system theory is an interdisciplinary realization model, in which systems are consulted for the description and explanation of differently complex phenomena. The analysis of structures and functions is to permit frequently forecasts over the system performance.
The terms of the system theory become in different scientific disciplines applied, so computer science, physics, electro-technology, chemistry, biology, logic, mathematics, physiology, sociology, psychology, Ethnologie, social work, semiotic and philosophy. The system theory is thus no ownDiscipline, but a widely distributed and heterogeneous framework for an interdisciplinary discourse, which leads the term system as fundamental idea. Therefore there is also not a “system theory”, but rather a multiplicity more differently, partially competitive system definitions and - understands. It has itself todayhowever a relatively stable row at terms and theorems developed, on which the system-theoretical discourse rekurriert.
Table of contents
thatUnderstood general system theory decreases/goes back on the biologists Ludwig von Bertalanffy . Its work forms the fundamental considerations of this together with the cybernetics (Norbert Viennese, William Ross Ashby ) and the communication theory (Claude Shannon, Warren Weaver)Science beginning. Further important theories come from Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela (Autopoiesis), Stuart Kauffman (self organization), Bronislaw Malinowski and Alfreds Radcliffe Brown (functionalism) as well as Talcott Parsons (structure functionalism or system functionalism) and NIC-read Luhmann (sociological system theory).
mainstreams of the system theory
the system theory been based on independently developed beginnings, which were synthesized later and extended: The term system theory and/or. System teachings comeby Ludwig von Bertalanffy (see. “General of system Theory”). Bertalanffy speaks of open systems and develops the term of the organized complexity, which is to describe the dynamic exchange with the environment. Only with the Ausformulierung of the information term this concept left itselfcontinue to generalize however. 1948 had already coined/shaped Norbert Viennese with “Cybernetics” (cybernetics) a likewise central expression, which is closely connected today with the system term. A further related concept is the Tektologie Alexander Bogdanows.
system teachings(L. from Bertalanffy)
Ludwig von Bertalanffy introduced a new scientific paradigm , which he positioned as counter project to classical physics. He criticized their deductive procedures and the isolated view of single phenomena, accompanying with it. For biology is not this methodadequately. In place of single phenomena, which would more realiter never arise isolated, these phenomena in their cross-linking are to be described. Therefore it opposed the system term to the isolated single view, whereby this term was to describe a quantity of elements and their relation among themselves. Assuch a model regarded he the “organized complexity “. While the classical science successfully described “disorganized complexity”, stand the theoretical collection of organized complexity before new challenges. Organized complexity is given, if single phenomena are not simply linear logically coupled with one another,separate reciprocal effects among them would exist. If this is the case, an accurate description of the reciprocal cross-linking conditions can obtain a picture of the unit of the sum of those single phenomena. The system teachings examine thus the organization forms of complex interrelations between individual elements beyond linear representableRelations and simple causality. Bertalanffy differentiated between open and closed systems. A closed system is ordering described as within stable and over no reciprocal effects with the environment. In such a system there is itself strict-taken no organized complexity, there thoseElements in the equilibrium in mathematically clear way to each other hold back. An open system against it had variablisierte relations of its elements, which are changed by not-prognosticatable environmental influences. The internal variability makes it for the system possible to stabilize in a dynamic surrounding field relatively(Flow equilibrium). Open systems unfold thus in the exchange with their environment dynamics and vary their Zuständlichkeit without thereby their system structures completely to change to have. They are characterised by the fact that they are not affected causally from the outside, butchange their internal organization over with environmental changes (“Black box “- theorem). This is called self organization and can be considered as paradigm of organized complexity.
Against the “Newton's conception of the world” Bertalanffy set thus its thought of general, interdisciplinary system teachings. Also in Wissenschaftsgebieten, thosenot in the contexts of physicochemical regularities - for instance biology or the sociology -, would arise nevertheless accurate regularities arranged themselves, which could be illustrated by suitably selected model conceptions.
The system teachings were conceived as general natural science of the life. In thatSystem teachings energetically open systems are described. L. from Bertalanffy argued before the background of the physical view of thermodynamics (heat death). Open systems can take up energy from their environment and develop so to higher order, thus the global thermodynamic entropy locallygo around. The systems of the system teachings are organism, the substantial process are the osmose, which runs in a flow equilibrium (steady state).
The information and regulation process became from L. by Bertalanffy formulates mathematical.
the cybernetics treatsoperationally closed mechanisms. It was conceived as regulation and information theory. The focus of the cybernetics is on regulation and control. Therefore primarily regulated mechanisms are possible in the cybernetics as systems. The regulation is always based on processes, which are described with the mathematical system theory of the technology. L. from Bertalanffy against the mixture of his system teachings and the cybernetics expressed themselves, because it mechanistical thinking of the cybernetics for the description of lives not when adequately judged.Today the expression “system theory” is used however at will for both on third.
general extensions of the cybernetics
as system theory 2. Order designates one system theories, which are reflexive in the following sense: With the respective system theory the system theoretician becomes, thatthe theory makes described. The core term is therefore the observation of the observer.
Inventor of the 2. Order is Heinz von Foerster, it spoke of 2. order cybernetics or of cybernetics OF cybernetics. The system theory 2. Order is one epistemological interpretation of the system theory, in which one examines, what the system theoretician as system theoretically know can. The system theory 2. Order is closely related to radicals the constructionalism. In the early writings the self organization plays larger role, into thatlater writings is much of ethics the speech.
Autopoiesis H calls. Maturana both its system theory as well as the substantial process, which it describes with its theory, i.e. the life. H. Maturana describes, roughly seen, the same as L. ofBetalannfy in his system teachings, it argues however cybernetic: he speaks of living (autopoietischen) machines, which are operationally closed.
When one designates self organization processes, which lead like the Autopoiese to higher structural orders, without a processor/an operator is recognizable. An exemplaryExample is the laser beam, on the basis its theory of H. Hook was also developed.
The radicals constructionalism was developed by Ernst von Glasersfeld. It interpreted thereby the work of Jean Piaget radical and reformuliert cybernetic. The way of thinking ofJ. Piaget was implicitly cybernetic and explicitly epistemologisch. The radical interpretation leads those to a theory, closely related to the system theory 2. Order is. E. from glazier field argues in particular also with the operational unanimity of systems. In the vulgären variantradicals the constructionalism the system theory is omitted, but over the reality of the reality “philosophy ore”.
System Dynamics one calls the modelling with automatic control loops. Admits made the procedure Jay W. Forrester by the world model “WORLD 3”, on the basis its in that Club OF Rome - publication of “limit ton of Growth” (the borders of growth, Dennis L. Meadows was prognosticated 1972) the global Rohstoffverbrauch.
specializedspecific extensions of the cybernetics
- technological cybernetics (mechanism, computer science, system theory of the technology)
- biological cybernetics(biological Autopoiesis, biocybernetics)
- Sozietale cybernetics (social cybernetics)
sociological system theory
System theory with Parsons:
The sociological system term goes on Talcott Parsonsback. Parsons regards thereby actions as konstitutive elements of social systems. It coined/shaped the term of the structural-functional system theory.
Extension and new formulation by Luhmann:
Luhmann differentiates between three special types of social systems: Interaction systems, organisation systems and society systems. The society is thereby a system of higherOrder, a system of “other type”. It covers the other systems, without they come up in it.
theory of complex systems
the newest current is the theory of complex systems (representatives and others Stuart Kauffman). A complex system participatesa system its characteristics not completely from the characteristics of the components of the system to explain leave themselves. Complex systems consist of a multiplicity of connected and interacting parts, Entitäten or agents.
- Complex adaptive systems
the theory complexes of the adaptive systemsbeen based predominantly on the work of the Santa Fe of institutes. Complex adaptive systems (John H. Holland, Murray Gell man, Harold Morowitz, W. Brian Arthur) this new complexity theory, which describes Emergenz, adjustment, and self organization, is based on agents andComputer simulations, which include multi-agent systems (MAS), which became an important instrument with the research of social and complex systems.
these four main directions have forerunner, subsections, developments, applications in the Fachdiziplinen.
(David Ruelle, Edward N. Lorenz, Mitchell fig tree, Steve Smale, James A. Yorke) the chaos theory concerns itself with certain nonlinear dynamic systems, which exhibit a set of phenomena, which one calls chaos. One of these phenomena is the butterfly effect, which means that smallChanges unexpectedly large effects to have can. The effect was designated after Edward N. Lorenz. Further representatives are Benoit almond bread and Henri Poincaré. Chaotic systems are their opinion after for example weather, climate, plate tectonics, turbulence, economic circulations, Internet and the population growth.
the disaster theory (René Thom, E.C. Zeeman) is a branch of mathematics, which with the bypasses of dynamic systems concerns itself, describes sudden changes, which result from small changes of circumstances.
of the Konnektionismus understands a system as reciprocal effects of many interlaced, simple units. Most konnektionistischen models describe the data processing in neuron nets. They form a bridge between biological research and technical application.
- medical cybernetics
the medical cyberneticscovers the application of system-theoretical, realign-theoretical, konnektionistischer and decision-analytic concepts for biomedical research and clinical medicine.
- Medical system theory
the goal of the medical system theory is it to understand the complex connections of the physical system and their specific interlaced function mode better. Becomephysiological dynamic ones in the healthy and gotten sick organism identified and system-theoretically models.
- Dialectic system theory
the dialectic system theory assumes the term, understood system as a structured whole, for which science must be understood as konstitutiv. As Gegenbegriff of the systemthe chaos is set. In such a way understood system term and the guidance distinction system and chaos are formulated particularly with Kant and Hegel.
- systemic psychology
- system theory of the four-arrangement
- Viable of system Theory
requirement for universality
a characteristic of these theoretical beginnings is the requirement to compile a formal theory which is as comprehensively as possible applicable. This requirement goes particularly out of Bertalanffys work “general system theory”out:“If we…. it defines the term of the system accordingly then we find that there are models, principles and laws, which apply to generalized systems independently of the nature of these systems. “Also today it is this adjustment, the system-theoretical beginningsto appear attractive leaves, even if the goal is unequalled so far. Thus for instance the Santa Fe of institutes connects a universal requirement for explanation with its “theory of complex adaptive systems “. Also the “theory of social systems “NIC-read Luhmanns divides this adjustment.
terms of the system theory
the central fundamental idea of the system theory is the system (after gr. ton of systems = compilation). The acceptance, it would give systems, can quasi as basic axiom of this beginning be regarded.
A system is defined about as follows:
1. A system is limited and definable (system/environmental difference). It consists of a system border (“Boundary”), a system core, resources, cooperating these elements as well as of energy or signals. Something over the system borders away transported is this system an open, otherwise inclosed system. All outside of the system border lying is not part of the system, but its environment.
2. A system is a quantity of elements, which cooperate in such a way within a defined or definable range that with it a complete, a meaningful, a purpose and a purposefulCooperate in a functional sense becomes attainable.
3. Structure and function mode of a system depend on the point of view of the viewer.
in the following some examples of system-theoretical thinking from the engineer science. These examples it is common that they can be solved with the same kind from differential equations. This use of a universal tool toSolution more differently, first not appearing related problems is part of “system-theoretical” thinking.
- Description of oscillations (and their reproduction), e.g.
- description of the behavior of electrical circuits,
- description of mechanical procedures (e.g. Distribution of forces).
- to system science
- of complex system
- systemic system information
- sociological system theory
- 1948: Norbert Viennese Cyberneticsor control and Communication into the Animal and the Machine, (Hermann edition in Paris;
- 1949: Ludwig von Bertalanffy, to general system teachings, Biologia Generalis, 195:114 - 129.
Cambridge: WITH press, Wiley & Sons in NY 1948)
- 1949: Claude Shannon, Warren Weaver, A mathematical theory OF communication, Illinois, 1949, ISBN 0252725484
- 1956: William Ross Ashby: Introduction ton of Cybernetics
- 1957: Bertalanffy, Ludwig of: General system theory; German university newspaper 1957, number 12, S. 8-12
- 1968: Ludwig von Bertalanffy, General systemTheory New York, 1968; 1976 extended edition
- 1969: George Spencer Brown, Laws OF form, 1969, ISBN 0045100284
- 1980: Humberto R. Maturana, Francisco J. Varela, Autopoiesis and Cognition The Realization OF the Living, edition 1991, ISBN 9027710163
- 1984: NIC-read Luhmann, social systems. Sketch of a general theory, 1984, new edition 2001, ISBN 3518282662
- 1987: Jurgen Ruesch, Gregory Bateson, Communication: The Social matrix OF Psychiatry, 1987 (new edition), ISBN 039302377X
- 1987: Ernst von Glasersfeld: Knowledge, language, reality
- 1988: Rapoport, Anatol: General system theory, Darmstädter of sheets, Darmstadt 1988
- 1993: Heinz von Foerster: Knowledge and certain, Suhrkamp
- 1995: Heinz von Foerster, Cybernetics OF Cybernetics, The control OF control and the Communication OF Communication, ISBN 0964704412
- 1996: DavidJ. Krieger, introduction to the general system theory, Stuttgart, ISBN 3825219046
- 1997: NIC-read Luhmann, the society of the society, 2 Bde., Frankfurt, ISBN 351858247X
- 1998: Bend-refined, John; Dudley, Peter; Alexander Bogdanov and the Origins OF of system Thinking in Russia;The Proceedings OF A Conference RK the University OF East Anglia, January 1996.1998 Ashgate Publishing Group;ISBN 185972678X
- 1998: Norbert bishop, structure and meaning. An introduction to the system theory for psychologists, (2. Aufl.), ISBN 3456830807 (with an introductioninto the methods of the mathematical systems analysis - including Z-transform - only with Abitur mathematics as a condition)
- 1999: Helmut Willke, Systemtheorie, I. Bases, II. Intervention theory, III. Control theory, Stuttgart 1999, 2000, 2001, ISBN 3825211614, ISBN 3825218007, ISBN 3825218406
- 2001: GeraldM. Vineyard, at Introduction ton general of system Thinking, 2001 (25th Anniversary edition), ISBN 0932633498
- 2002: Dirk baker, for what systems?, ISBN 3931659232
- 2002: Heinz von Foerster, Understanding of system: Conversations on Epistemology and Ethics, ISBN 0306467526
- 2003: Andreas's house flax, systems analysis, ISBN 3800727153
- 2003: Dieter M. Imboden, Sabine cook, systems analysis, Berlin, ISBN 3540439358
- 2003: Christian Schuldt, system theory, Hamburg: European publishing house, ISBN 3434461841
- 2004: Bernhard Poerksen, The Certainty OF Uncertainty, ISBN 0907845819
- 2004: Thomas Frey, Martin bad ore, signaland system theory, ISBN 3519061937
- 2004: Luhmann, Dirk baker, introduction to the system theory, ISBN 3896704591 NIC-read
- 2005: Dirk baker (Hrsg.), key works of the system theory, Wiesbaden, ISBN 3531140841
- 2005: Michael Gerth, Luhmann for a risers. Multimedia introduction to the system theory ofLuhmann, software NIC-read 
Web on the left of
- history of the system thinking and the system term
- Crashkurs constructional system theory
- system theory housework
- glossary of central terms of the system theory
- Skriptum introduction to the system theory, University of Osnabrück
- system science at the University of Osnabrück
|topics||System science, cybernetics, chaos theory, complexity theory, radical constructionalism, systemic system information, communication theory, system theory of the evolution, system dynamics, agent-based modelling, system theory 2. Order, information Dynamics|
|of system terms||system, open system, Autopoiesis, Selbstreferenzialität, Self organization, closed system, Emergenz|
|system theory in different disciplines||medical cybernetics, medical system theory, sociological system theory, social cybernetics, biocybernetics, system theory in electro-technology, systemic psychology, systemic therapy|
|system scientist||William Ross Ashby, Ludwigfrom Bertalanffy, Heinz von Foerster, Jay Forrester, Ernst von Glasersfeld, Stuart Kauffman, NIC-read Luhmann, Humberto Maturana, Talcott Parsons, Alfred Radcliffe Brown, Francisco Varela, Norbert Viennese|