Sydney

of these articles is concerned with the Australian city Sydney, other meanings under Sydney (term clarifying).
Sydney
Sydney Opera House
base data
Federal State: New South Wales
surface: 1,664 km ²
inhabitants: 3.774.894 (1. January 2005)
Population density: 2269 Einwohner/km ²
height: 3 mand.NN
geographical situation:
Coordinates: 33° 52 ′ S, 151° 13 ′ O
33° 52 ′ S, 151° 13 ′ O
preselection: 0061 (Australia), 02 (Sydney)
city arrangement: 38 local Government AREAs
Website: www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au
politics
lord Mayor Clover of moorlands
situation of Sydney inAustralia
Karte von Sydney und Umgebung
map of Sydney and environment

Sydney [ˈsɪdnɪ] is a city in Australia and the capital of the Federal State new South Wales. It is the oldest and with 3.8 million inhabitants also the largest city of the Australian continent. The dye consisting of the town center town center OF Sydney and 37 further municipalities is the industrie, handels and financial center of Australia and an important tourism place. Also numerous universities, museums and galleries are here. Haven Jackson, the port ofSydney, is the largest Naturhafen of the world. Sydney is Roman-catholic and anglikanischer archbishop seat.

Table of contents

geography

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Geographical location

the city is because of a Seitenarm of the Pacific ocean of on the average three meters over the sea level. The haven Jackson forms 19 kilometers of length the main arm and at the same time the natural port Sydneys with a surface of 50 square kilometers and.Of it branches further arms of the sea like the Middle Harbour off. The Metropolregion reaches from the Hawkesbury River in the north to beyond the Botany Bay in the south and of the Blue Mountains in the west up to the Pacific ocean in the east.

Sydney extendsitself over two geographical regions. South and west the port lies the flat to easily hilly Cumberland Plain. North the port is the Hornsby plateau, up to 200 a meter high hill country, which pulled through from wooded valleys is. Upthe city are different of national park and over 70 different beaches, under it the world-well-known and particularly beaches Bondi Beach and Manly Beach liked with Surfern.

city arrangement

the Metropolregion Sydneys does not possess central administration. From 1945 to1964 were subordinated the area to the Cumberland County, whose competence was limited however to the town planning. Today the city consists of the town center OF Sydney and 37 further local Government AREAs (LGA, local of administrative territories), whereby the lord Mayor of the town centerOF Sydney unofficially as a representative of the entire region applies.

All LGA possesses selected town councillors. These are responsible for a set of tasks, which became to transfer them from the government of the Federal State. Many tasks are noticed however by the Federal State.Among them fall public traffic, main streets, Verkehrsüberwachung, police, education starting from the basic school stage and the planning of large infrastructure projects.

Over two thirds of the population of new South Wales Sydney lives in the region; for this reason the government of the Federal State is since more jeherconsidered to let the city become too powerful.

The 38 local Government AREAs of the region Sydney are:

  • Ashfield
  • Auburn
  • Bankstown
  • Baulkham Hills
  • Blacktown
  • Botany Bay
  • Burwood
  • Camden
  • Campbelltown
  • Canada Bay
  • Canterbury
  • Fairfield
  • Holroyd
  • Hornsby
  • Hunter's Hill
  • Hurstville
  • Kogarah
  • Ku-ring-gai
  • Lane Cove
  • Leichhardt
  • Liverpool
  • Manly
  • Marrickville
  • Mosman
  • North Sydney
  • Parramatta
  • Penrith
  • Pittwater
  • Randwick
  • Rockdale
  • Ryde
  • Strathfield
  • Suez ago country
  • Sydney
  • Warringah
  • Waverley
  • Willoughby
  • Woollahra

climate

Sydney lies in the subtropical climate zone, whereby the climate due to the proximityto the coast one reduces. The average yearly temperature is with 17,9 degrees Celsius. The warmest months are January and February with an average temperature of in each case 22.2 degrees Celsius. The coldest month is July with 12,1 degrees Celsius on the average.In the winter the temperature falls under 5 degrees, the lowest temperature per measured was rarely 2.1 degrees.

The middle yearly amount of precipitation amounts to 1,217 millimeters. Most precipitation falls in March with on the average 131.2 millimeters, few against it in September with only68.7 millimeters on the average. Per month there are nine to twelve rain days.Snow is as can be prove ever does not please.

The 1. January 2006 was determined in Sydney (and Australia) as the hottest yearly beginning since beginning of the recordings in the year 1858. InSydney were based on the official station at the Observatory Hill around 16:24 h maximum temperatures by 44,7 degrees Celsius. The January temperature record of 45,3 degrees of 14. January 1939 remained untouched. In the first ten months 2005 the values reallocation1.03 degrees Celsius over the 30-Jahres-Mittel. Since 1988 a clear trend is to be determined to higher Durchnittstemperaturen in the region Sydney.

history

the first map of the environment of Sydney from the year 1789
historical map from SydneyMeyers encyclopedia 1888

the area of the today's city was settled before approximately 40,000 years by Aborigines. At the beginning of the Kolonisation lived here about 4000 to 8000 humans, who belonged to three different trunks. This were the Darug, the Dharawal and thoseGuringai. Although their settlements disappeared to a large extent, in some places rock designs remained.

1770 had discovered Captain James Cook south the today's city centre the Botany Bay and had registered also the entry to the haven Jackson on its maps. To 18. January 1788 reached Captain Arthur Phillip with the roofridge fleet the Botany Bay, which was intended as location for a penal colony. During a three-day-long investigation route by the haven Jackson (of 21. to 23. January 1788) discovered Phillip first Manly Cove and one day later on the other side of the Naturhafens a further bay, which he (after the British Minister of the Interior at that time Thomas Townshend Sydney) baptized on the name Sydney Cove.

To 26. January 1788 achieved a French expeditionunder Jean François de La Pérouse likewise the Botany Bay. The Englishmen decided on the same day to shift the colony at the Sydney Cove. About 800 convicts as well as approximately 500 sailors and soldier left in the proximity of the today's Circular Quaythe ships. The 26. Since that time January is of Australia national holiday. The establishment of the penal colony had devastating consequences for the native population. By brought in diseases such as masers and smallpox it was extinguished nearly, which had themselves to subject few survivors to the English rule.

During the Rum rebellion in the year 1808 became the authoritarianly dominant governor William Bligh, which entmachtet former captain of the Bounty. Only governor Lachlan Macquarie created 1810 and 1821 the conditions between that itself from the penal colony an important cityto develop could. It let roads, bridges, harbor facilities and public buildings establish. In the 1830er and 1840er years developed the first suburbs, when ever more immigrant from Great Britain and Ireland arrived at Sydney.

After first gold fever in the year 1851 becamethe city finally to the cultural, economical and industriellen center of Australia. In the last quarter 19. Century began the urbanisation of the surrounding countryside, already in the middle of the 1920er years counted the city more than one million inhabitant. 1932 developed the Sydney Harbour Bridge, the area had before been thinly settled north haven the Jackson only pedantically attainable and therefore. Starting from center 20. Century began the intensified immigration from asiatic countries, which lent expressed a multi-cultural flair to the city.

Sydney was venuethe olympic summer games 2000. In the year 2008 becomes here the XXIII. World youth day take place.

inhabitant development

the number of inhabitants of Sydney doubled itself from 1.9 million in the year 1954 on 3.8 million in the year 2005. The city (Urbanized AREA) has a surface of 1,664 square kilometers. The population density amounts to 2,269 inhabitants for each square kilometers.

In the rural regions outside of the city about 620,000 humans on a surface of 10,474 square kilometers live. There the population density is with only 59Inhabitants for each square kilometers. In the entire Metropolregion (Sydney Statistical Divsion) square kilometers live 4.394.585 humans on a surface of 12,138. The population density amounts to 362 inhabitants for each square kilometers.

The following overview shows the numbers of inhabitants after the respective area conditions. Until 1871it concerns around estimations, from 1881 to 2001 around census results and 2005 a computation. The numbers refer to the actual city without suburb belt (Urbanized AREA).

Sydney Harbour Bridge bei Nacht
Sydney Harbour Bridge at night
Year Inhabitant
1800 2,540
1820 12.000
1851 39,000
1861 93,700
1871 134,800
3. April 1881 224,200
5. April 1891 383,400
31. March 1901 487,900
2. April 1911 636,400
4. April 1921 897,600
30. June 1933 1.235.400
30. June 1947 1.484.400
year inhabitant
30. June 1954 1.863.200
30. June 1961 2.181.200
30. June 1966 2.450.000
30. June 1971 2.799.600
30. June 1976 2.770.000
30. June 1981 2.870.000
30. June 1986 2.989.100
30. June 1991 3.097.956
9. August 1996 3.276.207
7. August 2001 3.502.301
1. January 2005 3.774.894

culture and objects of interest

introduction

Blick von Watsons Bay auf den Central Business District und die Harbour Bridge von Sydney
view of Watsons Bay of the cent ral Businesses District and the Harbour Bridge of Sydney
Bondi Beach

as landmark Sydneys applies from Jørn the Utzon built shell or segelförmige Opera house - after Utzons of own Saga unfolding an orange shared - as well as the world-famous port bridge. Jørn Utzon never saw “its” opera in the finished condition. After the funds for the opera should be shortened, it left. The operathereafter with an own Lotterie one financed. Today the opera is a popular routistic point of attraction and lies directly beside the well-known Botani garden.

Sydneys center is to be opened easily visiblly and well to foot. Beside the Opera House and that Harbour Bridge is above all the old part of town “The of skirt” worth seeing with the depots at the bay Sydney Cove. Directly at the Circular Quay, the central station for bus, course and above all the Hafenfähren, borders the enormous Botanical guards, in its peripheryseveral interesting museums are. The State Theatre in the city centre is place of event of the Sydney film festival.

The commercial center of the city (cent ral Business District) is to a large extent modern and of multistoried buildings dominated. The highest building Sydneys, the 305 metershigh Sydney Tower, has a prospect platform and offers a exzellente all-round visibility, in particular also over the beautiful port.

Center of the maintenance is the area around Darling Harbour, which one can drive on completely comfortably with the Sydney Monorail. Beside the culinaryThere food supply places directly at the harbor basin are a Sega World park, Panasonic IMAX Theatre, which possesses the largest flat cinema canvas of the world (36 m broad, 25 m highly, 900 m ² surface), meeting places and - buildings with changing programs, the Chinese garden, thatNavigation museum as well as the Sydney aquarium, a sea aquarium with glass-considered tunnels.

Follows in the south of the town center Chinatown, the Chinese quarter. It has its own charm and occupies the proximity of the city to the asiatic area. Cabramatta, an outlying district approx.30 km west the town center, is a vietnamesische correspondence.

Worth seeing also the quarter held in the viktorianischen style PAD thing clay/tone is eastern of the town center, the adjacent amusing district Kings CROSS as well as the Taronga zoo, which is considered as one of the most beautiful zoos of the world.The Sydney Olympic park and the many beaches of the city are further attractions. Surfer appreciate above all the Bondi Beach and Manly Beach.

buildings

Harbour Bridge

Sydney Opera House und Harbour Bridge
Sydney Opera House and Harbour Bridge
Sydney Tower
winters at the Wattamolla beach in the Royal national park in Sydney.

To 18. March 1932 was inaugurated the Sydney Harbour Bridge with a span of 495.6 meters. It is one of the longest elbow bridges of the world and received because of theirsalient form the pointed name “coat-hanger” (Coathanger).

The bridge can be mounted at present in two kinds:

  • led mounting of the Stahlbogens of the bridge (BridgeClimb)
  • that the Opera House nearest suspension tower can be mounted (museum and prospect platform)

Sydney Tower

of the Sydney Tower offers an overview of the whole city, which one can enjoy from the visitor platform or the two turning restaurants. In principle the view is possible only by glass. The ascent is at present (conditions 2005)only after detailed security check possible. Normally the tower 50-70cm varies, on stormy days of 3-4 meters. This knows spare time and recovery [to work on] on

the visitor range read off werden.cf

Blue Mountains

the Blue Mountains, about50 kilometers west the town center to reach are with bus and course easily and at the earliest in addition done the visitor a term of the width to obtain size and often still existing unaffectedness of the Australian continent. The rock formation “Three Sisters”in Katoomba is a popular starting point for trips.

beaches

with Surfern and sun-hungry tourists is Sydneys numerous beaches, all particularly likes in front to Bondi Beach. In each good travel guide is also the Bondi Coogee Beachwalk: On the basis ofBondi Beach leads the way alternating across steep cliffs and at very beautiful beaches along after Tamarama Beach, Bronte Beach and finally Coogee Beach. Duration: approx. 1,5-2 hours. Beyond that Sydney however still has numerous further beaches, which alsoException of Manly Beach mainly by native ones to be used.

national park

in the town with millions of inhabitants Sydney and their environment are numerous small and large of national park, which form a green belt into about 30 kilometers distance of the city centre. Thatat the port entrance lying Sydney Harbour national park extends over both banks and is in the north from Manly and in the south of Watson Bay ago accessible. Manly and Watson Bay are attainable with the ferry of the Circular Quai.From the south part a view of the Skyline of the city, particularly impressive with sunset, is possible.

In similar situation the Botany Bay is national park at the entry to the Botany Bay, in its south end of James Cook as the firstEuropean Australian soil entered. A wild Steilküse is offered to the Wanderer here. Particularly worth mentioning the secondaryoldest park of the world, the Royal national park in the south and Kuring gai the Chase are national park in the north as well as the Blue Mountains national parkin the west, which make numerous daily trips possible into often unaffected nature.

economics and infrastructure

economics

Skyline von der Sydney Harbour Bridge aus gesehen
Skyline of the Sydney Harbour Bridge out seen
streetcar

Sydney are industrie, handels, financial and transportation center. Several of the largest companiesthe country have here their head office, as for example the news corporation, which is in the possession of the Australian Medienmagnaten Rupert Murdoch, or also the Westpac Banking corporation. The stock exchange of Sydney is the largest in Australia.

Industrially to be manufacturedamong other things cars, electronic devices, machines, metal goods, food, oil products and textiles. The port of the city possesses modern plants for container ships. The largest part of the Australian foreign trade is completed over Sydney. Meat, wheat and wool are the most important export products.

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Traffic

of the Kingsford Smith internationally air haven is the largest airport of Australia and a turntable for international air traffic. For the accomplishment of the continuously rising passenger arising the Australian government 1991 approved the building of a third runway. The airport Bankstown is largeregional and private traffic reserve.

The city is also in the road, rail and navigation a supraregional meaning traffic junction. Sydneys main station cent ral station is the eastern terminator point of the Transaustrali railway after Perth. The railway suburban traffic is operated by CityRail; thoseDevelopment of the city center takes place via a underground-similar tunnel system.

Likewise in the city center the Sydney Monorail operates. The Metro Light Rail, a metropolitan railway, connects the main station with the internal suburbs in the west. Sydney Buses possesses the monopoly upBuslinien in the city centre, while in the outside suburbs also private bus companies are certified.Cycle tracks are present only few.

education

in Sydney was furnished 1850 the first university of Australia: the University OF Sydney. Are intermediate in Sydneyalso the University OF new South Wales, Macquarie University, University OF Technology Sydney, University OF Western Sydney and the Australian Catholic University (two of five locations are in Sydney). The University OF Notre Dame Australia and those University OF Wollongong have branches in Sydney.

In Australia within the tertiary education range the TAFE in such a way specified (Technical and ford ago Education) was furnished from national side - institutes. Of it reside in Sydney: Sydney of institutes OF Technology, North Sydney of institutes OF TAFE, WesternSydney of institutes OF TAFE and South Western Sydney of institutes OF TAFE.

In Sydney gives it over 900 national and private schools and preparatory schools.

Die botanischen Gärten und das Opernhaus mit der Sydney Harbour Bridge im Hintergrund
The botanischen gardens and the opera house with the Sydney Harbour Bridge in the background

Personalities

of sons and daughters of the city Sydney

Web on the left of

Commons: Sydney - pictures, videos and/or audio files
 

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