Suriname

of these articles is occupied with the country Suriname. For the river of the same name see Suriname (river).
Republiek Suriname
Republic of Suriname
Flagge Surinames
(detail) (detail)
Wahlspruch: Justitia - Pietas - Fides
office language Netherlands
capital Paramaribo
system of government Präsidialrepublik
president Ronald Venetiaan
head of the government Ramdien Sardjoe (vice-president)
surface 163,820 km ²
number of inhabitants 492,829 (conditions August 2004)
population density 3 inhabitant per km ²
independence from the Netherlands to 25. November 1975
currency Suriname dollar
time belt UTC - 4 hours
of national anthem God zij ons Suriname Kfz characteristic
SME Internet TLD
met .sr
preselection +597
Surinams Lage innerhalb Südamerikas
Karte Surinams

the Republic of Suriname (Netherlands: Republiek Suriname; Sranan Tongo: Sranan; English: Suriname or Surinam; in German also Surinam mentioned) lies in South America at the Atlantic ocean with 4° 00 ' north and 56° 00 ' west. It borders in the east on French Guyana, in the south on Brazil and in the west on Guyana. The country probably owes its names to the trunk of the Surinen, which was driven out by the Arawaks from this area. National holiday is the 25. November. Since that 25. November 1975 is Suriname independently of the Netherlands; since then many Surinamer emigrated into the Netherlands.

Table of contents

geography

Klimadiagramm Paramaribo
climatic diagram Paramaribo

Suriname is with a surface of 163.820 km ² the smallest independent country of South America, highest collection is the Julianatop in the Wilhelminagebirge with 1,280 meters (according to other instructions 1,230 m). The country can be divided in two zones, the cultivated north of the country (approx. 20% of the national surface) and to a large extent the south consisting of savannahs and rain forest.

The Blommesteinsee accumulated artificially for generation of current lies in the northeast of Suriname and is with maximally 1,560 km ² surface its largest artificial lake.

The climate is tropical. Rain time is twice in the year: of at the beginning of of Decembers to at the beginning of of February the small rain time in such a way specified and of at the end of of April to in the middle of August the large rain time. Between them the large drying time from at the beginning of February to at the end of for April the small drying time and from in the middle of Decembers are appropriate for August to at the beginning of.

The amount of precipitation rises from the coast (approx. 1,500 mm) in the interior (up to nearly 3,000 mm in the southeast) on.

The seasons follow the movement of the internal-tropical Konvergenzzone (ITC), whereby the borders between the seasons are to be separated particularly in the coastal range not sharply by the influence of the Atlantic ocean and the pertinent sea-wind circulation.

population

the Republic of Suriname is ethnical very heterogeneous, which shows up also in religion and the different native languages.

The largest groups of the population are with:

  • 27.4% (135,117 persons) of Indian origin - the so-called. Hindustanen -,
  • 17.7% (87,202 persons) call themselves as Kreolen (former Black African slaves, who never fled and partly with other population parts mixed themselves),
  • 14.7% (72,553 persons) count themselves to the group the so-called bad negro (Businenge) or Marrons (into the shrubs fled former slaves). The two largest groups are the Ndyuka - and Saramaccaner,
  • 14.6% (71,879 persons) are Javaner (group between 1890 and 1939 from Java immigrierte),
  • 12.5% (61,524 persons) rank themselves among the mixed group.
  • Besides there are still smaller minorities of Chinese, Christian Arabs (Syrian, Lebanese), Europeans and indigenen peoples (conditions: October 2004).

After religion:

  • 19.9% (98,240 persons) of the population are Hindus,
  • 13.5% (66,307 persons) Muslims,
  • 5% traditional religions and
  • 0.07% Jew (conditions: October 2004).

The office language is Netherlands. It is used as only language in instruction and the public administration and is today according to language investigations the native language from already about 60% the inhabitant. Particularly in the region Paramaribo, where nearly two thirds of the population lives, spreads Netherlands ever the more. Since 2004 Suriname is member of the Netherlands language union (Nederlandse Taalunie).

Beside the Netherlands one above all the Kreolsprache Sranan Tongo ( formerly devaluing Taki Taki called ) is, which of nearly the entire population as first or secondary language is spoken, those native languages of the different subpopulations as well as English far common. Sranan Tongo, or briefly “Sranan”, was originally the language of the Kreolen in such a way specified, is today in addition, the Lingua franca on the road. Further colloquial languages are the Hindi similar a balance dialect, the Sarnami in such a way specified Hindi, Javanisch, the Kreolsprachen Saramaccaans and Aukaans, various indigene languages, southern dialects of the Chinese one, Syrian-Arab dialect as well as Portuguese (Jew). In addition Brazilian Portuguese comes by numerously usually the Brazilian Goldsucher immigrated illegaly in the last years.

Meanwhile except use largely is the Pidginsprache Ndyuka Trio Pidgin (not to confound with Ndyuka, which is a form of the Aukaans and often synonymously in addition one uses).

history

the area of the today's Suriname became approx. 3000 v. Chr. for the first time of Indians settles. The largest trunks were Arawaken and Kariben; the Arawaken was first, which settled in the area of Surinam, later them by Kariben was subjected. Both Arawaken and Kariben settled at the coast and in the savannah; smaller Indian trunks, like the Akurio, Trió, Wayarekule, Warrau and Wayana, lived in the rain forests.

As first Europeans discovered Christoph Columbus 1498 the coast, 1499 investigated an expedition under the command of Amerigo Vespucci and Alonso de Ojeda the coast more exactly. Vicente Yáñez Pinzón investigated the interior for 1500.

A first durable European settlement was furnished to 1651 by Englishmen on behalf of Francis Willoughby. 1667 took the Netherlands the colony. By in the same year the closed peace of Breda the area, from then on Netherlands Guyana mentioned , fell to the Netherlands, which surrendered in the exchange new Amsterdam ( today New York town center) to England.

In the first half 18. Century flowered the agriculture in Netherlands Guyana, by African slaves to Zuckerrohr, coffee, cotton and cocoa were cultivated.

While the Netherlands were attached to France, the British occupied 1799-1802 and 1804-1815 Netherlands Guyana. The today's area Surinames was returned after the defeat Napoleon, the today's Guyana remained in the possession of Great Britain.

  • Abolishment of the slavery

at the 1. July 1863 was abolished the slavery, however the former slaves had still for ten years (period of the so-called. Staatstoezicht) as paid workers on the Plantagen work. With abolishment of the slavery by the Netherlands state a remuneration (state van tegemoetkoming) was paid to the owners by 300 guldens per slave for the “loss”. Altogether came at the 1. July 1863 approx. 35,000 slaves freely. In addition surnames had to be assigned for the first time to the slave households by the administration. With the multiplicity of the names it came here to the skurrilsten word creations.

  • Contract workers

around the developing lack of workers in the plan day economy to adjust, were brought contract workers made of India, to the Empire of China and Indonesia after Suriname.

Beginning 20. Century began the meaning of the Plantagen - economics to decrease/go back, and many the plan day worker pulled into the cities.

  • Bauxite and other Bodenschätze

the American Alcoa (aluminum company OF America) secured themselves the rights at the majority of the bauxite occurrences, and also different resources such as gold and rubber gained significance.

  • On the way to independence

1954 Suriname kept the status of a equal and common with the Netherlands Antilleses administering part of the Netherlands. 1973 began the local administration with the government of the Netherlands negotiations over independence, and to 25. November 1975 became Suriname independently.

  • The time of the military dictatorship

after a phase of the political instability took over to 25. February 1980 sixteen young soldiers the government. This Putsch was welcomed by a majority of the population, since she promised herself a decrease of the corruption and an increase of the standard of living of it. Also the Netherlands government accepted at the beginning of the new ruling powers; that changed however, as the army to 8. December 1982 of fifteen opposition politicians to execute left. The time between 1986-1992 was coined/shaped by a guerrilla war in the jungle, with which the city Albina was nearly completely destroyed. The official government troops were led by Desi Bouterse and the opposition by its former bodyguard Ronnie Brunswijk. The group around Brunswijk became also as “Jungle Commando” admits. The war was partly led with extreme cruelty. To 29. November 1986 attacked a military unit the village Moiwana , burned the house of Ronnie Brunswijk down and killed at least 35 persons, most of it women and children.

  • Re-establishment of the democracy

under international pressure - among other things by the sinking financial support of the Netherlands - became 1987 the democratic order with the help of the so-called. old parties (from the time 1980 ago) restored.

  • About

350,000 humans of Surinamese origin live emigration alone in the Netherlands. Many of them emigrierten at present independence, after the coup d'etat 1980 or after the “December murders” from 1982. For the Surinamese community this drift a substantial bleeding meant, since also a large part of the trained cadre the country reading out did not return or to conclusion of the study. This had substantial negative effects in various areas (Brain drain).

administrative arrangement

political map of Suriname, 1991

Suriname is divided into 10 districts. The district capitals are added in parentheses.

(altogether: 492,829 inhabitants in Suriname; Stood August 2004)

infrastructure

  • aviation:

In Suriname there is a national airline, the Surinaamse Luchtvaart Maatschapij (SLM) and two airports:

  1. the Johan Adolf Pengel internationally air haven (at the village Zanderij). The airport had 3.5 km a long runway. By year become approx. 100,000 passengers dispatched and
  2. the small airport Zorg EN Hoop in Paramaribo. From here the hard-to-travel villages in the shrub country become - particularly in the drying time, if the rivers are not passable - and supplies the legal and illegal gold fields. In addition the military uses the airfield.
  • Railway:

Suriname possesses no more functioning railway connection.

  • Road system:

The road system of Paramaribo is predominantly asphalted. Same applies to those approx. 380 km long east west connection between the border places Albina and Nieuw Nickerie, to the south to approx. 50 km von Paramaribo removes lying airport (Zanderij), after Paranam (Aluminiumschmelzerei) and the main streets of the larger localities (see administrative arrangement). The remaining way connections are sand runways. In Suriname left-hand traffic prevails.

  • Water traffic:

In Suriname it gives approx. 1,200 km passable water routes. It is the most important route of transportation into the villages in the shrub country. Over the border rivers Marowijne of Albina to French Guyana and the Corantijn from Nieuw Nickerie to Guyana gives it to driving connections.

Ports: Paramaribo, Paranam (place of transshipment for bauxite), Moengo, the former bauxite place in Marowijne, Wageningen (agrarian products, rice and bananas) and Nieuw Nickerie in the district Nickerie.
The first and only bridge in the capital Paramaribo over the Suriname was only built in the year 2000.

economics

at present the Kolonialisierung was Suriname the probably profitabelste plan day colony of the Netherlands, first of all sugars was exported. From the Zuckermühlen (sugar piping plan days), operated in former times, Marienburg was the latter with Paramaribo. Of it only ruins are present. Today Suriname is the world-wide eight-largest bauxite - promotion nation. The dismantling is operated by the company Suralco (Suriname aluminum Cooperation), a daughter of the Alcoa and by BHP Billiton. In December 1980 the national Surinamese oil company (Surinaamse Staatsolie Maatschappij) was created. In co-operation with Gulf oil began the oil production on the Plantage Catharina Sophia in the Tabaredjogebiet in February 1982. To end of 2004 approximately 55 million barrel crude oil were promoted. Since 1992 Staatsolie has also an oil refinery. Over the oil fields assumed before the Surinamese coast among other things to open and promote 2004 became with the Repsol YPF of investment and participation agreements closed. The incomes for the state from the oil are in the meantime (2005) more highly than from the bauxite occurrences. Beside bauxite and mineral oil still gold, wood, rice, bananas and fish are exported. Since 1995 Suriname member is that CARICOM.

sport

the Surinaams olympic Comité was taken up 1959 to the international olympic committee.

olympia medal winner

literature

  • Eveline baker and others: Geschiedenis van Suriname, Zutphen 1993, whale castle Pers, ISBN 9060118375.
  • C.F.A. Bruijning and J. Voorhoeve (talk.): Encyclopedie van Suriname, Amsterdam and. Brussels 1977, B.V. Uitgeversmaatschappij Argus Elsevier, ISBN 9010018423.
  • Hans Buddingh': Geschiedenis van Suriname, Utrecht 2000 (3. Edition), Het Spectrum, ISBN 9027467625.
  • Edward M. Dew: The difficult flow ring OF Suriname: Ethnicity and politics in A plural society. Vaco Uitgeversmaatschappij; [2. OD.] 1996, ISBN 9991400524.
  • Hein Eersel: Taal EN refectories into de Surinaamse samenleving. Verzamelde artikelen more over taal, geschiedenis EN identiteit 1985-2001. Paramaribo 2002, Stichting Wetenschappelijke Informatie, ISBN 9991462023.
  • Michiel van Kempen: Een geschiedenis van de Surinaamse literatuur. Breda 2003, De Geus, (2 volumes), ISBN 9044502778.
  • Rudolf van Lier: Samenleving in een grensgebied. Een sociaal historical study van Suriname. Deventer 1971 (2. Edition), Van Loghum Slaterus, ISBN 9060011546. [the original expenditure appeared already 1949 in' s-Gravenhage with Martinus Nijhoff]
  • Michel Szulc Krzyzanowski (photography), Michiel van Kempen (text), Deep rooted words; ten storytellers and writers from Surinam (South America). English translation by SAM save. Amsterdam 1992, Voetnoot, ISBN 9071877124.

further topics


coordinates: 2°-6° N, 54°-58° W

 

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