|of these articles is occupied with the Sukzession in the ecology. For further meanings see Sukzession (term clarifying).|
Sukzession (of Latin succedere: advance, follow) means follow-up, succession, succession, succession to the throne. The adverb corresponds gradually gradually.
Table of contents
Sukzession (general biological)
in the ecology and Botanik understands one by Sukzession the succession into one another more turning into (system) conditions of planting or animal companies (Biozönose) at a location (spatial continuum) with progressive time; therefore thus also the change of an ecological system. This gradual development leads, under changing diversity of species and with removing alteration rate, from the “initial stage” across different stages to a Klimaxgesellschaft. The entire structure changes to oneoptimal utilization of resources (ecological optimum). The stages of the Sukzession mostly begin at any stage and run off in different areas at the same time.
A Sukzession takes place in ecological systems, which are not in the ecological equilibrium.
The understanding over the Sukzession andthe formation of Klimaxstadien leaves itself to z. B. use in landscape planning and nature protection, if it concerns to repair and secure the disturbed ecosystem - as base of life for humans - on a long-term basis.
is strongly disturbed an ecological system, like e.g.by floods, Dürre, Waldbrände, a landslip, or also by human interferences, comes it to a long lasting change in the structure and in the kind composition. Such a disturbance changes the location factors. Is the disturbance so substantial that the previous Biozönose with its biotope notmore existence is (by mechanical destruction, and as by moving away or becoming extinct because of changed conditions), uses the initial stage .
kinds of pioneer open and form initial stage
, subsequent stages , Klimaxstadium in the initial stage unbesiedeltes area Pflanzengesellschaften (z. B. To Ruderalvegetation, see also plant sociology). Is the disturbanceby humans developed, one speaks also of spare companies. Kinds of such pioneer companies possess a larger tolerance contrary to kinds of the Klimaxgesellschaften in relation to extreme location factors. Their productivity of biomass corresponds to the poor conditions. These kinds of pioneer change again the location factors, z. B. by accumulation (accumulation)from nitrogen, other nutrients and humus, water regime and climate change, affect the soil (see Pedogenese) and on the fauna (whole that animal. Organism). The Sukzession changes thus also biotope and thus the ecological system.
Due to the changed location factors are now againother kinds in the situation that changed biotope to settle. These kinds are more fastidious (climate, water, nutrients, etc.) and possess a higher productivity. By their ecological strategies (v. A. Strategystrategy strategies) have it a higher ability of getting through and to displace the kinds of pioneer. Also the new kinds change for their partthe location factors, and the process continues, a next, more fastidious and more productive society takes over the regiment.
The Klimaxstadium is reached, if the kind composition no more does not change or only very slightly. One can assume the Klimaxstadium also highest production at biomassoperates, which is possible on this location. The Klimaxstadium uses its resources most effectively. Depending upon resources, depending upon climate, soil and water conditions different Klimaxstadien is formed. The spatial propagation of the Klimaxgesellschaften depends also thereby on the duration of the unimpaired Sukzession.
The differentStages of a Sukzession run usually parallel in different areas.Early stages of the Sukzession are mostly more unstable and more short-lived than later stages. The Sukzession can begin at any stage (e.g. on broke to lying fields, meadows, on ruins and rubble likewise). A really exact forecast is not possible, there the nutrient and pollutant deposition (nitrogen oxides among other things) to a global leveling (standardization) and change of the location factors lead.
it cannot be clarified finally, what ““the prevailing Klimaxgesellschaft is. After widespread view this Klimaxvegetation is in Central Europe excepton extreme and exception locations an as far as possible closed and more kind-poor (beeches) - forest. At least one could prove the fact that Central Europe, after periods of other prevailing vegetation into which last 3000 years mainly was covered by beech mixed woodlands. This beech interglacial period resembles the today's climate. Gave nevertheless andthere are other forest companies also expanded, how polling analyses of the Paläobotanik prove, which suggest the conclusion in connection with new realizations of the climatic research that the Klimaxstadien in Central Europe always changed and since the last 6000 years under increasing influence of humans turned out. ThatTerm “Klimaxvegetation” should be always brought therefore into these relations.
Moorlands mostly form Hochmoore as Klimaxstadium; High mountain situations, cotton wool form again different Klimaxstadien. Further exceptions form among other things azonale forest companies, like e.g. Auwälder, break forests. See also: Potenzielle natural vegetation.
on the basis of a destroyed/disturbed ecological system the Sukzession goes through different stages in a spatial continuum. In different areas frequently several Sukzessionsstadien of an ecological system are to be observed. With progressive time the populations become more largely (density takes too), the structure change (diversity of species increases).
initial stage, subsequent stages, Klimaxstadium
in the initial stage and in early stages of the Sukzession prevail to kinds with high Fortpflanzungspotenzial, the r-strategists, forwards. R-strategists reproduce themselves rapidly and in large number. Their ability of the colony formation, i.e. the ability for the spatial expansion of its habitat (Habitat),is high. Their breeding care is kept small or effected not at all. Thus the descendants possess a smaller probability of survival in the competition.
In the animal world e.g. are these. Mosquitoes. With the plants e.g. are. Rumex - kinds (Ampfer) r-strategist. They produce a multiplicity of seeds (more correct: Fruits), i.e.zig thousand, are “naked” and over no nutrient depot or other strategies to the safety device of the new generation, like e.g. wheat, order.
The diversity of species of initial stages is small, the number of individuals high. The production of biomass is small.
In subsequent stages more and more the K-strategists succeed.K-strategists increase quantitatively less strongly, have less descendant. These possess however a higher ability of getting through in the survival fight.
Many birds and most mammals are under it, which operate long breeding care, by it less descendant to produce can, this however better starting chances provide. K-strategists of the plant world are plants, thoseproduce qualitatively high-quality fruits.
In later stages the diversity of species and the production of biomass rise first.
In the Klimaxstadium finally mainly K-strategists prevail forwards. Thus also the relationship of reproduction ( number of descendants) decreases to production (biomass). The professional world assumes thoseDiversity of species in Klimaxstadien is generally small (disputed). The individual density of the few kinds, which became generally accepted, is high and corresponds to their optimum. Klimaxstadien are characterised by a very efficient use of resources. The alteration rate in the kind composition tends towards zero. (Notes: one considers largeand. Lower case “r-strategist” and “K-strategist”)
Klimaxstadien are not rigid things. One, Klimaxstadien hears again and again are to be predicted. Even if from “equilibrium “the speech is, that contradicts the complexity of ecological systems. Whether one identifies a system in the equilibrium, hangs ofObservation period and of the observation intervals off. So systems can appear away stationary during a longer period, while they exhibit short term small fluctuations. “Klimaxstadium” is as theoretical term and/or. To rate Gedankenkonstrukt of the concept, which only is to help the understanding in principle.
This fact is in thatEcology establishes, since it is to be observed that many ecological systems without taper ratio can hold themselves by disturbances not for a long time. For example the “booking (resounding) needs forest” again and again disturbances, since otherwise light-needy young beeches cannot regenerate. Without disturbance the beech forest (e.g.) changes within less hundred yearsinevitably to another (forest) society.
mosaic cycle theory
the mosaic cycle theory (also mosaic cycle concept) e.g. becomes. with Auhagen, Axel, Jedicke and Scherzinger mentioned (indication of source delivers it subsequently unfortunately incompletely, perhaps someone?). It proceeds from a not uniform, linear Sukzession. It uses the realization,that Sukzessionreihen at any stage to begin and break off can. Pioneer companies are to be found rather rarely. It proceeds from many small patches with 100 to 1000 m ², a mosaic structure, on those most different Sukzessionsstadien to run off and calls more plausible reasons for this:
- Insektengradation (massive occurrence)
- nature “disasters”
- graduallyChange of the Pflanzengesellschaft, as described in connection with
the Megaherbivorentheorie results above a very plausible picture. The theoretical consideration is however nearly redundantly, there investigations of Urwaldrelikten and archaeological investigations, in addition, investigations at existing vegetation, e.g. from Jedicke montanen mountain mixed woodlands and subalpinenSpruce forests, and of others e.g. at tropical rain forests, supplied clear results.
The mosaic cycle theory substantially more probably describes the ecological procedures of the Sukzession, since it is not only limited to Herbivore, but several possible influences of the fauna on the vegetation emphasizes. Particularly insects, because of theirReproduction strategies (massive occurrence, “troubles”, rather for wide damaging of the vegetation able are as Megaherbivoren, whose reproduction cycles are substantially longer (e.g. cattle living in the wild have in the adulten phase only all 1.2 to 2 years a calf (average)).
Megaherbivoren (=grosseHerbivore, cattle, game). . The Megaherbivorentheorie assumes Megaherbivoren have a substantial influence on the vegetation. That ate these animals according to this theory the surface covering, close Bewaldung prevented. The theory is still disputed. If the Megaherbivorentheorie is discussed, must toUnderstanding also the mosaic cycle theory to be regarded.