Sueskanal

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Satellitenbild des Sueskanals, NASA
Satellite photograph of the Sueskanals, NASA

of 163 km long Sueskanal (also Suez channel, Arab: قناةالسويس, Qanāt as-Suwais) is an artificial water route from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea over only 113 km broad land tightness of Sues. The Sueskanal connects the two ports haven Said and Sues. Since the establishment is it no longer necessarily to drive approximately in order the cape of good hope in the south of Africa and thus around the whole continent Africa from Europe to Asia.

The channel became of the French Suez canal company under the direction of Ferdinand de Lessepsbuilt. The Austrian railway pioneer Alois Negrelli already sketched the plans for it starting from 1838. For the navigation the channel became to 16. November 1869 approved.

Table of contents

history

antique canal structures

this channel is as it were from nature marked, by the Isthmus only as one that Gulf of Suez continuing soil lowering to regard is, those in its highest place, with El Gisr, only 16 m and. NN. lies, and their puncturing by three lakes (ball ah, Timsah and bitter lake) was still substantially facilitated.Already in 14. Century v. Chr. became the building from the Nile to the Timsahsee and from there to the Red Sea of prominent channel by the two large rulers Sethos I. and Ramses II.implemented, around their fleet from the one into be able to bring other sea. This channel (old Egyptian:TA tenat - „puncture “) went probably through neglect to reason, and only toward end 7. Century v. Chr. it undertook Necho (616-600), a son Psammetichs I., a new channelto build from the Nile in the Red Sea, which was restrained however by a Orakelspruch (because it would use only „the stranger “), after its building had cost already 120,000 humans the life. Only Dareios I.(521-486) the work of the Necho completed,which under the Ptolemäern was then importantly improved still.

But to Kleopatras time was partly again versandet already the channel, and which among the Romans, in particular among emperors Trajan (98-117 n. Chr.) for the channel happened, does not seem not ofgreat importance to have been. After the Arabs had conquered Egypt, it was Amr, the field gentleman of the Kalifen Omar, which in 7. Century the channel of Cairo after the Red Sea restored and to grain transportation used. In 8. Centurybut it was already again completely useless, and today only weak traces mark the old work, at which once Pharaonen, Perser, Ptolemäer, Roman emperors and Arab Kalifen built.

modern canal construction

ideaand measurement

the bay of Sues in the year 1856

in the modern times took up the canal construction idea as first Gottfried a William Leibniz. it wrote 1671 in this sense Ludwig XIV.

Napoléon Bonaparte, that Egypt as bridgehead for the attackon British India to use, visited Sues wanted 1798 on the occasion of its „Egyptian expedition “and let by engineer Gratien Lepère measurements make. Lepère arrived at the result doubted already at that time that the mirror of the Red Sea 9.908 m lay more highlyas that of the Mediterranean. This deterred from further attempts. Besides Napoléon had to withdraw itself 1801 from Ägyten.

Barometric measurements of English officers in the year 1841 and finally the work of a study group from Frenchmen, the British and Austrians in the year 1846 resulted in,that the level difference between the seas is insignificant.1843 tried Austrian chancellor Metternich in vain to interest Muhammad Ali pasha in the project.

1854 found then Ferdinand de Lesseps support with the viceroy Muhammad Said. To 5. January 1856Lesseps received the concession from the high gate to the canal construction and for the formation of a corporation. This society, the Compagnie universal you canal maritime de Suez, was at first to 52% in French hands; 44% of the shares held the viceroyof Egypt. President of the society was Lesseps, vice-president became the Triestiner banker Pasquale Revoltella, which likewise possessed a large stock share. The society kept the rights at the channel counted on 99 years, starting from its completion. Afterwards the channel should onEgypt fall.

The channel should be built after the plans of Austrian engineer Alois Negrelli, which was appointed 1857 after collecting main of its detailing the inspector general for the canal construction. Negrelli died however 1858, and Lesseps took over the construction supervision.

Work on []

Commencement of construction of the Sueskanals

to 25. Said , at the north end of the channel, began April 1859 the construction work after Negrellis plans in haven. The measure of the difficulties which can be mastered was tremendously large. All material, all tools, machines, coals, iron, each pieceWood had to be gotten from Europe. The main supplier for building timber was the wood holzindustrielle Leopold Popper (1820-1886) out bit-looks (Bytca) in north Hungary, today Slowakei. The wood was struck in the forests by the Trenciner district and by raft the Waag and thenthe Danube downward transports. In Galatz the wood on sea-going vessels was shipped and shipped by the Dardanellen to haven Said. The supplier was appointed into the baron conditions Leopold baron Popper de Podhragy. Whereupon it shifted the head office of its companyto Vienna.

drinking water problem

of 1862 were of the 1800 load camels of the company alone for the daily transport of the drinking water for 25.000 workers taken up 1600, so that the daily expenditure for drinking water amounted to 8000 Franconias. It was thusfirst of all only necessarily to complete the fresh water channel which from the Nile drinking water should lead to the Isthmus. With Sagasig the same branches from the Nile, leads themselves first eastward after Ismailia and from there south to Sues. Air-lock worksgive the possibility of supplying it a larger or smaller quantity of water. On the mirror it reaches width of 17, at the reason of 8 M. But it is on the average only 2.25 m deeply. Its completion took place 29. December 1863,whereby an annual expenditure was saved by three million Franconia.

building completion of the Sueskanals

with Maschinenkräften, which represented up to 22,000 HP, became despite some accidents (outbreak of the Cholera and whereupon the following desertion of all workers), despite diplomatic and financial difficultiesrüstig continued working, so that already 18. , To its filling out 80 Mill. knew November 1862 the water of the Mediterranean in the Timsahsee influxes m ³ were necessary. On the northwest bank of this lake the residence of the sewerage management, the city Ismailia developed, toowhich was led the new railway of Cairo and Alexandria, while the old desert course Cairo Sues was given up. To 18. March 1869 took place the inlet that Mediterranean water into the bitter lake, and to 17. November 1869 found in the presence of many Fürstlichkeiten anda tremendous crowd of loaded Europeans the opening of the channel under festivenesses instead of, which are to have cost the Khediven 20 million Franconia. Allegedly Giuseppe Verdi composed its opera Aida for this celebration; however, Aida became only 1871 are contradicted to that inCairo uraufgeführt. Verdi was asked to write an hymn for the channel inauguration what it rejected allegedly indignant - it did not want to write “pieces of opportunity”. Since Aida was not finished to the opening date, instead its work Rigoletto specified. Engineer Negrelli has thisEvent any longer does not experience.

1,5 million humans, mainly Egyptians were involved in the building, 125,000 died during the construction work, mainly in Cholera.

the Sueskanal in the political argument

the enterprise of the channel was at first high-grade unprofitable. ThoseGebühreneinnahmen to 1870 amounted to straight times 4 million franc; Egypt stood before the bankruptcy.1875 took over the government of Great Britain its stock share and received thereby crucial influence on the channel. The resistance in the population against the influence of the Britishleads to the Urabi movement, whose striking down (1882) entails the occupation of Egypt by Great Britain.

To 29. October 1888 is explained by the convention by Konstantinopel of the Sueskanal as a neutral zone and the free passage for handelsand warships proclaims. It should apply in times of war and peace. The protectorate will transfer Great Britain.

Nevertheless the canal area in the 1 became. World war to the theater of war. Great Britain called to 29. October 1914 in Egypt the martial law out; the Central Powers tried to beginning 1915 to make for the British control of the channel contentious.

Also after 1922 protectorate and the kingdom had been established Egypt had been waived, Great Britain kept control of the channel zone. 1936 were contractually secured these. Owner and more economicallyBeneficiary of the channel, which threw in the meantime high profits off, remained further the Compagnie universal you canal maritime de Suez.

British control of the channel remained also in 2. World war receive. Attacks of Italy in September 1940 and the German Africa corps starting from February 1941 were struck back.

Under the Egyptian president wet became the channel to 26. July 1956 puts, thus twelve years under state control before expiration of the concession of the canal company. This released the Sueskrise . To 29. Octobers 1956 seized Israeli, British andFrench troops Egypt on. The argument was however rapidly terminated by the intervention of the UN, the USA and the USSR relatively and the theater already to 22. December 1956 again clearing. Sunk ships however still blocked the passage to1957.

In the six-day war Israel moved to 9. June 1967 again up to the channel and occupied its east bank completely. From 1967 to 1975 the channel was closed.

facts to the Sueskanal

design of the channel (for driving through ships)

the lengththe channel amounts to 162.5 km, the width at the water level 300 to 365 (58-100) m, at the sole 180 (22) m, the depth 21 (8) m (the values in parentheses the values before the new building are in 19. Century).

process

northern part

it begins at the Mediterranean with haven Said with two moles of 2.250 and 1.600 m length, running out into the sea, which Said form the outer port of haven and which by western currents causedNile mud hold.

then southward

the El occurs Menzalehsee and Ballahsee the channel Kant era elevation specified the Menzalehsee, where he is framed by dams at both sides, leaves the same with kilometer 45 and reaches,which it cuts through, in order to occur four km further the Ballahsee. After he withdrew from this again, the stations El Ferdane and El Gisr follow. Then the channel start into the far, blue surface of the Timsahsees in,its northwest end the city Ismailia lies, and which it leaves with Tusûn, in order to cross 16 km long rock threshold of the Serapeums.

bitter lakes

now the bitter lakes following with kilometer 95 form one for about 220 km ² large water surface,ring by deserts surrounded and at in and withdrawal of the channel with lighthouses is provided. With El Schaluf, at the south end of the bitter lakes, become already ebb-tide and tide of the Red Sea apparent, which is reached with kilometer of 156.

south part

of southeast from the city Sues is still four kilometers far into the sea led the channel gutter, in order to finally reach with nine meters of depth the Reede from Sues to.

construction costses

the construction costses of the channelSterling amounted to approximately 19.000.000 Pound, by which 12.800.000 was applied by applications for shares, while covered the remainder of the Khedive. England 1875 bought the taken over to the latter, nor shares (176,602 pieces in the value of 3.500.000 Pound of Sterling) unplazierten off. ToEnd of 1884 with inclusion of the improvements for the channel 488.000.000 Franconias were spent, against what the active amounted to 76.700.000 Franconias.

incomes and expenditures

the incomes of the society resulted in 1872 for the first time a surplus of 2.000.000 Franconias, the 1887to 29.700.000 Franconias rose. The incomes numbered themselves on 60.500.000 Franconias, the expenditures on 30.800.000 Franconias.

Today the costs of the passage up to 7,50 SZR per ton amount to. About 20 billion USD are taken annually. Like that is the channelbecome one of the most important pecuniary resources of Egypt.

navigation

USS Bainbridge (CGN-25) 1992 in the Suez channel

also the navigation proves the complete success of the enterprise. 1887 used 3137 ships with altogether 5.903.024 Nettoregistertonnen the channel. The number of the travelers182,998 amounted to (including soldiers).

Today about 15,000 ships use the passage, their charge annually amount to about 14% of the cargo transported world-wide. Due to their depth today's oiling anchors cannot drive on the channel so easily, also because during the blockage of1967 to 1975 the very large crude carriers without consideration for the channel dimensions were designed. Therefore the majority of the loaded oil is evacuated with the entry into the channel and created via pipings ashore on the other side, over thenthe ship to be shipped. In times, in which this expenditure is not worthwhile itself due to small oil demand and cheap sailing friction material financially, the ships use the route around South Africa .

The greatest possible ship, which can pass the Sueskanal (125,000 - 200.000metric clay/tone) Suez max one calls.

The passage is possible still only in the one way traffic, the passage lasts 11 to 16 hours in the convoy. Further development plans are present, because this concerns the most important ship route thatWorld. So it is to be made possible for ships with up to 22 m depth to 2010 the channel to happen. Then also very large crude carriers can drive on the Sueskanal.

distance entfernungsverkürzung

the saved time amounts to for an accepted steamship trip after Bombay of Brindisi and Triest 37, of Genova 32, of Marseille 31, of Bordeaux, Liverpool, London, Amsterdam, and Hamburg 24 days. Afterwards saving of time in the travel to other ports can be computed. Certainly is also inTo pull consideration whether the goods which can be transported are able to carry the expensive channel tariff. Steel, metal goods, silk, dte, coffee, cotton etc. purifies Manufakturen. may be considered as absolutely channelable goods, while a long freight standing goods more favourably the way around thatCape of good hope take.

tunnel under the Sueskanal

since 1980 makes a road tunnel under the Sueskanal (17 km north of Sues) a connection between Cairo and the peninsula Sinai .

overhead line crossing and bridge

Since 1965 there is a swing bridge (span 158 m) with El-Kantara. Since 1999 kV an overhead line crosses 500 with two electric circuits the Sueskanal. Since a passage height of 152 meters was demanded, the masts of 226 meters used for this line hadhighly its. Both masts are equipped with 4 cross beams, three cross beams for the conductor cables and an auxiliary cross beam to interception of down-converging conductor cables in the case of an insulator break.

see also

Web on the left of

Commons: Suez channel - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wikisource: The Canal of Suez - source texts
This article worth reading was suggested to the re-election or logging-off, co-ordinates also!


Coordinates: 30° 42 ′ 18 " n. Break, 32° 20 ′ 39 " o. L.

 

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