Sudetenkrise

as Sudetenkrise one designates the argument between Czechoslovakia and the German Reich around the Sudetenland the eve of the Second World War.

That of Germans inhabited Sudetenland and the areas Böhmens settled by Czechs belonged predominantly until 1918 to the Danube monarchy. In the course of the defeat of Austria Hungary in the First World War the Czechs created an independent state. In November 1918 occupied Czech troops the areas settled by Germans. In the contract of Saint Germain the Sudetengebiete was then finally awarded to Czechoslovakia, against the will of the population.

The increasing autonomy efforts of the Sudeten Germans were carried starting from 1933 by the Sudeten German a party under Konrad Henlein. These for the time being internal tensions came ever more into the suction making and of the policy of expansion of the National Socialist German Reich and endanger thereby the safety interests in particular the great powers France and Great Britain. After „the connection of “Austria in March 1938 the Sudetenfrage became the focus of the European policy.

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expiration

to 28. March 1938 invited Adolf Hitler Konrad Henlein to Berlin and requested this, which Czechoslovakian government concerning the nationality question unfulfillable demands to submit demand („of the Czechs always so much that we cannot be satisfied “). According to this demand Henlein with Hitler in the background placed to 24. April that Carlsbad programs up. This contained eight points, among other things equal rights, autonomy and compensation of the disadvantages suffered since 1918.

To 21. May was made by Czechoslovakia partial mobilization, since there was information about an alleged shift of German troops toward Czechoslovakia. Later Hitler published nine days considering the mobilization detailed instructions for military liquidating of Czechoslovakia.

To 21. September accepted Czechoslovakia a plan of France and England, after which areas were to be handed over to German population also over 50% at Germany. After the refusal of the plan by Hitler became to 23. September the general mobilization proclaimed.

Parallel met to 29. /30. September in Munich the conference of the heads of the government of France (Daladier), Great Britain (Chamberlain), Italy (Mussolini) and Germany (Hitler). To 30. September 1938 was locked residents of Munich the agreement, in which Great Britain and France - in absence of Czechoslovakia - gave their agreement for the connection of the entire Sudetenlandes to the German Reich.

consequences

due to Munich agreements the outbreak of a European war could be prevented still in the year 1938. One year later, briefly before the beginning of the Second World War, was already occupied the Resttschechei and integrated than realm protectorate Böhmen and Mähren in the largeGerman realm. Mobilizations in May and September 1938 showed the determination of the Czech and slowakischen people to defend their republic. The entwinement in the power play of France, Great Britain and the small Entente had however the failure of expectations on support and thereupon the political collapse of Czechoslovakia to the consequence.

Another consequence was a revision of the Russian policy. The Soviet Union - takes part although in the system of collective security - by the Western powers during the Sudetenkrise consciously one ignored. As consequence Stalin considered its politics again, which led one year later to the Hitler Stalin pact.

consequences relating to domestic affairs

military circles under guidance of the general Ludwig Beck were convinced of the hopelessness of a war against the Western powers. They were decided to arrest Hitler if it would give the instruction to the attack. They had informed and handstruggling had asked even England about their opinion to give way this time not. By the conference of Munich the Putschpläne became void; Hitler had times quite kept again. The opposition recovered correct never from this impact.

see also

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