symbiosis live together ( Greek symbioun =) designates living together different kinds.

Clown fish (Amphiprion ocellaris) and sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica)

the largest part of the biomass on earth represent Symbioti systems, there almost all treesand bushes, many grasses, all on dusting by other dependent seed plants, all lichens and Riffkorallen with other kinds are nationalized. Caution is however ordered the term symbiosis (live together) as usually in German with Mutualismus (live together with mutual use) gel-calibrationadds. Actuallythe Mutualismus is only a specific form of the symbiosis, which can reach from Mutualismus over neutralism up to parasitism. The conception of symbioses as a life in harmony to the mutual use is completely outdated. It is undisputed that symbioses of advantagesfor both partners to contain can. Each symbiosis in addition, strict control and monitoring of the partner, because using an achievement without return actually requires by deceiving (English. “is cheating”) evolutionary more profitable and far common. Thus appears within evolutionary frameworkRace between the symbiosis partners instead of and the mutual use is limited to the smallest together justifiable denominator.

Examples of symbioses are stomach and intestine bacteria of the animals, which make for instance with Wiederkäuern the explanation for cellulose-rich plant food possible, up to specialized plants (often Orchideen), only of a certain kind of insect to be dusted can (here occur refined kinds of deceiving (“Cheating”), e.g. with hummel or fly-rise up-pepper, which pretends a Sexualpartner with its petals the dusting insect. Such relations is thus not successfully only if in a symbiosis the chances of survival of both partners increase.

On the basis of its work on lichens Anton de Bary struck 1878 on the 51. Meeting of German natural scientists and physicians in Kassel forwards, the term of the “symbiosis” forparticularly confine relations between two kinds as term to biology to introduce.

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forms of the symbiosis

a distinction different forms of the symbiosis results initself from the relationship of the pro and cons of the kinds involved:

  • Protokooperation /Allianz: Loosens relationship between different kinds; all kinds involved draw an advantage from the relationship, are however lebensfähig without each other nevertheless.
  • Coming NSA reading mash: Live together, with onlya kind an advantage enjoys, which experiences other however no recognizable disadvantage.
  • Mutualismus: Live together for the mutual advantage of the kinds. Sea anemones often live on the Schneckenhaus of hermit crabs, whereby the cancer is protected by the poisonous Nesseln of the sea anemone andthe sea anemone of food remainders of the cancer profits.
  • Eusymbiose (Greek: “symbiosis” protects): With the Eusymbiose are alone no longer lebensfähig the partners. Thus sheet cutter ants in their building of mushrooms, of which they nourish themselves, cultivate themselves the mushrooms again can without thoseAnts any longer do not increase.
  • Parasitism: Live together, with which a kind (parasite) enjoys an advantage, which is damaged others (landlord).

Another distinction offers the spatial relationship:

  • Ektosymbiose: Partners of a symbiosis remain physically separate (e.g. Blooms and their Bestäuber;Clown fish and their sea anemones)
  • Endosymbiose: one the partner is taken up to the body of the other one (e.g. Steinkorallen and their single-cell algae; Colibakterien in the intestine of all warm-bloody animals).

In addition, with the parasitism are Ektoparasiten (e.g. Head lice and Stechmücken) of Endoparasiten (e.g. Tapeworm to differentiate between Salmonellen).

further examples

  • dusting of bloom plants by insects, whereby the insects receive Nektar as food (here many examples of Nektarraub (e.g. admits. Hummeln) and Nektartäuschung (see dusting with Yucca orwith figs).
  • Transport of plant seeds in fruits by animals, whereby animals eat the fruits and again separates the seeds at another place.
  • Lichens consist those of algae and mushrooms, whereby the algae produce by photosynthesis coal hydrates, from the mushroomsare taken up, while the mushrooms supply with to the algae water and feeding salts.
  • Ants protect sheet lice, whereby they receive in response from this sugar water.
  • In the Tropics there are many plants the dwelling for ants makes available (e.g. in thorns of acacias).But not all ants protect the plant. Many kinds hive the plants out as it mutualistische kinds drive out or it sterilizes the plants (whereby more impulses and extraflorale Nektarien is formed).
  • Mykorrhizapilze extract coal hydrates from the trees and supply in response mineral materialsand water from the soil. The increasing old plant roots digest the Pilzsymbionten continuously and guarantee in such a way that parasites or Pathogene do not profit from carbon.
  • Dickhäuter such as Nilpferd and elephant are searched by birds on insects and parasites.
  • Putzerfi attach themselvesto large fish like e.g. Sharks and eat parasites from their skin.


the Endosymbiontentheorie means that those regarded Mitochondrien and Chloroplasten from endosymbiotisch living Prokaryonten (bacteria in former times as Zellorganellen in Eukaryonten ( plants, animals , mushrooms) and/or. Blue algae developed). For this the agreements because of the structural structure and because of of the “landlord cells” the deviating, but with the Prokaryonten agreeing, speak biochemical characteristics (e.g. To structure of the Ribosomen)

see also

Parabiose of bio tables factors ecological system Synökologie

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