filmmaterial Zellulosenitrat to lead back, which is inclined after long storage to Selbstzersetzung and inflammation. However the most well-known and most successful silent movies remained received nearly everything at least in copies.

important film-creative of the silent movie

the first feature rain eating urine of film history was the Französin Alice Guy Blaché, which turned 1896 “La Fée outer Choux”. Women played in the silent movie as star a paramount role.

The most influential and most successful American silent movie director was D. W. Griffith. Its most important works are intolerance and birtha nation, whereby the latter is disputed because of its relatively uncritical glorification of the Ku Klux Klans. From technical and stylistic view however its films than early masterpieces of the cinema apply. 1919 belonged to Griffith to the founders of the United Artists.The most well-known silent movies for the US-American film rental business were:Far in the east, two orphans in the storm and women are shameless.

A further very influential and well-known silent movie is tank cruiser Potemkin of the Russian director Sergej iron stone, with itsnew cut technology attention excited and the cinematic language until today coined/shaped. The so-called in particular.Desert SA sequence is legendary and was often quoted and also parodiert. Iron stone coined/shaped the film ash tables term of the assembly.

Also Germany was at that time a prominent “film country”; stilltoday above all the films of the German expressionism ( above all the Cabinet of the Dr. count. Caligari, Nosferatu, a Symphonie of having a horror and in particular Metropolis) to the most important works of film history.

This very day admits are beside the largeClassical authors (see below) above all American silent movie comedies of for example Charlie Chaplin, Laurel & Hardy, Buster Keaton, Harold Lloyd, Fatty Arbuckle and W. C. Fields.

Only few star of the silent movie created the jump to Tonfilm, which had completely different requirements to the actors.

acquaintance of silent movies

the silent movies specified here are sorted according to publication date, film title and director.

before 1915

  • 1907: Ben Hur, Sidney Olcott
  • 1911: L'Inferno (Dante's inferno), Giuseppe de Liguoro
  • 1912: From the Manger ton the CROSSes, Sidney Olcott
  • 1913: A Message from Mars, Sir Charles Hawtrey
  • 1913: The student of Prague, Stellan Rye
  • 1914: Cabiria, Giovanne Pastrone
  • 1914: The Perils OF Pauline, of Louis J. Gasnier & Donald MacKenzie
work on []

1915 to 1920

1920 to 1925

1925 to 1930

after 1930

modern trend of silent movies

also after introduction of theTonfilms developed still some silent movies. Even if in some one speaks, this is usually only rare, and the cinematic narration “functions” nevertheless mutely.

Stummfilmfestivals

world-wide demonstrations find more contemporary in the context cinema of the Kabarets of the cinema movement on various FilmfestivalsSilent movies instead of.

study of the silent movie

a considerable part of silent movie production is irrevocablly destroyed. The films were turned on chemically instable Nitratfilm, which caught fire easily. Into the 1920er years in the USA systematically Nitratfilme were destroyed, overto win from this silver. In addition the lack of interest for many decades at production before the First World War came. The early films were considered as “primitively”. Only with a meeting of the FIAF 1978 slowly a reorientation began.

availability

numerous one Silent movies were made available in the last years on DVD. Often the original film music (if it its own composition for the film gave) was again brought in by well-known today's artists; with films without own music often became upcontemporary reports on the music played to a performance fallen back.

literature

of books

  • Kevin Brownlow: Pioneers of the film. From the silent movie to Hollywood (OT: The Parade's of Gone by…). Series of publications of the German film museum Frankfurt/Main. Flowing field, Baseland Frankfurt/Main 1997, ISBN 3-87877-386-2
  • ders.: Behind the MASKs OF innocence. Sex, violence, prejudice, crime; film OF social conscience into the silent era, button, New York 1990, ISBN 0-394-57747-7
  • Detlef Hoffmann, Jens Thiele: “Photos, light plays”. Beginnings thatPhotography and the cinema in East Frisia, Jonas publishing house, Marburg 1989, ISBN 3-922561-84-5
  • walter Kerr: The silent clown. Button, New York 1979, ISBN 0-394-73450-5
  • Thorsten the Lorenz: Knowledge is medium. The philosophy of the cinema, finch, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-3-7705-2400-4 (zugl.University of Freiburg/B. Thesis 1985)
  • Heath Schlüpmann: Uncannyness of the view. The drama of the early German cinema, Frankfurt/M. 1990, ISBN 3-87877-373-0

magazines

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Wiktionary: Silent movie - word origin, synonyms and translations
 

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