Sventopluk

Sventopluk, Czech Svatopluk, slowakisch Svätopluk, Russian Святополкъ, in contemporary sources also Zventapu, Zwentibald, Zuendibolch, Suatopluk (*? ; † 894), was from the 850er years to 871 prince of the Neutraer of principality and from 871 - 894 the third ruler Grossmährens. It originated from the sex of the Mojmiriden.

Table of contents

the way to power

Sventopluk was nephew of the prince Rastislav. End of the fifties 9. Century transferred he power in the Neutraer principality, which was a part of Grossmährens.

, Rastislav Sventopluk made 867, after intensive eastFrankish attacks the leaning prince the Neutraer of principality. Thus the defense should be improved against east Franconias and Sventopluks political power grew. It came in fact to an allocation Grossmährens into two parts. Both Rastislav and Sventopluk had to then repel 868 and 869 further attacks.

Sventopluk handed and quit 870 over its principality however under the protection of the eastFrankish realm to Rastislav the obedience. To murder this tried Sventopluk and to recover its influence on its principality. Sventopluk is to be taken it however succeeded to Rastislav imprisoned and it handed over it to east Franconias (Karolinger), the opponents of many years Rastislavs. Rastislav was dazzled due to a court decision and died in a Bavarian monastery.

Franconias sent besides own people (the counts Wilhelm II. and Engelschalk I.) as regents in Rastislavs Mähren (thus Westgrossmähren). To become Sventopluk in the Slowakei (thus Ostgrossmähren), which had hoped, now even ruler also in Rastislavs Mähren and thus in completely Grossmähren, wanted this eastFrankish Okkupation to accept. Sventopluk was locked up however together with the holy Method.

871, after the forced upon power of Franconias, it came into Grossmähren to the rising of the people. Their leader was supposed a certain Slavomír. Ludwig the German sent his army, which was however struck for depressing the rebellion. Ludwig organized a second course, which was stated by the Sventopluk dismissed from the detention. This promised to strike down the Frankish ruler the rebellion. When the Frankish army achieved the grossmährische celebrations, Svatopluk overflowed to the insurgent ones and took over the command authority. The Frankish army was destroying struck. This step made possible to become it it prince from Grossmähren to.

rule

Sventopluk had to repel 871 and 872 Frankish attacks. 874 between Ambassadors Sventopluks and Ludwig of the German the Forchheimer peace was closed. Sventopluk committed itself to pay the eastFrankish realm deliveries and recognized formally its rule. Nothing the defiance had to vergrössren it by the peace with its strongest opponent now the possibility the area Grossmährens and into a “realm” convert. The expansion was simplified by the cultural projection/lead opposite the neighbours. To it the area already belonged to 874 along the upper run of the river Weichsel. It continued to take the today's Nordmähren around Opava . 880 Schlesien and 881 today's east Hungary came to the middle Theiss (at that time Bulgarian area), starting from 890 were also Böhmen (principality of the Přemysliden) as well as the Lausitz (Lausitzer Sorben) part of the realm.

882 Sventopluk fell as allying the eastFrankish ruler Karl III. into the ostmark and the Mark counts Wilhelm and Engelschalk hunted. These connected themselves with Arnulf of Kärnten in Pannonien, which connected itself against Sventopluk with the Bulgaren. Sventopluk struck however Bulgaria and attached even 883 and 884 Pannonien - parts of the area of the Arnulf of Kärnten - its realm. This step left itself it from Karl III. with a contract in the summer of 884 on the Chuomberg (mons Comianus) in the proximity of the Viennese forest confirm. At the same time again a peace between the east Franconia realm and Grossmähren and the position of the grossmährischen ruler was negotiated was continued to strengthen. Sventopluk reconciled itself 885 also with Arnulf - on the one hand, because it was already clear that Arnulf would become the new eastFrankish king (887) and on the other hand, because Sventopluk of the godfather uncles of Arnulfs illegitimate son Zwentibold (Zuentibold, D. h. Sventopluk), which later king of Lorraine, was. Despite the peace it came however 888 and 889 because of Pannonien again to conflicts between Arnulf of Kärnten and Sventopluk. By that Zuentibolch by the way also the today's arrived, from Cyrill and Methodius into the Slowakei slowakische state coats of arms brought as the so-called lothringische cross to Lorraine.

888 the Přemyslid Bořivoj I. died. and Sventopluk transferred direct power to Böhmen to representation Bořivojs of sons under age. The seizure of power was confirmed by king Arnulf 890 on the “Omuntesperch” (Amandhegy Pannonhalma or Omuntesdorf). However Arnulf cancelled the contract 892 and pulled with its allied ones, this time strengthened by Hungary against Svatopluk. The grossmährische army leader could strike down these and two further attacks 892 and 893.

church

major item:Method of Saloniki

Sventopluk accomplished important social and military reforms. Grossmähren confirmed its strong position in Central Europe. In addition also the grossmährische church administration, which was created 880, with the diocese belonged in Nitra with bishop Wiching (a Swabian monk), to archbishop the Method was subordinated. Large mowers became in the same year the Lehen of the holy chair. This meant a of equal standing position as the eastFrankish realm. Sventopluk became de iure thereby the king (although already sometimes it was called also before rex). About one year later was created in Neutra the first monastery in the today's Slowakei.

Toward end of his rule the Pope forbade the slawische Liturgie Methods (Altkirchenslawisch) after a complicated development and after Methods death (885). 886 thereupon of Wiching and of papal envoys the pupils Methods from Grossmähren banishes. Wiching Neutra left and went 891 into the east Franconia realm, where he became late chancellor the emperor.

Sventopluk remained rather neutral with these church disputes, but was personal him - as it a papal letter explicitly confirms - latin Liturgie rather. However in the end it (due to various deceptions) supported Wiching and latin the priests.

death

prince Sventopluk died 894. On its dead bed it requested its sons to the resistance against east Franconias. It encouraged it in the effort power in the Grossmähri realm to hold.

Its first son Mojmír II. became after father death ruler of the realm. The second son Sventopluk II. the Neutraer principality and the third son Predslaus probably received Bratislava as Lehen (press castle). To 894 it came between Mojmír II. and Sventopluk II. to disputes and it began the decay Grossmährens.


 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)