the symbol (Latin symbolum, of Greek σύμβολον - (knowing) the indication, emblem, symbol, picture, of συν, syn'~ - zusammen~ and ball in - throw, thus the joining) marks an indication of the solidarity with oneMeaning (symbolism) or their owner.
Symbols are visual or linguistically formulated indications, which refer figurativ to something outside of their. Mostly they contain a meaning surplus, can thus not completely be understood, decoded or interpreted. During for example road sign oneexactly defined meaning, is the content of a symbol, like it particularly in religion, transports myth, art and psychology is used, not in principle exhaustable.
Indications are derived from symbols, from which one concludes somewhat clearly orto recognize can. Thus: Characteristic, landmark, badge, symbol, (recognition) mark, (document of identification) map, designation; not to confound with the Allegorie.
Nevertheless one speaks for example also of mathematical symbols, although these are exactly defined. The term becomes thus not uniformused, from which occasionally a term confusion can result.
Table of contents
the symbol term
the agreements, which is to be understood symbol “, are by the term”in the semiotic (indication theory) not at all uniformly and like that misunderstandings are pre-programmed, if not in the respective discourse first one clarifies, in which sense the symbol term to be understood are. It applies to clarify thus in the respective argument whether in the respectiveDiscourse the term” symbol “in the sense of e.g.Cassirer, Piaget, or Peirce are used, whereby the most frequent conflict cause probably the opposition” symbol “vs. ” Indication “to be seems, because a competition relationship is designed here, which is so not given.Literature to Piagets symbol term: Hans's G. Furth; Intelligence and recognizing/the bases of the genetic theory of knowledge Piagets;ISBN 3518077600
in the newer semiotic became generally accepted the view of Charles of Sanders Peirce, to which as one of the” fathers “of the semiotic is considered.With Peirce the term” indication “is to be understood as over term. ” Symbol “is then one of the three Unterkategorien | Symbol |Index | Ikon |. Particularly to emphasize it is here that the” specializedspecific “use of the term” symbol “within the range of different disciplines mean differentcan. While in the art didactics the symbol term is derived rather from Piagets symbol understanding, in the training of the communication designers (those the semiotic more near stands) the Peirce Symbolbegriff was established. If thus an art educator and a communication designer talk about” symbol “, they havea substantial clarifying need.
The fact that a” symbol “is not to be understood in the sense of a” meaning compression “becomes clear with Jacques Lacans representation of the symbolization functions. The symbolic order is organized after Lacan via three registers, those to each other in a mutual and unsolvable relationshipstand. There is this the” three registers of the symbolic order “ | Material | Symbolic | Imaginary |. Lacan represented its relationship to each other in form of a knot. The” Borromäi knot “is a central element in the teachings Lacansand possible Organistation of the psyche serves the understanding of three in the context of three psychological writingnesses: | Neurosis | Psychose | Perversion |. After Lacan exhibits besides each symbolic order a not symbolizable remainder, that at the same time the surplus and the lackthe system embodies. This not integrable remainder is the” symptom of desiring “, which determines the system as a whole. The term” symbol “as name for a Entität dissolves thereby. Lacan has also a number of further theorems in connection withthe Organistation of indications | Symbol | Discourse develops, which are relevant beside the psychoanalysis particularly for culture disciplines (Cultural Studies). The symptom (see Lacan: ” Sinthome “) can be understood in a culture-relevant Lesart as that, what” aesthetics “is called, whereby the silence” large of the different one “shows up here.
Each discussion appears so seen which a symbol” is “, generic term-oiled, because discussions of this kind are carried by an illusion, those on the Suggestivwirkung of a kopulierenden verbare based: the verb” is “and his modifications.
Entrance reading to the representation of the Symbolierungsfunktionen after Lacan: Peter Widmer; Subversion of desiring
the origin meaning is derived from an antique custom: A guest was enough to his host to the partinga broken clay/tone board or a clay/tone ring. They served as registration numbers with a possible return visit of a member from the host household with the former guest: By joining the two fragments itself the former host (or one from his family) could asto recognize give such. The ring as symbol points in such a way beyond itself to the meaning „marriage “.
in the aesthetics (as a section of philosophy) a registration number, simply in the form, richlyand deeply in the sense. On thinking and tombs not uncommonly. Example: „The lime tree tree “in the song „at the well before that gates “of Franz thrust ore/William Mueller. After Dietrich Ritschl are symbols „products of conscious, ripe realization achievement by representative officesin the form of words, actions or gestures. Symbols mediate, which cannot be articulated differently. “ (To the logic of theology, Munich 1984, 22). Hiergegen stands the thesis of the psychoanalysis, particularly for victory mouth Freud, Jacques Lacan Ernest Jones,that symbols over displacement structure themselves main.
The literature theoretician Kenneth Burke tries to understand symbols as rhetorical strategies in additionserve to dismiss conflicts the individual psyche into the society.
in the religion
- all religions press core thoughts inSymbols out, e.g. the wheel (as symbol of the eternal return), which empties grave (as symbol of the Auferstehung), the way (as symbol of life history or the Lebensführung).
- Besides there are faith symbols, which is in the Christian churches Glaubensbekenntnisse. This is derived from a Nebenform of the Greek word sýmbolon, symbólaion (Greek συμβόλαιο [ν]): the contract, the agreement. This Symbola is as obligatory faith documents to understand (e.g. the Apostolikum and the Confessio Augustana).Also a number symbolism pulls through theological thinking, whose basis the three as number of the three-agreement and the theological virtues, and which form four as number of the world. There are four daily - and seasons, directions, elements, ages,four Christian cardinal virtues (faith, love, hope, mercy), four rivers of the Paradieses (Euphrates, Tigris, Pison, Geon), as men with water jugs e.g. at the Taufbecken of the Hildesheimer of cathedral shown. In the four-number also the large prophets come and the EH gelists forwards. Three and four devoted adds seven, multiplies twelve. In the filter number arise the virtues, the death sins and the free arts (artes liberal), to the zwölfen months, the trunks of Israel, the smallProphet, younger the Jesu.
Religious symbols are konstitutive elements of religious identification, language and actions.
religious symbols are and. A.:
- Baha'i: the nine - jagged star
- Buddhismus: eight - the speichige wheel of the teachings; International Buddhisti flag
- Christianity: Alpha and omega, Cross, fish, Christ mono gram, Agnus Dei (see also: Christian symbols)
- Hinduismus: COM
- Islam: Halbmond
- Judentum: David star (stomach David, the sign of David), Menora (siebenarmiger Leuchter)
… , as in the religion, symbols are used, which refer to Transzendenz. With its research above all the depth psychology in the tradition of Carl Gustav young is concerned andthe comparative mythology. On the work young are based partially. also the research of Mythologen such as Joseph Campbell, that the symbols in religion and myth as internal and mental truths contrary to historical facts interpret and to thatmost important representatives of the comparative mythology (Comparative Mythology) counts. According to Campbell the picture language of myth and religion contains no absolute truth, but refers to truth beyond from pictures, meanings, ideologies, theologies and concepts. To that extent is the mythische symbol inAid to transform and extend over consciousness regarding Transzendenz. It stands thereby contrary to the ideological or manipulativen use of symbols, as it is to be observed partially in politics or religion.
In the art
the screen end art uses symbols since the earliest examples from cave painting into the present inside. In sakraler art the symbolism follows thereby the defaults of religion and theology. There is frequently an obligatory iconography.In the modern trend against it individual and free handling symbols steps to the place of traditional picture programs.
also the science uses symbols, as reality is illustrated in the form of symbolic representative office. Ernst Cassirer interpretsthe entire range of human culture in the form of symbolic forms: Also in the sciences with sinnlichen indications one works, which become the carrier of mental meanings and thus from sense.
in the policy
of examples of political symbols:
- the swastika as symbol for the national socialism
- hammer and Sichel as symbol of communism
- the Halbmond as symbol forthe Islam and Islamic mechanisms
- the Christian cross as indications of Christian movements and institutions
- the cross is the central religious symbol of the Christianity, however was often politically shown (from the crusades to political liberty demonstrations 2004 in the Ukraine)
- the red cross on white reason as badges of the red cross as a non-governmental organization, in political joggle to national flags, particularly in the war as indications of political neutrality
- the Turban and the sword of the Sikh as public symbolic confession
- the Fez as characteristics of Islamic men (see. the laizistische Fez and head cloth prohibition in modern Turkey in the fight against the Kalifat)
- the head cloth or also the veil as characteristics of Islamic women, politically from the Islamism to the indication of the public confessionto the quite and Strenggläubigkeit revalued
- the color green stands for the Islam and Islamic mechanisms and becomes politically often related (see. the flag revolutionary Libya)
- the color violet stands for the Evangelist church and/or. for the women's movement
insome States of (z. B. in France), carrying of political or religious symbols in public buildings is forbidden.
in the economy
are symbolsparticularly since at the success of marks takes part (z. B. the “Erdal” - frog, “Mercedes” - star). But also general symbols exist, like the fixed image for the indication of the market peace - “Roland “- in German cities (today still among other things in Bremen and whisk, some abroad).
in the technology
rather Allegorien are as symbols of of great importance, simplified representations as representatives of material existing parts or systems. (From them it comes out which part in principle it concerns, independently of the fact whetherthe material execution is modernized, like e.g. the waste-paper basket in the the acct agony position.) some Kraft also symbolic of it won nevertheless (the silhouette of a steam engine, the circle in the flag of the GDR).
in the Pädagogik
here the symbol didactics is to be called.
- symbolism, list of symbols, symbol
- semiotic, Signographie
- heraldry, Sphragistik, Vexillographie
- of symbolic interactionism in the sociology
- symbolism (symbols in the literature)
- textile care symbol
- Winfried Nöth: Manual of the semiotic. ISBN 3-476 -01226-3
- Umberto Eco: Introduction to the semiotic. ISBN 3-7705-0633-2
- Udo Becker: Encyclopedia of the symbols, ISBN 3-89836-219-1
- Manfred lurker: The message of the symbols, ISBN 3466203198
- Carl Gustav young et al.: Humans and its symbols, ISBN 3530565016
- Peter Widmer: Subversion of desiring. ISBN 3-85132-150-2
Web on the left of
- catholic church in the Internet: catholic symbols and rites
- Gerd Heinz Mohr: Over symbolism
- of symbols in mythology, religion and depth psychology
- Christian symbol encyclopedia
- society for scientific symbol research registered association.
- Typical cleaning and disposal symbols
-  symbols in the medicine (primarily historically regarded)
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