Foto aus dem Dalí-Museum in Figueras
photo from the Dalí museum in Figueras

of the Surrealismus was an artistic and literary movement 20. Century, which could be inspired from the psychoanalytischen term of the unconscious one. The movement tried to represent the unconscious, by merging dream and reality with one anotherleft. Absolutely material things in completely abstruse connections are represented, so that it is more possible for the viewer hardly between dream and reality to differentiate.

The word „Surrealismus “means literally „over realism “or „beyond realism “. Ofsince 1921 in of Paris led surrealistische motion the own reality of humans looked for French writer and critic André Breton in the unconscious one and used intoxication and dream experiences as source of the artistic intuition, and it strove for it, consciousness and thoseTo extend reality global and umzustürzen all valid values. It is therefore an anarchist revolutionary art and view of world.

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definition of the Neologisti classicism

André Breton, the most important theoretician of the Surrealismus

the term „Neologisti classicism “decreases/goes back on Guillaume Apollinaire , which named a new artistic direction. On the basis of the dadaistischen movement inParis represented also the Surrealismus a aufrührerische art movement, which began against the improbable values of the Bourgeoise, contrary to the negative-destructivistic Dadaismus however a more constructional view of the things publicised. Affected by the symbolism, expressionism, Futurismus, the writings Lautréamonts,The Surrealismus a not-rational and the feelings stressing world of the dream places Jarrys and the research victory mouth Freuds into the foreground, however logical-rational „civil “view of art rejects radically and provocatively. The Surrealismus spread the release „of the words “and an aesthetics„the bold metaphor “. Surrealisten engaged themselves also politically and understood the Surrealismus also as extension that their opinion after limited, because too rationally aligned demands of left policy.

Larger admittingness attained the movement by in the year 1924 of André Breton published first communist manifesto of the Surrealismus as well as by the magazine La Révolution Surréaliste („the surrealistische revolution “). Breton demanded and. A. the automatic letter, which should be completely spontaneously and without conscious moral or aesthetic self restrictions. The two fundamentalFunctions were:

  • Consciousness by dream, sleep or Rauschmittel to switch off and unconscious in an automatic, not steered creation process to the expression come leave
  • fastidious mark way (oil painting) /Verfremdung/Kombination impossible things and conditions, which exceed the reality.

With surrealistischen works of art, rational thinking was triedto switch off during the work completely and represent dreams graphically, whereby the speed, with which one brought its dream on the paper, which increased dream proximity.

Picture superstructures of many well-known Surrealisten resemble each other much. So for example far horizons are, toPart in the infinite and everyday things go pervasively. The pictures of the Surrealisten have often fantastic and abstract effect on the viewer. A much-treated picture topic of the surrealistischen painting is z. B.The temptation of the holy Antonius, supports by that Bel revision modification competition of 1946, at that many well-known artists of the time (max Ernst, Salvador Dalí and. v. A.) participated.

One can divide the Surrealismus into 2 subspecies:

  1. stic or also critical paranoischer Surrealismus (combination matching things, did not rotate perspectives, howisticone it z. B. from Salvador Dalí knows)
  2. abstract or absolute Surrealismus (the same principle like mentioned above only without any realism, like z. B. in pictures of Joan Miró)
Mrs. and bird (1982), (Barcelona) of Joan Miró

political disputescontributed to the dissolution of the group of the Surrealisten after 1928/29. Despite a revival during the years of the Resistance (1940-44) hardly still the speech can be after the Second World War of a surrealistischen movement. Under the French influence the Surrealismus seizedparticularly in Spain and in the USA foot. Also in the German linguistic area surrealistische literary texts of authors became such as Alfreds Kubin, Hermann Kasack and. A. written. In the German linguistic area has itself besides the philosopher of peoples Zotz more intensively with thatSurrealismus employs. The Surrealismus received its introduction also in the literature. There the literature could by literary impulses from the German romance and the French symbolism and under the inclusion of the contemporary sciences, like psychiatry and psychoanalysisas medium of the world change and self realization to be redefined. So the Surrealismus has a lasting effect on most diverse works of contemporary art and literature, like for example on the concrete and abstract seal developed since approximately 1950.

Texts and ideas ofRene of liking rides had later large influence on the concept art, z. B. Marcel Broodthaers. The situationists appointed itself in the 60's with its attack on the reality also to the Surrealisten.

Today each style is called surrealistisch,that material with fantastic one or Mysti connects. Thus also the unreal stresses or the senseless connection the same natural reality character, as the everyday reality, which seems absurd even often surreal or. Surrealisti picture and dream worlds have by advertisement and mass mediaas commercial products the way into the everyday life found (z. B. contemporary toy). But also in the contemporary painting the Surrealismus (again) is alive. Artists such as Helmut Gerigk or Horst rust make your contribution for the maintenance of this interesting art trend.


„I believes in the future dissolution of these apparently so opposite conditions of dream and reality in a kind of absolute reality, if one can say in such a way: Surrealität. For its conquest I, reliably, strive not to reach it,however over mean death too unbekümmert, in order to weigh not at least the joys of such a possession. “ André Breton

Surrealisti films

it gives a number of surrealistischer films. The most well-known under it are an Andalusian dog (Un chien andalou) and the golden age (L'Âge d'Or) of Salvador Dalí and Luis Buñuel. The latter caused with its performance in the year 1930 a scandal, when groupings oriented towards the right color bags threw against the canvas and destroyed surrealistische pictures. To the maintenancethe film was forbidden to the peace for decades.Alfred Hitchcock let arrange a dream sequence of its film Spellbound of Dali, which sketched a surrealistisches scenery.

Picture from the initial scene of Un Chien Andalou of Luis Buñuel

of films from the surrealistischen movementbefore the Second World War:

  • Un Chien Andalou of Luis Buñuel and Salvador Dalí (1928)
  • L'Age D'Or of Luis Buñuel and Salvador Dalí (1930)
  • Le sang d'un Poete of Jean Cocteau (1930)

a surrealistische aesthetics became in the film also of someDirectors taken up, as a well-known current representative can David lynch to be regarded. Lynch was never involved in the surrealistischen movement or surrealistischen activities; many its films (z. B. Eraserhead or draws to Highway) has however incontestablly a surrealen character. A dream-like Atmosphere lets the borders between reality and imagination dissolve again and again.

Films with strongly minted surrealistischen courses:

David lynch can as current representatives of the Surrealismus be regarded.
  • O Lucky one! of Lindsay Anderson one (1973)
  • The holy mountain of Alexandro Jodorowsky (1973)
  • J'irai Comme Un Cheval Fou of Fernando Arrabal (1973)
  • Le fantôme de la liberté of Luis Buñuel (1974)
  • Celine and Julie Go Boating of Jacques Rivette (1974)
  • Eraserhead of David lynch (1976)
  • Buffet Froid of Bertrand Blier (1979)
  • The of case by Peter Greenaway (1980)
  • pos session of Andrzej Zulawski (1981)
  • zoo - A Zed and Two Noughts of Peter Greenaway (1985)
  • It couldn't happen there Gimli hospital the of Jack bond
  • (1987) Drowning by Numbers of Peter Greenaway
  • (1988) valley fromfrom Guy WAD DIN (1988)
  • Santa Sangre of Alejandro Jodorowsky (1989)
  • Motorama of Barry Shils (1991)
  • twin peak, Fire mill With ME von David lynch (1992)
  • Premonitions Following at Evil Deed of David lynch (1995)
  • draws to Highway (film) by David lynch (1996)
  • Songs from the Second Floor of Roy Andersson one (2000)
  • Mulholland drive of David lynch (2001)

painters of the Surrealismus

Salvador Dalí und Man Ray, 16. Juni 1934 in Paris, Fotograf: Carl van Vechten
Salvador Dalí and one Ray, 16. June 1934 in Paris, photographer: Carl van Vechten

an author of the Surrealismus

the surrealistische literature was not above all a reaction against at that time the strongly spread naturalism, that the readerClearance for own interpretations offered.

Poem from the Calligrammes



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Wikiquote: Surrealismus - quotations
Wiktionary: Surrealismus - word origin, synonyms and translations

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