Syro Malabari church
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the designation is modern and is (A) (main) the circulation area(Malabar = Malankara) designate, (B) the historical affiliation to the Christianity of Syrian tradition clarify, at the same time however (C) each current connection to the Chaldäisch catholic church avoid.
you is an autonomous church sui iuris with approx. 3,8 million members and is above allin the Indian union state Kerala, in addition, in the Indian Diözesen Bangalore, Delhi and WAD-race - Mylapore, as well as the USA, Canada, Europe and the Gulf region spreads. Their head is since December 1999 of the 2001 to the cardinal raised large archbishop of Ernakulam Angamaly, Varkey Vithayathil CSsR (* 1927). The syro malabarische church is, although it is older than this, the Indian branch that university Universities of Chaldäisch catholic church, with eastSyrian rite.
With Rome the university ores branch of the Thomas Christians of the eastSyrian rite does not form the Metropolie of Malabar and Indiathe Assyri church of the east. Locally it is well-known also under the name „Chaldean Syrian Church OF the East “. Their earlier splitting into trailers of the Katholikos Patriarchen Mar Shimun XXIII. and Altkalendarier under (counter) the Patriarchen Mar Thomas Darmo and Mar Addai II.becameunder Katholikos Patriarch Mar Dinkha IV. healed.
Besides the autokephale Malankara gives orthodox--Syrian church (also Indian orthodox church), and the Malankara to Syrian-orthodox church, a branch of the Syrian-orthodox church of Antiochien, both with westSyrian rite, as well as the Mar Thoma church, an orthodox churchin church community with the Anglikani church.
the roots of the syro malabarischen church decrease/go back on the Apostel Thomas , the Jerusalem in the year 40 n. Chr. left and - after it in the years from 42 to 49 the peoples of the Near East (today Iran, the Iraq, Afghanistan and Belutschistan) had evangelisiert - in the year 53 to India came. The Indian Christian church is thus older than most European. From 53 to 60 Thomas traveled along the southwestCoast of India (at that time Malabar, today the union state Kerala) and arrived finally after WAD-races, where it was deadly met by a Speer. Its grave is today still admired there. The Christian churches created in such a way by it regard it until today as its founder and mirror-image-ritualFather and call themselves as „daughters hl. Thomas “(so-called.Thomas Christian). The designation „syro malabarische church “developed only very late. It was used in official documents of the holy chair, as one toward end 19. Century began to appoint native bishops.
developmentto the independent church
as church lain outside of the Roman realm these Indian Christians did not have a contact over centuries to the Roman church and developed their own authentic rite, which became Syrian chaldäisch in Seleukia Ktesiphon by the later community with the Katholikos „of the Apostoli church of the east “(→ Assyri church of the east).
Since the respected century the Thomas Christians of India had their own Metropoliten, which in the order of rank of the syro chaldäischen church in tenth place. Since the Metropoliten did not know usually the national language, the actual jurisdictional force up to the arrival became thatPortuguese by a native „ore deacon exercised by India “.
approximately around the center the 4. Century pulled 72 families of chaldäischer Jew Christians with their leader, to the rich buyer Thomas von Kinayi (kana) of its homeland kana in Syria southward after Malabar. Throughthey and their bishops, which followed the eastSyrian (chaldäischen) rite, came the Thomas Christians into contact with the Chaldäi church.
Cheraman Peru mark, the ruler of Malabar, took up the Zugewanderten friendly and granted them the right to establish itself in Kodungalloor. They kept fürstliche privileges, those lateron copper boards were held. From this group the Knanaya Christians or Knananiten developed. Since it itself on the south bank of the Periyar - river established, they also south Christians were called, while the native Christians, who lived on the north bank, when north Christians are designated. This distinction in north and south Christiansexisted today still. In their own exclusive Eparchie Kottayam living Knananiten form a strictly endogame grouping within the syro malabarischen church.
It gives today in India approx. 300.000 knananitische Christians; 200.000 belongs to the syro malabarischen church, 100,000 to the Syrian-orthodox church. In both churches the Knananiten formsa strictly endogame ethnical grouping with own bishops and own Klerus. This Endogamie goes so far that a syro malabarischer Knananite an orthodox Knananitin can marry, but never a not knananitische member of the own syro malabarischen church. In order to keep their ethnical grouping pure, and evangelisieren those missionierenKnanatiten also not - although that actually contradicts the Christian order for mission. It is not possible to become by conversion or entry member of their community.
To 29. August 1911 became the apostolische Vikariat Kottayam, in which the Knananiten lives, of Pius X.with the apostolischenLetter in Universi Christiani as exclusive Vikariat for the Knananiten again-established, after it was come up 1896 in the Vikariat Changanassery under a knananitischen bishop, and to 21. December 1923 by Pius XI.to the Eparchie (Diözese) raised. To 9. May 2005 became the Eparchie Kottayam the Erzdiözeseraised.
foreign regulation by Portuguese conquerers
as center 16. Century the jesuitische Missionar Franciscus Xaverius (1506 - 1552) on the traces of the Portuguese to India, searching for new trade routes, found he came to his large surprise a Christian municipality thereforwards. Although the Portuguese were very pleased to find Christians in India and of who Thomas Christians as brothers were welcomed, began now the centuries lasting time of the foreign regulation and the Latinisierung by force, into whose consequence the Indian church split up into several groups.
Legitimized by that Padroado - the Portuguese Kolonisatoren the Thomas Christians began system and by military force, which did not make stop also before bishop bischofsentführungen and sea-blockades, under Roman, i.e. Portuguese to bring sovereignty. When the last bishop assigned from the Patriarchen of the Syrian chaldäischen east church, died Mar Abraham , 1597, strengthenedthe Portuguese reaching for Malabar. Latin archbishop of Goa, cathedral Menezes (term of office 1595-1610), which in representation of the Portuguese viceroy also political ruling power was, knows an authorization Pope Clemens VIII. forwards, the Thomas church “took over”, used a Apostoli Vikar and subordinated it by force to thatlatin hierarchy (→ Synode of Diamper, 20. June 1599).
In the following centuries foreign appointed by Rome or Goa, usually jesuitische, were only used bishops itself the few around the local traditions jokes. The Padroado Missionare did not permit that again Syrian more chaldäischerBishop Indian soil entered. To 20. Dezember 1599年 wurde模子assyrische Metropolie Angamaly zum Suffraganbistum des lateinischen Metropoliten 冯Goa herabgestuft。
fragmentation and reunification with Rome
the RH-Missionierung by force of the Indian Christians and permanent ignoring of their 1600 years old traditions ledfinally 1653 to the break with Rome. With the oath of the inclined cross the Indian Thomas Christians in Mattancherry with Cochin again a Portuguese bishop over itself to never bear and a meeting of twelve priests the archie deacon Thomas Palakomatta selected praised as Mar Thomas I.tootheir legal head. The majority of the Thomas Christians followed the new Metropoliten and left latin the archbishop. The oath of the inclined cross is the beginning of splitting the Indian Christians into different groups and churches, who exist until today. A large part of the Thomas Christians1662 turned, after Pope Alexander VII. Italian Karmeliten for reconciliation had sent, again to the Roman church back and became the today's syro malabarischen catholic church. They received latin Apostoli Vikare and to the jurisdiction range of the Kongregation for the faith notice (propaganda Fide) were subordinated; 1917 changed thoseCompetence to the again-created Kongregation for the east churches. The Christians remained in the Schisma crossed 1665 to the Syrian-orthodox Patriarchat of Antiochien and took over the westSyrian Liturgie. Two bishops of these Syrian-orthodox Thomas Christians, Mar Ivanios and Mar Theophilos, changed 1930 with their trailers to the Roman-catholic church.Two further bishops followed. This group forms the today's syro malankarische church with westSyrian rite. Besides there are still several Protestant and independent Thomas churches in India.
organization and structure
the syro malabarische church is an autonomous church of own right. At their point stood to 1992 equally the two archbishops of Ernakulam and Changanacherry. Since 1993 the large archbishop of Ernakulam Angamaly manages the church. It has five Erzdiözesen and ten Diözesen , in addition twelve Diözesen in the Federal State Kerala outside of Keralas, from those one in March 2001 in Canadaone established (pc. Thomas's OF Chicago), the only Diözese outside of India. There is eight syro malabarische mission churches in the USA and one in Canada.
The large archbishop has a very much limited line force over the Eparchien (Diözesen) outside of his own area only. They are thatneighbouring latin Metropolien assigned; only the Eparchie Chicago is subordinate directly to the holy chair. Their bishops are tidy members of the syro malabarischen Bischofssynode, although their resolutions - except those too liturgical topics - for them are not binding.
In the Diözesen and Erzdiözesen of the own area andthe Eparchien Kalyan and pc. Thomas in Chicago has the bishop only the line force over the syro malabarischen Christians, while the bishops of the remaining Diözesen have the full line force over all catholics, equal who rite it belongs to.
With the award of the title of a large ore diocese to thosesyromalabarische religious community in the year 1992 had reserved itself the the Holy See right to the jurisdiction concerning the Liturgie and the appointment of the bishops. After the jurisdiction had been already transferred in the range of the Liturgie 1998 to the syromalabarische church, the Präfekt of the papal announced Kongregation for the east churches, cardinal Ignace Moussa Daoud, the syro malabarischen large archbishop at the edge of the meeting of the Indian bishops in Thrissur (union state Kerala) in January 2004 that the Synod of the syro malabarischen bishops in the future also autonomously over the appointment of the own bishops andthe establishment and dissolution of Eparchien (Diözesen) in the own territory will be able to decide.
Thus the Synode from now on will decide with a mehrheitlichen tuning on liturgical questions and the selection of the bishops after appropriate evaluation among different candidates for the office for bishop. The names thatBishops are then submitted to the Pope for approval.
Which concerns the territorial jurisdiction in India, the Kongregation reserved itself the right to the establishment of new Diözesen outside of the union state Kerala. This is the protection of the relations between the three different rites existing in India(Latin rite, syromalabarischer rite and syromalankarischer rite) serve.
(in parentheses the year of the establishment)
- Metropolie Changanasserry (1896) with the Eparchien:
- Kanjirapally (1977)
- Pala (1950)
- Thuckalay (1996)
- Metropolie Kottayam (1911, ore diocese 2005)
- Metropolie Ernakulam Angamaly (1896) with the Eparchien:
- Kothamangalam (1956)
- Idukki (2003)
- Metropolie Thalassery (1953) with the Eparchien:
- Belthangady (1999)
- Mananthavady (1973)
- Thamarassery (1986)
- Metropolie Trissur (1887) with the Eparchien
- Irinjalakuda (1978)
- Palakkad (1973)
- Eparchien outside of Keralas, which are assigned to different latin Metropolien:
- Adilabad (1999)
- Bijnor (1972)
- Chanda (1962)
- Gorakhpur (1984)
- Jagdalpur (1972)
- Kalyan (1988)
- Rajikot (1977)
- Sagar (1968)
- Satna (1968)
- Ujjain (1968)
- Chicago, the USA (2001)
the syro malabarische church has world-wide about 3.8 million members in approx. 2800 municipalities, 25 Diözesen and four Erzdiözesen. You belong approx. 6600 priests, of it 3600 medal priests on. Itgives 39 institutes geweihten life and societies of apostolischen life of syro malabarischen origin for men and nine for women, over 34.000 members (30,843 women, 3,925 men); in addition approx. 2,200 seminarists in 45 seminars.
the syromalabarische rite
the syromalabarische rite belongs beside the syromalankarischenand the Roman rite to the three rites of the catholic church of India. It belongs to the chaldäischen rite family and is deeply in the Indian culture verwurzelt, which itself for example during the marriage ceremony, the Krankensalbung and the rites connected with the birth and deathas well as the architecture of the churches shows. The syro malabarische church retained a particularly rich rite with gestures and customs, to which also folkloristische dances belong („liking RAM potash “), which represent the Evangelisierungsgeschichte.
In the year 1934 Pope initiated Pius XI.a process, which in the meantime to a large extent latinisiertenRites again to its eastern origins to lead back should. A Liturgie restored from the original Syrian sources became of Pius XII. and 1962 confirm 1957 imported. Although the fundamentals of these Liturgiereform were again confirmed of the papal Kongregation for the east churches 1985, it gives totoday large of resistances against it. Most syro malabarischen Diözesen carry out a rite, which is hardly to be differentiated for outstanding ones from the Roman to.1996 took Pope Johannes Paul II.at the opening meeting of a Bischofssynode part, which became to call up into the purpose, the disputes for many decades between „the Roman “andto overcome „the eastern “parliamentary groups of the syro malabarischen church finally. Since 1998 the syro malabarischen bishops have the full authority in all questions of the Liturgie and the rites.
Until 1968 in the Liturgie excluding the Syrian language (aramäische) it was used why the church as „Syrian “Church is designated. 1968 were celebrated the holy fair for the first time in Malayalam, the national language of the union state Kerala.
the syro malabarische church is not only - after the Ukrainian church - which is second largest the 21 churches eastcatholic with Rome university ores, italso one of the most active and most vital catholic churches world-wide.
A special characteristic of this church are the numerous priest and occupations of medal: over 6.000 Diözesanpriester, 30,000 sisters and thousands medal priests and layman brothers originate from the syro malabarischen church and are active in Diözesen and Kongregationen of latin rite,so that originally this church belong to approximately 70% all priest (world and medal priest) and sisters in India (with 17 million Christian with approximately 1 billion inhabitant).
The church maintains several hundred schools and universities, over thousand kindergartens and some hundred training and training further centers. Thus becamein Kerala a nearly 95 per cent Alphabetisierung reaches, while the illiterate ratio was in India 1991 about 45%.
archbishop of Ernakulam
- 1896-1919 Aloysius Pareparambil (Pazheparambil) (Apostoli Vikar)
- 1919-1956 Augustine Kandathil
- 1956-1984 Joseph Parecattil
of large archbishops of Ernakulam Angamaly
- 16. December 1992- 1996 Antony cardinal Padiyara (1921-2000)
- 11. November 1996 - 1999 Vakant
- 23. December 1999 - today Varkey cardinal Vithayathil, C.SS.R.
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