|of these articles is concerned with the Republic of the Sudan. For other meanings see: The Sudan (term clarifying).|
|system of government||Islamic Republic of|
|head of state||Umar Hasan AhmadAluminium-Baschir|
|surface||2.505.810 km ²|
|number of inhabitants||41.236.378 (computation July 2006)< ref name= " CIA-WFB ">CIA The World Fact Book: The Sudan/People< /ref>|
|Population density||of 16 inhabitants per km ²|
|independence||1. January 1956 of one British - Egyptian Kondominium|
|time belt||UTC +2|
|national anthem||Nahnudschund Allah dschund aluminium-watan|
the Republic of the Sudan is a state in northeast Africa, that at the Red Sea is located and at Egypt, Libya, Chad, the Central African Republic of, the democratic one Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia and Eritrea borders. The Sudan is the surface-largest country of Africa and Khartum is its capital.
Table of contents
a partthe state the Sudan is part of the large landscape the Sudan.
By the Sudan the north equatorial threshold and the Central African threshold run. Further geographical objects, at which the Sudan has portion, are the nubian desert, the Sahelzone and the Nile.The highest mountain is the Kinyeti (3,187 m and. NN).
the cities also over one million inhabitant (computation 2006)< ref>http://bevoelkerungsstatistik.de the Sudan city overview< /ref> are Omdurman (2.970.099 inhabitants), Khartum (2.090.001 inhabitants) and Bahri (1.626.638 inhabitants),in close neighbourhood at the confluence of the white Nile with the blue Nile are. All other cities remain under the border of 500.000 inhabitants with exception of Nyala in south for. For the foreign trade the city is indispensable Bur the Sudan, which has the only sea port of the country. Along the Nile finds one the still following larger cities from north to south: Wadi Halfa, Atbara, Kusti, Malakal, Bur and Dschuba.
- See also: Listthe cities in the Sudan
the Sudan has a population of 41.236.378 (computation July 2006)< ref name= " CIA-WFB "/> and this grows with 2,55 per cent per year (conditions: 2006). The average age of the population amounts to 18.3 years (conditions: 2006)< ref name= " CIA-WFB "/>. The life expectancy amounts to 58,92 years, whereby them amount to with men 57.69 years and with women 60.21 years (conditions 2006)< ref name= " CIA-WFB "/>.
The gross national income (BSP) per head amounts to 383 euro(Conditions 2003) and the gross domestic product (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT) per head amounts to 2,246 dollar (conditions 2005) (approximately 1,826 euro).
most important one languages in order of the speaker number: Arab (Sudanese-Arab; particularly in the north), Nuer Dinka is spoken (inThe south spoken of 17% of the total population), nubian (spoken at the middle Nile of 9% of the population), Bedscha (spoken in the northeast of 6% of the population), Azande (spoken in the southwest of 3% of the population), Bari (in the southeast of 2% of the population spoken). A small subpopulation speaks Ndogo.
- See also: List of the languages in the Sudan
the Islam is in the Sudan state religion. 70% of the population are Sunni Muslims, 25% Animisten and 5% Christian< ref name= " CIA-WFB "/>. The Nichtmuslime lives mainly in the south of the country, which fights since 1956 for own independence. Since 2005 a peace process was introduced, in order to terminate the war.
52% of the populationblack African, 39% are are Arab descent, 6% belong to the people of the Beja, 2% are foreigners (usually refugees of the various wars in Africa) and 1% of other affiliation< ref name= " CIA-WFB "/>.
major item: History of the Sudan
the history of the Sudan goes back into the Pharaonenzeit . After the Christianisierung in 6. Century becomes the Sudan - with exception of the south - between that 14. and 16. Century islamizes. 1821 fall the country under Turkish-Egyptian rule and become after a short period of independence, due to the Mahdi rebellion and Mahdi realm in the years 1881 to 1898, anglo - Egyptian Kondominium. It remains actual to 1953 British colony. Aftera phase of the preparing power delivery the Sudan becomes independent 1956. Until 1972 a civil war, released by the supremacy of the Arab-Muslim north over the African, prevails Christian animistischen south and as extensive consequence of the north south separation during the colonial age. Those clearly becoming economicDisadvantage now actually of the autonomous south Sudan and the introduction of the Scharia in the entire Sudan lead one decade after peace resolution to the renewed outbreak of war. From 1983 to 2005 the country is practically continuously in the civil war. 2005 become a peace agreement betweenthe government in the Khartum and the SPLA, which sign southSudanese group of rebels. It plans a referendum over the independence of the south Sudan for 2011 .
the Sudan are since that 1. January 1956an independent republic with a democratic condition, in fact however of 1958 - 1964 and since 1989 a military dictatorship with Präsidialcharakter. The former state State of Hasan RK-Turabi was a chairman of the Sudanese branch the Muslim brother shank.
- See also: List of the presidentsthe Sudan
stay of Osama Ben Laden in the Sudan
due to the criticism of Osama Ben Laden at the king house from Saudi Arabia to the procedure in the Iraq war he was explained to his person from Saudi Arabia to persona non grata and one tried havefulto become. Because of this threat Osama Ben Laden fled 1991 into the Sudan, which was internationally isolated due to a Militärput 1989 by general aluminium-Baschir and its Islamic-fundamentalist efforts. Here Bin Laden became above all in business actively: With its building firmit tackled the new building of a motorway from Khartum to Bur the Sudan and created a clearing bank. 1994 were extracted from it due to its international activities of terror the Saudi nationality. To Saudi and American pressure the Sudan referred 1996 Osamaare shop of the country, which thereupon to Afghanistan traveled.
Despite the giving way southto further in the USA as terror state and 1998 came it applied after the bomb attacks on the US embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Daressalam, Tanzaniaa retaliation action on the part of the USA on the aluminium-Shifa medicament factory, in which a poison gas factory was assumed. An involving into the bomb attacks or production of poisonous gas in the bombarded factory could not be proven until today.
- prevails to the south Sudan areas of the south Sudan around its independence /Selbstbestimmung in the south Sudan. This conflict controls the home policy substantially, since thereby valuable resources are bound, which are missing to the further development of the country. InJune 2002 became, under co-operation of the UN-particular agent John C. Danforth, taken up to Machakos (Kenya) between the government and the Sudanese People's liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) peace negotiations, whatever actually partial successes could obtain. Thus one agreed among other thingson granting to the south for one duration of 6 years a right of self-determination and to accomplish afterwards a referendum. One of the causes for the war is the oil wealth of different south provinces. The Chinese efforts oil from Africa to receive, focus themselves on thatThe Sudan.
- See also: War of secession in the south Sudan
- the slavery in the Sudan, against which the centre government in Khartum proceeded only conditionally, was a further motivation for the independence efforts of the south. The slave trade in the Sudan into pharaonische times can be retraced.
- See also: Slavery in the Sudan
Darfur became 2003 the scene of a bloody rebellion against the Arab-dominated Sudanese government with two (Black African) groups of rebels - the Sudanese release army (the Sudan liberation Army, SLA)and the movement for justice and equality (Justice and Equality Movement, Jem), which accuse the government of to suppress African in favor of the Arabs. In response the government began a campaign with Luftbombardements and soil attacks, accomplished from an Arab militia,the Dschandschawid. The Sudanese government knows however a partial responsibility at the crimes of Muslim militias in Darfur back.
To 8. April 2004 was closed due to the international pressure a truce, for its observance the peace mission African union mission in the Sudan(REVISION MODIFICATIONS) with logistic support of NATO to ensure is. Despite these efforts the region does not come however to at the end of of 2005 toward the peace.
- See also: Conflict in Darfur
conflict with Chad
ways of the conflict around Darfur and therebyaccompanying rebel activities in the border area Chad placed to 23. December 2005 the state of war with the Sudan firmly. Chad explained however that this no declaration of war was. In April 2006 the western neighbour state broke the diplomatic relations off with the Sudan, therehe these the support of the oppositionals FUC accuses. With their attack on N'Djamena died before up to 500 humans.
Dschafar Muhammad on-Numairi, a Colonel, who came 1969 by a coup d'etat to power,1983 introduced the Scharia (Islamic right), in order to terminate for one year due to social unrests arisen by economic difficulties. He was fallen 1985 by an officer corps, which established a military regime, but the Scharia remained. Withthe peace treaty of 2005 between the south Sudan and the government in Khartum the Scharia for the south Sudan was waived, for the remainder of the Sudan remains it however obligatorily.
women in the Sudan
beside the form Islam, thoseby the Islamic regime in the Sudan was introduced and women a subordinated role attributes, gives it strong cultural currents like the Zar cult, in which women take an importantly mirror-image-ritual role and who also today are still practiced. End of the 40'swere then formed the first woman associations in the Sudan, from which 1951 the Sudanese Women's union came out. Since that time a multiplicity of woman organizations developed, among other things those the new Sudan Women Federation (NSWF) and the Sudan Women' s Voice for Peace (SWVP) and those Women Action Group (DARE), which also tried to get the peace process going in the Sudan. Interestingly enough the positioning precipitates this in relation to organizations on the Scharia which is based legislation very differently. On the one hand women become, here particularly a subordinate in the family legislation, menRole and limited rights attributed, on the other hand one the law guarantees same rights concerning right to vote, industrial law as well as education and health. A further activity is the fight against mutilating of female genital organs further common in the Sudan.
An important institution in the Sudan is in addition the private Afhad university for women. This is exclusively open for female studying, and has, as one of the few universities in the Arab area, beside nature, social and agrarianscientific and medical faculties also Institut for women studies.Here internationally interlaced to topics like towards that, toolism and empowerment one researches and one teaches.
the Sudan is partitioned in 26 Federal States (wilayat). These divide again into 66 provinces and 218 districts.
- See also: Infrastructure [
the railway system covers 5,995 kilometers.
The Sudan has approximately 4,068 kilometers water ways, about which 1,723 kilometers (blue Nile and white Nile) are all year round passable. Important one River ports are Dschuba, Khartum, Kusti, Malakal, Nimule and Wadi Halfa.
kilometers cover pipelines the pipeline net, for oil products of 810 kilometers and for gas of 156 kilometers for oil.
the south of the country has rich Bodenschätze, like for example oil, gold, diamond and uranium. However the oil deposits are numbered according to US-American estimations from the 1990er years on approximately 3 billion barrel.So far most of these Bodenschätze are not yet opened - partly even the concessions are not yet assigned. However the Greater Nile petroleum operating company works to remedy this measurement and.
Relationship with China
the People's Republic of China is the most important foreign investor in the Sudan. Meanwhile the African country covers roughly for 6 to 8% of the entire oil imported goods of Peking; 60 per cent of the Sudanese oil goes to China. At present the Sudan promotes 340.000Barrel on the day. One expects an increase on 800.000 barrels in foreseeable time daily. Despite constant violations of human rights China with its right of veto in the UN security council prevents international sanctions against the Sudan, which oiler-solves 60 per cent in (Chinese) munition invested.
Relationship with Germany
the trade relations between Germany and the Sudan lie within the subordinated range, however at intensity continued to win. The Handelsvolumen corresponds with 150 millions Euro not the actual Potenzial of both countries. There so far still no Hermesdeckung, remain still limited the perspectives for an expansion of the bilateral commercial exchange are possible for the Federal Government for foreign business with the Sudan. Large-scale projects like the extension of the Sudanese telecommunications sector as well as in the power plant construction and within the aviation range aroused the interest of German enterprises, thosetake part in appropriate advertisements. In March 2004 in Khartum a German business circle was created, which was to function as partners and to promote the exchange of both sides.
The bilateral Handelsvolumen amounted to in the year 2003 well 150 millions Euro. The Sudan exported goodsin the value of 39,7 millions Euro to Germany. Traditional main export goods are cotton, rubber Arabicum as well as in small quantities Sesam, Nüsse and skins.
The Sudanese imported goods from Germany covered 2003 goods in the value of 111 millions in the yearEuro, among them mainly machines and equipment, as well as finished products, chemicals, food and textiles.
membership in international organizations
the Sudan is member in the following international organizations:
|1963||organization for African unit||OAU||forerunner that OUTER ONES|
|1969||organization of the Islamic conference||OIC|
|1981||Preferential trade AREA for Eastern and Southern Africa||PTA||forerunner of the COMESA|
|1986||Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and development||IGADD||forerunner of the IGAD|
|1994||Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa||COMESA||follow-up of the PTA|
|1996||Intergovernmental Authority on development||IGAD||follow-up of the IGADD|
|2001||African union||OUTER ONE||follow-up of the OAU|
|Portal: The Sudan - meeting place in the Wikipedia toTopic the Sudan|
Web on the left of
|Commons: The Sudan - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wiktionary: The Sudan - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- land and travel information of the Foreign Office
- The LIBRARY OF Congress - Country Studies: The Sudan (English)
- www.goruma.de - overview the Sudan
- the Sudan grandstand (English)
- of physicianswithout borders to the Sudan
- news of the day dossier: Disaster in the Sudan
- Crisis Group to the Sudan ( English) “
- we a country lacking in raw materials” - stone Meier speaks ngo online.de, 09.02.2006 [work on] listings www.sudan.net www.globalsecurity.org
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