Turkey

Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
Republic of Turkey
Türkische Flagge
Wappen der Türkei
(detail) (detail)

Wahlspruch: Yurtta Sulh, Cihanda Sulh
(Turkishly for „peace in the homeland, peace in the world “)

office language Turkishly
capital Ankara
system of government Laizisti Republic of, parliamentary democracy
president Ahmet Necdet Sezer, since 17. May 2000
Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, since 11. March 2003
surface 779,452 km ² (place 36)
number of inhabitants 69.660.559 (conditions July 2005, place 16)
population density of 88.25 inhabitants per km ² (place 82)
establishment 29. October 1923
currency Türk Lirası
gross national product entire 301.5 billion $ (IMF 2004)
gross national product per head 4172 $ (IMF 2004)
time belt UTC +2
national anthem İstiklâl Marşı
Kfz characteristic TR
TLD .tr/com.tr/org.tr
preselection +90
mains voltage 220 V
Lage der Türkei
Topographische Karte der Türkei

the Republic of Turkey (self-designation Türkiye Cumhuriyeti, abbreviation T.C.) the succession state of the Osmani realm is and came out after the First World War from this. Turkey is a laizistische republic. The Laizismus decreases/goes back to the state State of Mustafa Kemal “Atatürk “. Atatürk was anxious to modernize by many social reforms Turkey after the model of Europe. Since that 3. Octobers 2005 run the negotiations of accession of Turkey with the European union.

Table of contents

similar

Geografie

situation of map

of Turkey Turkey geographically over two continents. Anatolien, the asiatic part of the Turkish national territory, takes about 97% of the surface. The European part forms the eastern Thrakien and covers about 3% of the national surface (23,623 km ²).

The national borders of Turkey have an overall length of approx. 9,850 km, of it are circumscribed 7,200 km of the sea. In the west the Ägäi sea is appropriate for Turkey, in the south the Mediterranean and in the north the black sea. Besides Turkey with eight neighboring countries divides a border with an overall length of 2.648 km. In the northwest it borders on Greece (206 km border) and Bulgaria (240 km), in the northeast at Georgien (252 km), Armenia (268 km), Azerbaijan (Exklave and autonomous Republic of Nachitschevan) (9 km), in the east to Iran (499 km) and in the south at the Iraq (352 km) and Syria (822 km).

Above all the north of Turkey belonged to the most strongly earthquake-endangered regions of the world and was shaken in the last years always again by earthquakes. Since a certain chronological east west succession of the earthquakes in north Turkey is to be determined, experts assume in foreseeable time also İstanbul could be shaken by a large quake. Last large quake in the province the Kocaeli were distant less than 100 km von İstanbul.

Landscape

Landschaft westlich Ankaras
landscape west Ankaras

Turkey is divided into seven regions: Thrakien - and Marmararegion, Ägäis, black sea - region, central Anatolien, Mediterranean area, east and southeast Anatolien. These regions differ strongly concerning vegetation and weather conditions.

Thrakien is west of the Bosphorus on the European side. On the thrakischen Hochebene the river Meriç forms the border to Greece. East of the Bosphorus the Marmara region lies. The Marmarameer separates Europe from Asia and the Ägäi sea from the black sea. To the Mediterranean the Dardanellen extends on a length of 60 km. The two promontories are broadest with Çanakkale with up to 4 km. At the Bosphorus the million-metropolis İstanbul is located. The landscape in this region is hilly and of shrubs and forests covered. The fruitful plough land yields in the east of a steppe landscape. The region forms the economical center of Turkey. The town with millions of inhabitants Bursa is famous as health resort for its sulfur and Thermalquellen. It lies to feet of the Uludağ - mountains. The mountain is both in the summer (escape before the heat) and in the winter (winter sports) a popular trip goal.

The Ägäis region is used likewise agriculturally intensively. The strongly hilly landscape extends along the west coast between Çanakkale and Bodrum. The coastal region belongs to the best routistic opened regions of Turkey. Beside Zypressen and oil trees common grape vines coin/shape the landscape. In this region many antique buildings are from the time of the Greek settlement, z. B. Troja, Assos (Behramkale), Pergamon (Bergama), Ephesus (Efes), Priene, Milet, Didyma and euro MOS.

The black sea region covers the northern coastal strip of Turkey. It is coined/shaped by a mild, damp climate, and on their hilly landscape large forests extend. On the very fruitful soil dte, tobacco, corn and Haselnüsse are cultivated.

The zentralanatolische region covers the inneranatolischen Hochebenen. Here lie the salt lake Tuz Gölü (saltier than the dead sea) and mountain chains, which high-rise up in parts up to 3.900 m. In the east lies Kappadokien, which because of its living caves driven in tuff and tufa and rock churches in mountain cones high up to 2.000 m admits is. Inneranatolien is predominantly coined/shaped and belonged by a steppe landscape to the driest areas Anatoliens; in the region around the Tuz Gölü accepts the landscape wild-similar shape. Therefore the agricultural use is not as strongly trained in this region, as in the regions specified before. Above all wheat, barley and fruit are cultivated here. The climate of this region is coined/shaped by hot, dry summers (over 40 degrees) with cold evenings. The winters are very cold (under -20 degrees).

The Mediterranean region is limited in the north by the Taurus and in the east by only the Dağları (Amanosgebirge). Agriculturally in this region Zitrusfrüchte , bananas , tomatoes , peanuts and cotton are cultivated predominantly.

Castle of Van at the Vansee in the east of Turkey

Südostanatolien is the oldest culture region of Turkey. It is enclosed by the Taurus mountains. Here the two rivers Euphrates and Tigris run. Agriculturally this region is used by wheat, Gersten, wine, olive and Pistazienanbau. Apart from mountain processes the region is east Euphrates coined/shaped by a high plateau. For further agricultural cultivation in the context of the Südostanatolien project along Euphrates and Tigris are established over 22 dams.

Highest mountains of Turkey: (see also: List of the mountains in Turkey)

of the Tigris in close proximity to Diyarbakır

most important rivers of Turkey: (see also: Category: River in Turkey)

Lakes of Turkey:

  • Van Gölü 3713 km ²
  • Tuz Gölü 1500 km ² (salt lake)
  • Beyşehir Gölü 656 km ²
  • Eğridir Gölü 468 km ²
  • Akşehir Gölü 353 km ²
  • İznik Gölü 298 km ²

important islands of Turkey: (see also: Category: Island (Turkey))

  • 279 km ² Marmara
  • Adası 117 km ² Bozcaada
  • 36 km ² Uzunada
  • 25 km ² Alibey
  • 23 km ² Paşalimanı
  • 21 km ² Avşar
  • 21 km ² climate

climatic diagram

Klimadiagramm İstanbul
İstanbul climatic diagram
Klimadiagramm Ankara
Ankara climatic diagram
Klimadiagramm Antalya
Antalya climatic diagram
Klimadiagramm Van
Van Flora

and Fauna

the surface of Turkey 26.2% used Gökçeada by forest taken, agriculturally 36.3% of the total area will reach.

The Flora of Turkey is considered as the most varied and most varied in Near East. Approximately 9,000 kinds with 850 kinds are; in the south above all plants, which adapted to the dry summers, z. B. evergreen hedges and bushes, oak trees, olives - and Johannisbrotbäume. In the Hochebenen wild flowers and Bodendecker are domestic.

The steppes are controlled by bushes , coniferous forests and Schwarzkiefern, the dry areas also by thistles and Kakteengewächsen (thorn pad). In the north, particularly at the black sea coast, are expanded Haselnuss -, corn - and to dte plan days, in the south rather fruit - and cotton plan days.

Also many kinds of small game and wild pigs are domestic, although their existence dezimiert itself steadily by the hunt. At utilizable animals are priority cattle, horses, buffalos, sheep and goats. The camel existence decreased/went back in the last decades steadily; they are bred with priority today for sporty matches and no more than carriers.

The largest Raubtiere, which live today still in Turkey, are and. A. Brown bear, wolves, Schakale and some Luchsarten. The last Turkish leopard is to have been hunted 1979 in chopping air by a farmer.

Turkey is breeding and wintering place for numerous kinds of bird. South of Bandırma - in the Kuscenneti national park - a well-known Vogelparadies lies, where pelicans, Wildenten, storks, Kormorane, nightingales and pheasants found their homeland.

Cities

Blick vom Atakule Tower auf Ankara (Richtung NNO)
view of the Atakule Tower of Ankara (direction NNO)

the urbanization in Turkey far, 74% of the total population walked live in front in the city. While the southeast of Turkey is very thinly settled, the population in the large cities of the west coast concentrates.

capital is the Ankara with 3.203.362 inhabitants, lain in Zentralanatolien. Ankara is also an important economic and university town.

Largest city and at the same time economical and cultural center is the Istanbul which was located at the Bosphorus (in former times Konstantinopel), which is on both sides of the sea tightness and itself so extended to two continents over a surface of 1.269 km ². The actual city has 8.803.468 inhabitants; in the Metropolregion, which is identical to the floor space of the province Istanbul, 11.588.545 humans live on a surface of 5.220 km ² - that is more than twice as large like the Saarland -. Thus Istanbul is one of the largest cities of the world.

İzmir is had the third biggest Turkish city with 2.232.265 inhabitants and after Istanbul second largest trade the port. Bursa (1.194.687 inhabitants) the former capital of the Osmani realm is today an important economic situation for the automobile and textile industry. The most important city in the southeast of Turkey is Diyarbakir. Diyarbakir possesses the largest and besterhaltenste attachment plant of the world after the Chinese wall. It consists mostly of basalt. The plant is divided into an inside and an outside section. Further important cities are Adana (1.130.710 inhabitants), Gaziantep (853,513 inhabitants), Konya and the tourist center Antalya (conditions 2000).

See also: List of the cities in Turkey, history Istanbuls

population

major item: Minority politics of Turkey

Ethnien

the exact ethnical composition of the population in Turkey can be recognized not accurately. With official censuses the ethnical affiliation is not seized. However native language and secondary language are determined, whereby the numbers are strongly declining with many minorities due to the Turkish assimilation politics. In addition it comes that in Turkey for thousands of years the most diverse groups of peoples mix, so that the addition of humans is to a group of peoples often a definition question.

Verteilung der größten ethnischen Minderheit im Osten des Landes: die Kurden
Distribution of the largest ethnical minority in the east of the country: the Kurds

the exact number of the Kurds, the largest and itself is particularly disputed the assimilation most strongly extracting minority. The data to the Ethnien differ depending on, which sources are consulted, strongly. Therefore the following Ethnien lives in Turkey: 70 80% Turk, approx. 20 30% Kurd, 2 3% Zaza, 2% Arab, 1% Albanians, 0.5% Tscherkessen, 0.5% Georgier as well as various other ethnical groups and nationalities (ABC hare, Aramäer, Armenian, Assyrer, Bosniaken, Bulgaren, Greek , Chechens read).

The subpopulation of the Turks is differently defined. The Turkish government ranks since 1965 subpopulations among which are regarded of other sources partially than member of other Turkvölker. This concerns about 2-5 million Krimtataren and act arene, about 0.5-2 million Aserbaidschaner, about 330,000 Yörük Türkmenen, up to 200.000 Mescheten, about 100,000 Tahtaci, about 60,000 Terekeme, about 14.000-20.000 Gagausen, about 2,000 Usbeken as well as about in each case 1,000 Kasachen, Kirgisen, Kumyken, Turkmenen and 500 Uiguren.

See also: Turk, Turkvölker, list of the Turkish trunks

religion

major item: Religion in Turkey

the principle of the version of the Laizismus practiced in Turkey prescribes a strict separation from religion and state , more exactly said a strict subordination of the religion under the state. Article 24 of the condition of 1982 limits the faith liberty to the individual. Religious communities cannot make rights valid from the condition section. This attitude results from the dominant ideology of the Kemalismus in the Turkish society.

The sunnitisch--Islamic mechanisms become of the national Diyanet İşleri Bakanlığı, which presidency for affairs of religion administers. It regulates the training that about 100,000 Imame and Muezzine, paid and receives the mosques and gives country-wide contents of the lectures which can be held . The other groups of religions administer themselves against it, receive less national support, enjoy for it however more internal autonomy.

After official statistics 99.8% of the Turkish population are Muslims. Of it is about 65 to 70% Sunniten, the remaining 30 to 35% Aleviten. According to other estimations there are to 75 to 80% Sunniten and 20 to 25% Aleviten. In addition Christian (125.000) and 0.04% Jew in Turkey 0.2% ( 23.000) live. At the beginning 20. Century lived however still about 20% Christians in the area of today's Turkey and 1923 100,000 Jews in Turkey were counted.

The official numbers are however misleading, because each inhabitant of Turkey, if he is not associated explained explicitly as another religion, is seized automatically as a Muslim. A counterpart to the church withdrawal does not give it, so that also Atheisten and Agnostiker are led officially as Muslims. The number of the not religious inhabitants of Turkey is not well-known therefore.

Languages

in Turkey are used the following languages:

see also: Turksprachen, Turkish language, Türk Dil Kurumu

social

population trend of the Turkey from 1961 to 2002 (population in thousand inhabitants)

since the establishment of republic in the year 1923 increased the population of Turkey fast. 1927 lived in Turkey scarcely 14 million humans, 2003 there was scarcely 70 million (see diagram). In the last years the population growth slowed down very much. While it amounted to 2000 still 1.7%, for 2004 with a population growth from 1,13% one proceeds.

Turkey is at the same time an emigration and an immigration country. From the Balkans, the Near East, Greece, Iran, central Asia, Krim etc. evacuees came into the republic to the case of the iron wall. On the other side many minorities left Turkey, about Kurd, Assyrer, Greek, Jew, Jesiden, Zaza etc. as well as millions of actual Turks.

In the following the numbers of inhabitants of Turkey are listed in selected years:

Turkey has a very recent population. The Altersdurschnitt of the Turkish population lies at approximately 27.3 years (conditions 2004). The age structure built itself 2004 up as follows: 26.6% the citizen are between 0 and 14 years old, 66.8% between 15 and 64 years and only 6.6% over 65 years old.

The state makes a medical basic supply available for all citizens. 1999 came on the average a physician on 859 inhabitants. The life expectancy amounts to in Turkey with the men 66.6 years and with the women 71.2 years. With the standard of living, which is represented by the human development index, Turkey is appropriate for 96 world-wide on that. Place (conditions 2003). Thus it belongs to the countries with a middle level of development (to the comparison: Germany occupies the 19. Place).

Since the establishment of republic is tried to improve the position of the woman in the Turkish society. Turkey belonged to the first states, which introduced the woman right to vote. Since 1930 may select and since 1934 know women in Turkey them to the choice to place itself. The suppression of women and domestic force in Turkey ranks nevertheless among the everyday life. Only 2004 were decided a law by the parliament, which punishes „honour murders as mentioned “at girls and women as deliberate murder with lifelong detention. Before it with such murders under the motive of the family honour before the courts with success moderating circumstances were made valid. These mitigating circumstances became futile with this penal reform. See in addition also the article women in Turkey.

History

major item: The Hethiter, Armenian , Greek , Perser lived and prevailed history of Turkey , small Asia, Seldschuken, Byzantine realm, Osmani realm, genocide at the Armenians

, smallasiatic disaster, Turkish war of liberation, Cyprus conflict, Turkish European Union entry in the area of today's Turkey and after these again the Greeks under Alexander the large one. Subsequently, the Roman realm integrated small Asia into its rule area. The rule of the united Roman realm held to in 4. Century n. Chr. Afterwards small Asia fell after the division of the Roman realm at Byzanz.

Bronzezeitliche Mauern in Troja
Bronze-temporal walls in Troja

the final Turkish settlement Anatoliens began with the arrival of the Seldschuken in the 11. Century n. Chr. The original homeland of the Turks lay in central Asia and west China.

The Seldschuken struck the Byzantine army in the battle of Mantzikert in the year 1071 destroying. Thereupon they conquered large areas east and Mittelanatoliens. After the assault of the Mongols the seldschukische realm was weakened, so that many Turkish trunks verselbständigten themselves. From one this the later Osmani realm arose for Turkish Principalities of ( Beyliken).

Around 1299 Osman I. justified. (* 1259; † 1326; (1299 governed - 1326) the Osmani realm designated after him and the Osmanen dynasty. After conquest Konstantinopels in the year 1453 prevailed the Osmanen over large parts of the Near East, North Africa, the Krim, the Caucasus and the Balkans.

After the expansion of the Osmani realm became brought to Europe inside before Vienna to the stop, which had been struck there osmanische army at the bald mountain 1683, the realm of always far from its European areas up to the Zipfel west the Marmarameeres, between Istanbul and Edirne, back-pushed. Starting from that 19. Century strongly increasing independence props of various nations in the many people state of the Osmani realm, the occupation of North Africa by European powers and finally the defeat in the First World War caused its final purge.

In the First World War the Osmani realm at the side of the Central Powers fought. After France and Great Britain the Armenians had promised an independent state in Ostanatolien, the Armenians began themselves to raise with the help of the Russians against the Turks. The osmanische government feared an attenuation of its east front. Under the pretext of an alleged resettlement action 300,000 to 1.5 million Armenians were murdered (see also: Genocide at the Armenians).

After the defeat of the Central Powers the Osmani realm lost remaining areas due to the peace treaty of Sèvres its outside from Anatolien and Thrakien. Beyond that the area of today's Turkey should be carved up to a large extent. Greece the city Smyrna became (Turkish İzmir) and parts of Westanatolien awarded, the region around Adana should to the Italians go and the French possession should beside Syria also Kilikien cover. In the eastern regions of today's Turkey with the cities Kars, Ardahan and Erzurum an Armenian state should develop. South of it and east Euphrates was awarded the Kurd an autonomous region. These plans were not converted however.

Atatürk organized 19 starting from that. May 1919 the political and military resistance against these plans. The fights with Greece were particularly violent starting from 1920. The war ended to 9. Septembers 1922 with the income and the Niederbrennen at that time by the majority Greek inhabited Smyrna (İzmir). The victory of Turkey culminated in the smallasiatic disaster, in whose consequence many Greeks and Turk from its homeland were sold.

After the victory of Turkey 24 became to. July 1923 with the contract of Lausanne the regulations from contract of Sèvres revises. With the contract to today valid borders of the new state were according to international law recognized. At the same time „the population exchange was directed “with Greece into regulated courses. After all foreign forces from Anatolien were driven out, Mustafa Kemal called to 29. October 1923 the Republic of (Türkiye) out. The name of Turkey leads itself off of türk („people to its traditions is strongly tied up “(gates)) and iye („country “, „homeland “). (See also: Name origin Turkey).

In the course of its term of office Atatürk accomplished profound reforms in the political and social system, which transformed Turkey into a modern, secular, lay and at the west oriented state. Among other things in the year 1922, still before proclaiming the republic, the sultanate was abolished and to 29. October 1923 the Kalifat. 1924 created Turkey the religious courts off, 1925 became in the course of a comprehensive „dress reform “ Fez (traditional Turkish head coverage of the men) and veils for the woman forbade and the Koedukation imported. In the same year the Islamic time calculation by the Gregorian calendar were replaced as well as introduced the metric system.

The first president of the Turkish Republic of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

in the following years whole juridical systems from European countries were transferred and adapted to Turkish conditions. 1926 were taken over first Swiss the civil law - and thus the a marriage with an equalization of man and woman - (the equalization of the sexes however only partly succeeded in the daily life). The German commercial law and the Italian criminal law followed. 1928 were proclaimed the secularization and replaced in the same year the Arab writing by latin (see new Turkish alphabet). To the course of further reforms in Turkey 1930 the active woman right to vote was introduced and since 1934 to be allowed women also to the choice to place itself (passive woman right to vote). Only few of the reforms - about Atatürks idea to only pray in the mosques instead of on Arab on Turkish - were taken back, since one could accomplish and control it not completely.

After Atatürk to 10. November 1938 died, became its Ismet Inönü second Turkish president gone away more closely. Inönü was anxious to continue the modernization of Turkey and maintain the neutrality with regard to foreign policy. 1939 followed the Republic of Hatay of Turkey and became the province of the same name with the capital Iskenderun.

Anıtkabir - the Mausoleum of Atatürk in Ankara

after the outbreak of the Second World War retained Turkey its neutrality with regard to foreign policy. Only to 23. February 1945 explained it to Germany and Japan symbolically the war, in order to also sign afterwards the Charter of the United Nations.

1946 became in Turkey for the first time a further political party certified. The DP (a democratic party) achieved with the elections to 14. May 1949, under the guidance of Adnan Menderes, the majority of the seats in the parliament. With it the a party rule of the CHP dominant since establishment of republic ended.

Appearing the east west conflict and the attempts of the Soviet Union to exert influence on Turkey led to the final task of the neutrality with regard to foreign policy of Turkey. 1950 participated Turkey on the side of the USA in the Korea war and occurred 1952 NATO .

1960 proclaimed the governing Prime Minister Menderes an enabling act, in order to switch the political opposition off. Against these measures 1960 the military putschte. Menderes and other politicians were condemned under corruption reproach to death and to 17. September 1961 on Imrali hung. After the military introduced 1961 a new condition, it delivered power to a civil government .

Inönü became an Prime Minister and governed from 1961 to 1965. 1963 locked Turkey with the EEC at that time an association agreement . In addition, the concluding craving could not get the problems into the grasp. Left and right terror - activities increased and the economic situation worsened rapidly. 1971 intervened the army, without to putschen, again in the policy. Under the military influence repressive measures were implemented in relation to the population.

1974 fell the Greek military dictatorship at that time the zypriotischen president Makarios. In order to prevent a union between Greece and Cyprus, the Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit troops sent on the island (Kıbrıs barış harekati). After heavy fights an armistice was agreed upon, which led controlled part to to today continuing division of the island into an independent and one of Turkey. To 15. November 1983 was proclaimed the Turkish Republic of north Cyprus (TRNZ) under up Denktaş.

The military putschte itself to 12. September 1980 for the third time to power. Trip was the very unstable phase in the 70's-years, which was coined/shaped by the extremely right and left political spectrum by changing political coalitions, political and economic instability and acts of terrorism. The military under general Kenan Evren imposed the martial law over the country and forbade all political parties. The junta went violently against the Kurdish separatists and links oppositionals forwards. To 7. November 1982 was accepted of military the submitted new condition in a popular vote.

Starting from center of the 1980er the Kurds conflict determined the debate relating to domestic affairs in Turkey. The Kurd problem up to then by the policy dead was silent and was not not in the consciousness of the Turkish society. The assimilation politics of Turkey led to the suppression of the Kurdish culture and identity. As reaction to it „the labour party Kurdistans “(Kurdish worker's party) developed with Abdullah Öcalan at their point in the year 1984. It took up the armed fight for an independent socialist State of Kurdistan in the southeast. To 1999 with the fights and notices between the Turkish military and the Kurdish worker's party 30,000 humans died.

To 16. February 1998 took prisoner the Turkish secret service Abdullah Öcalan, the leader of the Kurdish worker's party, in Kenya and brought it into Turkey. Thereupon the Kurdish worker's party explained a one-sided armistice, which was broken only again 2004.

In February 1994 the selected Kurdish Parlamentarierin of the DEP party (Leyla Zana) under the reproach of anticonstitutional acting was arrested. In the middle of 2004 they and three further arrested DEP delegates were released after strong pressure of the European Union. This procedure is to see in connection with the efforts of Turkey on a membership in the European Union.

Under the government Ecevits (1999 - 2002) began comprehensive reforms in the civil law and strengthened the people and liberty rights (z. B. Meeting and demonstration right). These reforms were continued under the party for justice and development ( since 2001). Among other things the death penalty was abolished, forbidden torture and strengthened the cultural liberties of the Kurdish minority. Like that the use of the Kurdish dialects, Kurdish instruction and Kurdish radio and television channels is now permitted. Thus the regularization authority for television and Radiosender (RTÜK) gave to 18. August 2004 three private stations in the southeast of Turkey to send the license in Kurmanci or Zazaki. Also the national transmitter TRT 3 radiates transmissions in Arab, Zazaki, Kumanci, Bosnian etc. out.

Le spring Ecevit with George W. Bush in the white house

to 15. November 2003 and 20. November 2003 committed a cell of the aluminium-Qaida several bomb attacks in Istanbul. Goals of the notices, with which 60 humans died, were two synagogs, the British consulate and the branch of the British HSBC - bank.

Since 2004 the fights between the Turkish government and the Kurdish worker's party flashed again and 2005 increased them again in intensity.

To 10. August 2005 met Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in Ankara with Turkish and intellectual ones of the minorities living in Turkey over about the problems in the southeast of the country to speak. Erdoğan announced subsequently, to 12. August 2005 with an attendance in Diyarbakır that the problems are in the east a specifically Kurdish problem (shorten sorunu) and it this problem on democratic level to meet want. This expression is rated already now in Turkish media as historical. For the first time in Turkish history the specifically Kurdish character of the conflict in the east of Turkey was recognized.

After 40-jähriger effort reached Turkey at the 3. October 2005 the admission of negotiations of accession with the European union.

See also: Seldschuken, Turk wars, young Turk, Panturkismus, exile in Turkey 1933-1945, Kurds conflict in Turkey

politics

major item: Political system of Turkey

in Turkey prevails a division of power between the legislation, executive and the Judikative. After the condition from the year 1982 Turkey is a parliamentary democracy with a relatively powerful president and an independent law. This condition was changed last 2002. Turkey is the only democratic country in the world, which is by the majority moslemisch coined/shaped.

Legislative organ (legislation) is in Turkey the large national assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi). It consists of 550 parliamentarians, who are selected by the people directly for five years. Starting from that 18. Lebensjahr is each citizen in Turkey entitled to vote. To be selected however an election turnout from the foreign country z may only within Turkey. B. by a Briefwahl for abroad living Turkish citizens does not exist. Due to these Reglung millions of Turkish citizens are, those abroad (particularly in the European union) live and work excluded from the elections.

Head of state is a president selected by the parliament for seven years. A re-election of the president is forbidden by condition. The president assigns the chairman of the party of the majority party the education of the government. Head of the government is an Prime Minister, who represents the majority party or the government coalition. The president segnet the Ministers of the government off.

The constitutional court is the highest Court of Justice of Turkey. It decides on the constitutionality of the laws adopted by the parliament. For the first time 2005 with Tülay Tuğcu a woman were selected to the chairman of the highest court of Turkey.

The inland intelligence service Millî İstihbarat Teşkilâtı is awake by means of extensive authorizations and. A. over the internal order, condition and security of the country.

See also: List of the presidents of Turkey, collecting main: Navigation border Turkish Prime Ministers

Ergebnis of the parliamentary elections

with the parliamentary elections in the year 2002 the party rights of the way ( DYP), a party of the Nationalisti movement ( MHP), a motherland party ( ANAP) and DSP did not create due to the 10%-Hürde the introduction in the parliament. Bad cutting at the government coalition from 1999 to 2002 parties taken part of the DSP, ANAP and MHP off lay particularly in the heavy economic crisis, which fell Turkey 2001 into a deep recession and drove many subpopulations into the poverty.

The conservative-Islamic party for justice and development (AKP) with her chairman Recep Tayyip Erdoğan came out from these elections as the clear Siegerin and achieved the majority of the seats in parlament. The again created AKP came at first attempt on 34,4% of the delivered voices. Although it could combine only one third of the voices on itself, it, because many other parties failed to the 10%-Hürde, came on nearly 3/4 of the seats in parlament (for constitutional amendments a 3/4 majority necessarily).

In the course of parliamentarian migrations the picture in the parliament changed. Meanwhile the ANAVATAN a party (formerly ANAP) with 21 parliamentarians reaches even parliamentary group strength. In addition shanks also the SHP and DYP the “jump” in the parliament and are represented with 4 delegates in each case.

The results of the last choice (2002):

  • AKP 34.3%
  • CHP 19.4%
  • DYP 9.6%
  • MHP 8.3%
  • DEHAP 6.7%
  • ANAP 5.1%
  • DSP 1.1%

composition of the parliament (conditions 29. November 2005):

  • AKP (before. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan) 357 delegates,
  • CHP (before. Deniz Baykal) 154 delegates,
  • ANAVATAN (former ANAP; Before. Erkan Mumcu) 22 delegates,
  • SHP 4 delegates
  • DYP (before. Mehmet agar) 4 delegates,
  • HYP 1,
  • independent one: 4 delegates,
  • vacant: 4 delegates.

Trade unions

of trade union federations Türk İş (moderately, approx. 2,13 millions Members), DISK (left-orients, approx. 0,35 millions Members) hook İş (Islamic-conservatively, approx. 0,36 millions Members).

Foreign policy

major item: Belong to foreign policy

of Turkey to the constants with regard to foreign policy for Turkey the entry to the European union, the west connection and preventing of its own Kurdish state. Turkey regards itself also as protecting power of the Turkmenen on the Balkans and in the north Iraq. Beyond that Turkey tries to take a guide roller with the Turkstaaten (Azerbaijan , Usbekistan , Turkmenistan , Kirgisistan and Kazakhstan) central Asia and to improve their relations with the autonomous Turkish republics and regions. For a state by the majority inhabited by Muslims the good relations of Turkey with Israel is unusual; become and. A. regularly common military maneuvers accomplished.

The today's Turkish government denies the genocide at the Armenians of 1915/16 officially and tries on diplomatic ways other states to hold to recognize the genocide officially. The genocide is recognized officially beside Armenia by following states and organizations: Belgium, France, Italy, Russia, Slowakei, Switzerland, the UN and the European Union.

Turkey and supra-national organizations:

Turkey is since 1952 member of NATO and since 1963 associated member in the forerunner organizations of the European Union and aimed at since over four decades negotiations over a full membership first in the EEC later the EEC and last in the European union. To 16. /17. December 2004 decided the European advice the admission of negotiations of accession with Turkey to the 3. October 2005. Before both the European commission and the European parliament had endorsed this. Although the negotiations began punctually, entry opponents make themselves further strong for a privileged partnership - this is rejected however by Turkish side and most European Union member states.

Besides is Turkey and. A. Member at the following supra-national organizations:

Conflict fields with neighbour states:

  • Greece: Regional conflict fields are the rule areas in the Ägäis and the Cyprus conflict. Into the Ägäis concerns it the process of the border between the two countries. The definition of the course of the border is very disputed, because economic and military interests stand on the play. Economically it concerns potential oil fields, which want to exploit both countries. Lately it came however to a relaxation between the two states, although the discrepancies are not yet clarified (conditions 2004).
  • Cyprus: Discrepancies because of the Turkish soldiers stationed in north Cyprus. The attempt of Greek part of Cyprus to station air defense rockets on the island led in the middle of the 1990er years nearly to a war. The Greek zypriotischen rockets were not stationed in the long run.
  • Syria: Support of the Kurdish worker's party by Syria arranged Turkey into the late 1990ern to a war threat opposite Damascus. Syria feels threatened by close military co-operation between Israel and Turkey. Also there are disputes because of the Euphrates water. The building of dams in the context of the Südostanatolien project leads on sides of Syria to the fear that the Turkey of a daily could use the water as power instrument.
  • Iraq: Turkey sees in case of a victory of the Kurds in Kirkuk with the elections to 30. January 2005 and its integration into the autonomous Kurd region in Iraq a possible reason for war. Background is that by the rich oil fields in Kirkuk an economically survivable, independent Kurdish state would be conceivable. By a Kurd state in the north Iraq the Kurds conflict in Turkey could again flash.
  • Bulgaria: The substantial suppression of the Turkish minority in Bulgaria, which established itself during the crew of Bulgaria from 1393 to 1908, Turkish over 500-jährigen, provided in particular zeitens the cold war always for tensions between the two countries. Every now and then it came in the course of the resistance against the earlier socialist regime into Bulgaria to notices of terror by the suppressed Turkish minority against goals into Bulgaria (and. A. Bomb attack on one fully occupy passenger train during a tunnel travel 1988). Today the conflict is eliminated and the governments of both countries as far as possible maintains not least because of the economic meaning of Turkey for Bulgaria good relations.

Administrative arrangement

the municipal administration is divided in Turkey into 81 provinces, which are administered by the governor (vali). The individual provinces are further divided into individual districts and municipalities. The districts are led by a Kaymakam, which is appointed by the Minister of the Interior. The mayors (belediye başkanı) and village chiefs (muhtar) are selected by the people. The autonomy of the lower levels is limited among other things by the absence of own pecuniary resources.

See also: List of the Turkish provinces

infrastructure

due to its situation as junction between Asia and Europe is the traffic sector an important source of income of Turkey. The transportation services cover sea, air, rail traffic and transportation via pipings beside the road, also. With international person and goods traffic on roads Turkey gained 1999 1.2 billion euro.

The domestic goods transport and passenger traffic take place almost exclusively on the road. The goods traffic with the foreign country is made predominantly by the water route and the passenger traffic by means of the airway.

2000 constituted traffic and communication sector approximately 14% of the gross domestic product. 27.3% of all public investments are transacted within this range. Thus impressively the meaning of this sector for Turkey shows up.

Traffic

the roads in Turkey have a length of altogether 413,724 km. Of it 62,000 km highways are, 350,000 km so-called. Village routes and 1,800 km motorway. The motorway net is to be removed in the next years further. The most important motorway distance is from İstanbul to Ankara (O-4), also the O-52 von Adana after Gaziantep is important for traffic and transport. Further motorways exist around İzmir (O-31 and O-32) and in the southern part of the country (Mersin, İskenderun, Pozantı). A motorway from İzmir to Manisa is in the building, the motorways Adana Ankara and Gaziantep Şanlıurfa is in planning.

On the roads 89.2% (conditions 2000) of all domestic goods are transported. The portion of the passenger traffic is even still higher with 95%. During cross-country travels are touring buses much like. Here many enterprises compete around the favour of the passengers, therefore the service is very high at the bus companies, then with the passages the travelers coffee, dte, water and pastry are handed.

The incomes by duty fees 2005 231 million YTL amounted to and are to be because of the end of the yearly according to national estimations with 357 million YTL in the current year. Duty requiring the two bridges are over the Bosphorus in Istanbul and 6 motorway distances. The bridges (Bosphorus bridge and Fatih Sultan Mehmet bridge) used over 136 million vehicles and the duty-requiring roads over 120 million vehicles.

The suburban traffic is organized in the cities by public penalty. Since however the public suburban traffic is insufficiently developed, collecting taxis (Dolmuş) dominate. The Turkish name “Dolmuş” therefore agitates that these “taxis” drive off not to a firm departure time, but only if the minibus is sufficiently full. These minibuses belong to private people and drive off certain lines, similarly as public penalty. On the way each passenger at any place may in and step out (similarly as with a taxi). The travel costses are dependent on the driven distance and bar with the driver or its assistant are paid. Besides there are regular taxis, which work with a Taxometer.

See also: List of the motorways in Turkey, Kfz characteristic (Turkey)

rail traffic

the rail traffic was neglected in Turkey, priority with the development had the road. The Eisenbahnnetz amounts to 10,500 km of it is approx. 20% electrically operated. At the overall traffic the portion of the railway makes 10% out (conditions 1999).

Between Istanbul and Ankara operates an express train, whose final completion is planned 2008. To completion of the work the courses on the distance with up to 250 km/h are to drive. In the context of the European traffic concept (against Europe for transport) the express train connection is to be extended up to the year 2010 to the Bulgarian border.

In the cities Istanbul (underground Istanbul), Ankara, İzmir (Izmir Metro), Adana and Bursa exist also to undergrounds. They are much like and drive about 80 km/h fast and represent a good alternative to the bus.

Air traffic

Turkish Airlines Boeing 737-800

the Turkish airline (THY) was created 1933 and had into the 1990er a monopoly in Turkish aviation. Meanwhile numerous private airlines ( for example aero Flight, Atlas jet , Fly air, MNG air, Onur air, SunExpress ) offer their services and come on a market share of 33%.

Altogether Turkey has 38 airports, about which 14 international airports are (conditions 2000); the most important airport is with 12 millions Passengers (conditions 2003) the Atatürk Havalimani on the European part of Istanbuls. On the asiatic side of the city is the smaller, only a few years ago opened modern airport Sabiha Gökçen, which is strengthened frequented now. For the tourism is very important the airport of Antalya (Antalya Havalimani) with nearly 10 million passengers (conditions 2004). Further important airports are the Adnan Menderes air haven in Izmir and Esenboğa air haven in Ankara.

Water traffic

with a coastal length of 8.333 km and 156 ports is large the potential of ship traffic. The tonnage of the entire Turkish merchant fleet amounts to nearly 10.444.163 DWT. 888 freighters belong to the merchant fleet also over 300 gross tons.

In Istanbul the vehicular traffic between the European and the asiatic part is an important suburban traffic instrument. The travel duration amounts to between 20 and 40 minutes, depending on, which quarter one heads for.

Oil lines

the first pipeline to the transport of crude oil and petroleum products 1966 between Batman and Dörtyol (in the gulf of İskenderun) were taken in enterprise. 1977 were inaugurated the important oil line between the Iraq and Turkey with an overall length by 981 km (of it to lie 641 km on Turkish soil). The line was set for the following embargo because of the Gulf War and between 1990 and 1997 out of operation.

Since 2002 a natural gas pipeline with the name continues to lead „Blue Stream “by the black sea from Noworossijsk to Samsun and after Ankara. The line has an annual capacity of 14 billion cubic meters.

The Baku Tiflis Ceyhan pipeline supplies oil made of Central Asia and Kaukasien over Turkey to Western Europe. The oil line runs over Azerbaijan (Baku), Georgien (low-read) and Turkey (Ceyhan), is 1760 km long and has a capacity of approximately 1 million barrel per year. The BTC pipeline is considered world-wide as one of the most expensive and technically aufwändigsten pipeline projects. Since May 2005 crude oil flows to the Mediterranean over this line.

Parallel to the Baku Tiflis Ceyhan pipeline the south Caucasus pipeline of Baku runs over low-reads after Erzurum. It is 690 kilometers long and is to pump starting from at the end of of 2005 Naturgas of the Kaspi sea to the Turkish gas transport system. ThoseCapacity is appropriate for seven billion cubic meter gas.

Telecommunications

the only fixed net offerer in Turkey is the Türk Telekom. 2005 was sold to 55% of the Türk Telekom for 6,55 billion, $ to a Firmenkonsotium (“Oger Telecom Ortak Girişim Grubu “). While the number of the fixed mains connections stagnate, the portable radio range registers very high growth rates. Goods 2001 still 19.5 million fixed mains connections registered, the number of the connections sank 2003 slightly on 18.92 million. The number of the portable radio users rose however from 17.1 million 2001 to 27.89 million in the year 2003.

The international binding of communication becomes and. A. by three, in the Mediterranean and black sea, fiber optics shifted - cable ensures. Thereby Turkey is connected with Italy , Greece , Israel , Bulgaria , Romania , Russia and the USA. Beyond that 12 INTELSAT stations and 328 mobile satellite-terminal are for this in the use.

The international Internet code is the ending “.tr”. Most Turkish web pages use however the TLD “.com” or” .com.tr ", there “.tr” - the TLD are not assigned. For the assignment of IPs and names the Ortadoğu Teknik Üniversitesi ( ODTÜ) is responsible.

At present the Türk Telekom builds a surface-thinking DSL net. According to the newest collection of the Turkish institute for statistics of 16. November 2005 12.75% of the population a PC or a laptop and a 8.66% possess households possess an Internet connection (2004 there was 7.02%).

With a state visit by Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of 27.- 29. July 2004 in Iran, was agreed upon that Turkish enterprises in Iran develop a second portable radio net.

Economics

major item: Economics of Turkey

the Turkish economy grew in the first six months of the yearly 2004 with a surprisingly high growth rate of 13,5% and overhauled thereby the front runner China even clearly. This year (2005) grows the Turkish economy in the comparison only moderately. In the 1. Quarter could add the BSP around 5,3%. For 2005 the analysts of HSBC Securities Turkey expect further a growth rate of 5,2% (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT).

The economic situation of Turkey is still very contradictory. On the one hand and the agrarian structured and little the developed east on the other hand there is a very large gap between the industrialized west and their modern industry (in particular the large metropolises).

The region Istanbul reaches for example 41% of the average income of the 15 „old “European Union states, the east however only 7%. Various projects, and. A. the large dam projects (Südostanatolien project (GAP)) are to help the east to develop better. Besides there are substantial structural problems within the Turkish national economy. Thus the agriculture contributes 11.9% to the BSP only, however 30.6% of the workers employ. The industry contributes 29.6% to the BSP and the service sector 58.5%. In the industry 19.3% of all employed persons work and in the service 44.5%. Since 1996 a customs union between Turkey and the European Union ( 51.6% of the exports go into the European Union, 46% of the imported goods originate from the European Union) exists.

Turkey seems to have gotten their chronic inflation meanwhile into the grasp. The inflation reached occasional three-figure, almost hyper+inflationary numbers (1994/1995 amounted to it 150%), 2003 sank it on 18,4%, according to estimations amounted to it 2004 approx. 9,4 %. At the 1. January 2005 was replaced the old „Turkish Lira “by „the new Turkish Lira “(Yeni Türk Lirası). Thus the Turkish Lira loses 6 zeros. In addition the subunit of the Lira, is again introduced the Kuruş.

A further economic challenge for Turkey represents the high debt conditions. Related to the BSP it amounts to 78.7% (conditions 2003). In it Turkey dresses world-wide the 22. Place proportionally at the BSP to few indebted states.

The most important sectors of the economy are the textile industry, tourism, automobile industry and the electronics industry. The investments of foreign investors in Turkey are with approx. 4.6 billion Euro (2002), of it alone 3.3 billion from Germany. There is a considerable commitment of foreign enterprises. 2002 gave it to 5,129 foreign finance companies, which were active in Turkey, most of it from European Union states. 2005 obtained the state by privatisations of state enterprises 20 billion $.

See also: Central Asia summit of the Turkish Republics of, black sea restaurant economics, Südostanatolien project

education system

educational system

in the last educating reform of 1997 was increased the legal compulsory schooling from 5 years to 8 years. Afterwards the transition to the four years old secondary school II takes place , in which all pupils must select a second foreign language since 2004/05.

At present the AKP strives - government intensively around the relieved university entrance of the occupation school leaver. A goal of the efforts is it above all, the Abgängern of the Imam Hatip - for schools the entrance to non-theological academic subjects to facilitate. The Imam Hatip schools apply since the educating reform of 1997 as vocational schools of the secondary school II, in which Vorbeter (Imame) and Prediger are trained. February 2006 was stopped now this project of the AKP government by the judgement of the first Administrative Court. She judged that a conclusion on religious a Imam Hatip school not to a study at a university justified.

In the public education of Turkey substantial deficits exist due to financing lacking and the high number of schoolable children. Approx. 25% of the Turkish population are in the schoolable age. The economic gap between the east and the more developed west of Turkey affects also the educational system. Thus a large number of in-brisk schools with more than 50 pupils per class exists in the east. There are nevertheless problems, which concern Turkey as a whole. For example parents are forced due to missing operational funds in the schools to apply substantial financial means to the support of the schools. Due to these problems the Turkish education politics are for the moment still far from their goal of the 100%-Einschulungsquote. Only 93% of all schoolable children go to the school. Particularly concerned girls are, of those according to a World Bank - study approx. 600.000 is not given first schooling to. In the year 2000 6% of the men and 18% of the Mrs. in Turkey illiterate were approximate.

At the Turkish schools and universities absolute head cloth prohibition prevails, both for the pupils/students and for the instructors. This prohibition is implemented also with Polizeigewalt and is in the last years always again topic of heated debates. 2006 were confirmed the prohibition by the first Administrative Court in a judgement and continued to expand even still. From now on the head cloth prohibition applies also before the roads of the educational facilities. Turkey regards as laizistischen state, which does not have religious preferences.

See also: Head cloth controversy

universities

Turkey possesses 53 national universities and 24 nationally recognized private donation universities. At the universities of the country study 1.95 million Student and thus 28% all person leaving school of a class. These become from approx. 77,100 instructors informs and cares for. The universities are controlled by the Turkish university advice (YÖK), since 6. Are subordinated to November 1981 all universities.

Library of the Konya Selcuk university

the university advice coordinated beside finances and the personnel plan also instructional contents, compiles plans for the opening of new universities and regulates the entrance to the universities. By the “Turkish central office for student switching”, which is subordinated to the YÖK, an entrance examination is accomplished annually. The result of this examination is crucial for the choice of the university and the academic subject.

The national universities are badly financed, since 0.5% of the BSP are only spent on the F&E. For the study at the private universities fees between 4.100 and 10.000 euro per year are necessary. With the national universities the fees are between 300 and 1000 euro.

In accordance with two years study the academic degree will assign on read to. This entitled the admission of a vocational activity. After four years study receives the student to the degrees Yüksek read to. After the Yüksek read to attaining a doctorate is possible.

Most of the 16,328 foreign students come particularly from the centralasiatic Turk states. A part of the students receives study credits for the financing of the study from the “institute for credits and homes for young people in the university education” (Yurt cure). 2004 was it 220,614 students and 174,374 students has a dwelling in student hostels.

See also: List of the Turkish Universities of

culture

major item: Culture of Turkey

the culture of today's Turkey is a fusion of different cultures. In addition can and. A. the old-Turkish Nomadenkultur central Asia and Sibiriens, which are counted culture in the osmanischen realm with their Byzantine , Persian , Arab , Caucasian and Kurdish influences as well as the strong European direction since establishment of the republic by Atatürk. Cultural center of the country forms the million-metropolis Istanbul.

Important artists from Turkey are and. A. the film director Yılmaz Güney (golden palm in Cannes for Yol - the way (1982)), the poets Orhan Veli and Nâzım Hikmet, the writers Yaşar Kemal, Orhan Pamuk (received to 23. October 2005 the peace price of the German book trade) or Aziz Nesin.

Turkish Popsänger such as Sezen Aksu, Tarkan and Mustafa Sandal was lately also abroad quite successful. 2003 triumphed Turkey with to Eurovision the Song Contest with the title Everyway That I CAN von Sertab Erener.

See also: Turkish people dances, Turkish culture in Germany, list of türkischsprachiger artists and artist, Turkish culture, Karagöztheater

literature

major item: Turkish literature

the roots of the Turkish literature hand far back into the past. Before the acceptance of the Islam was coined/shaped the written and verbal Turkish literature of the Nomadenkultur and the shame anise mash. In the early period the literature existed out verbally delivered stories, legends, complaint songs, dear and nature poems and proverbs. The Orhon inscriptions from that 6. and 7. The first written literary works of the Turks form century.

The Turks stepped 10 in the first half. Century to the Islam over. With the Islam also the influence of the Arabic and Persian language on the Turkish literature rose. Starting from that 11. Century formed with the Turks, who established themselves in Anatolien, the Turkey-Turkish out. The Islamic influence held from the 11. Century into the center 19. Century on. In this time the development of the Turkish literature can be differentiated with respect to two main groups: On the one hand into the Divan literature and on the other hand into the people literature.

In the Tanzimat period in 19. Century became the western influence more strongly. First western literature was translated into the Turkish and in the 70's-years 19. Century appeared the first Turkish novels. A special role took the newspaper “Servet i in this development phase fünûn” (“treasure of the knowledge”) with the poet Tevfik Fikret and the Romancier Halit Ziya Uşaklıgil . Also a nationalistic and patriotistische seal arises at the same time.

In the time of the establishment of republic it comes to large changes in the Turkish literature. Coining/shaping are in particular two events: 1. the introduction of latin writing 1928 and 2. the large language reforms starting from 1932. The new writers turn away from the conventional festgefügten Stilistik and language. This particularly becomes from the Garip - poets around Orhan Veli publicises.

With the form also contents of the Turkish literature change increasingly. Early representatives are Fakir Baykurt, Sabahattin Ali, Sait Faik Abasıyanık and Yaşar Kemal, which placed simple humans into the center of their work. With the turn for the description of the life circumstances social and political criticism at the state is not missing. The state reacts with censorship and political force. Authors such as Nâzım Hikmet, Yaşar Kemal or Aziz Nesin spend many years in Turkish prisons because of the pursuit of their publications. Kemal called the prison therefore “school of the Turkish literature”.

With the Arbeitsmigranten Turkish literature and türkischstämmige writers come also to Western Europe into the 1960er years. Books are strengthened translated. Aras Ören, Yüksel Pazarkaya or Emine Sevgi Özdamar are concerned in different way with the life in Germany. This literature is partly back-carried also again into Turkey.

While the censorship and three Militärput (1960, 1971 and 1980) restrain the development of the Turkish literature, writers on the detour of these Migrantenliteratur contribute also to the fact that there is today a very various and independent Turkish literature. A well-known representative of current Turkish literature is Orhan Pamuk.

See also: New Turkish alphabet

media

major items: Media in Turkey

the television and radio landscape is in Turkey as dual system organized. The most publishing houses and TV-transmitter are in the hand of some fewer medium companies. Besides the national group of transmitters of TRT maintains several television stations.

The adjustment of the private television and Radiosender is incumbent on the regularization authority RTÜK, which gives both licenses, extracts and temporally limited transmission prohibitions to give can. The press is nationally not (more) adjusted, most printed media is subject however to the freiwilligen self-check of the Turkish press advice, that works on also complaints to electronic media.

Delicate topics for journalists form reports over the Turkish military, the Kurds, the political Islam and the genocide at the Armenians. For taking up such topics were arrested and accused journalists numerous into the late 1990er years inside and closed newspapers by the dozen. It is usual television stations of temporally limited transmission prohibitions to be also given. In the context of the entry efforts into the European union the condition and the press law relaxed clearly reformed whereby the situation of the liberty of opinion in the last years. There is still nevertheless international criticism at the situation of the medium liberty. The organization reporter without borders certifies a difference between the decided laws and that proceeds from parts the law and bureaucracy in Turkey.

The public radio and TV organization TRT operates four national television and five Radiosender. The television and broadcasting corporations are led by a management. This is formally independent, their members however by the government is appointed. Only since 1990 private television and broadcasting corporations are certified. Since then the TRT lost relatively fast its earlier meaning. Their market share remains in the meantime clear under that for the most important private competition.

16 national, 15 regional and 229 local Fernsehstationen (conditions May 2005) compete on the national television market. The most popular television stations ATV, Show TV, star, TGRT and channel D are “full programs”, with Unterhaltungsshows, films, series, messages and information transmissions. NTV, TV8, Habertürk and CNN Türk bring messages nonstop. The radio landscape is similarly various and it exists over 1000 transmitters.

After the heavy economic crisis 2001 a fast concentration movement seized the Turkish medium landscape. Many medium enterprises, in order to secure their receipt, bought up by the state and briefly later again denationalized. Since then some few medium companies coin/shape the Turkish medium landscape.

The most important medium companies are the Aydin Dogan group (and. A. largest daily paper Hürriyet, Milliyet, radical, channel D, CNN Türk), Dinç Bilgin group (Sabah, ATV, and. A.), Ihlas group (Türkiye, TGRT, and. A.), Çukurova group (Show TV, Aksam); Dogus group (NTV). Influence-strongest and at the same time present-strongest newspapers are Sabah, Hürriyet, Milliyet, Cumhuriyet, Türkiye and Posta within fewer years to the present-strongest daily paper were promoted. Numerous week and monthly magazines appear, on a certain topic usually specialize (woman, engine, sport magazines etc.).

In Turkey live several ten thousand German-speaking Europeans, who constantly or predominantly are there. For this target group there are some German-language newspapers including an Internet newspaper.

Further challenge for the Turkish medium landscape forms the high Konzentrationsgrad, the hard competition around (relative) the small Turkish “advertising cake”, the nonexistence of an occupation agency for journalists.

Film

the mass cinema is controlled by trivial and light comedies and act ion films. All comedies of Kemal Sunal are very famous in Turkey. Kemal Sunals parade role is the pleasant loser from the lower layer, which despite all adversities its heart at the right mark has. Cüneyt Arkin is a further representative, who coined/shaped history and act ion category. As Kara Murat it fights in tendencious history films against “Christians”. As an act ion hero it start particularly as a policeman against gangsters.

Besides the Turkish cinema brought out also films with more serious topics. The film „40 square meter Germany “from the year 1986, in which Tevfik Baser direction led (and acts also the film script to the film supplied), of problems of a Turkish Immigrantin in Germany, which is isolated from its man in the small dwelling from the external world. In Vizontele from the year 2001 the effects of the first television in a remote village are described. The “Kurdish” film treats the political and social situation of the Kurds in Turkey, exemplary can the film Günese Yolculuk (1999) be called.

One of the most important Turkish directors, film script authors and actors is Yilmaz Güney (1937 - 1984). As an actor the kurdischstämmige Güney created it to the people hero in Turkey. Yilmaz Güney got itself as a first Turkish director with its film Yol 1982 the golden palm with the Filmfestival in Cannes. Güney in the exile finished the film and it was subjected thus not the Turkish censorship.

The film “Uzak” (far) from Nuri Bilge Ceylan (producer, director, cameraman and author) received the large jury price in Cannes to 2003. The two leading actors, Muzaffer Özdemir and Mehmet Emin Toprak, besides as best actors were distinguished. “Uzak” acts of the situation of the modern Turkish man, who lives in the large city and withdraws themselves into the private.

The film “Kurtlar Vadisi - Iraq” (German valley of the wolves - Iraq), of the director Serdar Akar, applies with 10 million dollar (8.4 million euro) as most expensive Turkish cinema production all times. It is based on the very popular series of Kurtlar Vadisi. The “property” the Turkish secret agent Polat Alemdar and the “ bad ones” is the Americans in the Iraq in the film. The USA criticize the film because of the anti-Americaism '(criticism at “valley of the wolf Iraq”).

Music

major item: Music of Turkey

something similar as in the literature was strongly coined/shaped of Arab elements the osmanische music. After the establishment of republic the government operated a stronger promotion of “Turkish” music. Under the generic terms classical music and Halk Müziği were collected and archived starting from 1924 people music from Anatolien. 1953 covered archives of 10,000 Volkslieder. Since the 1990ern modern music directions dominate such as Pop and skirt apart from the classical directions such as Türk Halk Müziği and Türk Sanat Müziği.

The largest part of Turkish people music is based on the Saz, which are a kind of langhalsiger sounds. The Zurna and Davul is in rural areas likes and very often on weddings and other celebrations one plays. Also Elektrosaz and Darbuka, which are accompanied frequent by electrical key boards, are popular.

Numerous European classical composers in 18. Century were fascinated by the Turkish music, in particular the strong roles of the Blechbläser and percussion instruments in the Janitscharkapellen. Joseph Haydn did not write its military info. ever and some its operas around Turkish instruments flow to let to be able. Turkish instruments became also in Ludwig van Beethovens 9. Symphony included. Mozart wrote his Rondo alla turca in its Klaviersonate in A major and used also Turkish motives in some its operas. Although this Turkish influence was only one mode feature, it inserted basins, bass drum and bell into the symphony orchestra .

See also: Janitscharenmusik, list of the Turkish contributions with Eurovision the Song Contest, list of Turkish Popmusiker and category, state ensemble for classical Turkish music

kitchen

major item: Turkish kitchen

the present Turkish kitchen is the result of a mixture of the original simple nomadischen cook tradition of the Turkish trunks with the Indian, Persian, Kurdish and Arab kitchen. It refers influences from the Mediterranean area beyond that since its people journey . This variety of the influences particularly developed by the centuries under the coinage of the osmanischen culture and way of life to the today's characteristic Turkish kitchen.

The Turkish kitchen coined/shaped also the Greek and the Balkans kitchen. Thus for example the “Zaziki” originates from the Turkish “Cacık” and “Cevapcici” comes from “Kebap Şişi” (Kebap Spiess; Spiessbraten). Also the “Jogurt” comes from the Turkish “Yoğurt”. Döner Kebap is made of cattle, calf or poultry meat. In Turkey, in addition, in other (European) countries, the Döner is served also on the plate.

Sport

the most popular and most important kind of sport in Turkey is the football. The highest play class in the Turkish football is the Turkcell super lies. The most important soccer associations come beside Trabzonspor from the metropolis Istanbul (Galatasaray Istanbul, Beşiktaş Istanbul and Fenerbahçe Istanbul, until 2005 with the German coach Christoph Daum). Trabzonspor is also the only non Istanbuler club, which could become Turkish football master. In the last years also the Turkish national soccer team celebrates again smaller successes. 2002 returned the country after 47 years to the soccer world championship. In the history of the world championships Turkey participated only the second time. Nevertheless the Turkish crew created the third place of the world championships after a victory against South Korea in the “small final” in the year 2002. For the world championship in the year 2006 itself the Turkish crew could however not qualify and separated in the qualification phase.

Turkey applied since the year 2000 for all olympic summer games. So also for delivering the olympic summer games 2012 under the concept “the plays in Europe and Asia”. But the Turkish metropolis missed in each case the final elimination, although for the olympia application the Atatürk olympia stadium for over 100 millions Euro was built. To the criticism at the journeys and the stadium technology one reacted and already one repaired these smaller lack. The Turkish application committee announced that Turkey will apply also for the plays 2016 and 2020. The center of the plays as well as a majority of the sports facilities are in the European part of the city Istanbul.

See also: Turkish national soccer team, Turkish football master , Large price of Turkey

habits and habits

with the greetings is usually kissed once on the one and then on the other cheek. With older humans one kisses on the hand and affects the hand with the forehead. Kissing on the hand is a ritual, which was added the traditional bow.

Henna, a red-brown coloring material won from plants, finds use with the marriage, at religious holidays, with cutting celebrations and if the son the military service begins.

One finds old shame anise tables customs partly also today still. For example becomes a child, who deceased before parents „Yaşar “mentioned, which will live in a general manner about „“is called.

Holidays

major items: Turkish holidays

date fixed holiday of mobile Feiertag* German translation cause and meaning
1. January Yılbaşı New Year celebration for the cause of the first daily of the yearly
19. January - 21. January Kurban Bayramı victim celebration of highest ones Sunni holiday. With the victim celebration the prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) meant, which was ready, his son Ismail of Allah to sacrifice (see also sacrificing Isaaks). At the victim celebration it is for a Muslim custom, if it can afford it financially to distribute an animal to pits and the meat to needy ones. This tradition takes for a long time in Turkey the tendency for donating at needy private people and auxiliary facilities such as orphan homes etc.
23. April Ulusal Egemenlik of VE Çocuk Bayramı holiday of the national sovereignty and the child reminds of the opening of the national assembly, sovereignty of the foundations of the republic.
19. May Atatürk´ü Anma, Gençlik of VE Spor Bayramı holiday of the youth, the sport and to the memory of Atatürk memory of Atatürk `s arrival in Samsun. Beginning of the war of liberation.
30. August Zafer Bayramı holiday of release reminds of the crucial victory of the “Başkomutanlık Meydan Savaşı” in the Turkish war of liberation
29. October Cumhuriyet Bayramı holiday of the Republic of national holiday, reminds 1923 30 of proclaiming the republic by Atatürk in
the year. August Ramazan Bayramı sugar celebration „the sugar celebration “forms the conclusion of the chamfering monthly Ramadan.

*Religiöse holidays:

The religious holidays depend on the Islamic moon calendar, therefore they find each year approx. 11 days in former times instead of and does not have a firm date after the Gregorian calendar. Sometimes thus it is added that one of the celebrations takes place in one calendar year twice, once at the beginning of January and again at the end of of Decembers.

The weekly quiescent day is Sunday.

Military

see also: Turkish armed forces

the defense budget was 2003 about 10 billion Euro, in addition come still expenditures, which are not specified in the budget. These are thus more than 5% of the gross national product and approx. 150 € per inhabitant. Turkey is since 1952 member of NATO and places within the alliance to the USA the second largest army. The Turkish military is used also in the interior with the disaster control. Due to many strategically important bases it served the Near East as turntable for the military interventions in.

The duration of the military service was reduced 2005 from 18 months to 15 months. Thus also the number of the people liable for military service sinks around approximately 85.000. In Turkey exists for each man starting from that 20. Lebensjahr the compulsory military service. An alternative service for Wehrdienstverweigerer does not exist. For citizens, who live abroad, the possibility exists of shortening the military service by cash payment (converted €5000) on one month. A higher education locked in Turkey shortens the military service on 5.5 months as a simple soldier or on 12 months as Unterleutnant.

Since that 23. February 1996 exists a military agreement between Turkey and Israel. Officially it concerns an agreement over the exchange of information and close co-operation in the armaments industry. Since 1998 regular, common fleet maneuvers of the two states in the eastern Mediterranean take place.

The Turkish Ministry of Defense buys armaments usually abroad, the Turkish industry in the manufacturing is however often taken part. An armaments industry is present in Turkey only in beginnings. From cost reasons military material also used is bought by allied states like the United States and Germany. So for example the Turkish navy is in the possession some formerly German minesweepers and US-American frigates. To 8. The German and the Turkish government agreed November 2005 on the purchase of 298 used Leopard-2 tanks.

The military organization stands at present before a reform. It is to be technically modernized for future flexible employments. Turkey is involved with other European states in the development of the airbus A400M.

514,850 soldiers served

composition of the military 2001 in the Turkish military. Of it 391,000 soldiers are people liable for military service. In addition still 180,000 men of the Gendarmerie comes. The number of the reservists into the country -, air - and naval forces amounts to 378,700 soldiers.

The ground forces have 402,000 men under weapons and to possess a large number of armoured vehicles. The equipment of the Turkish armed forces became outdated partially. For example still a large number of M48-Patton is used - battle tanks.

The 180,000 men strong Gendarmerie a paramilitärische unit is and since 1988 to the safety device of the Syrian and Iraqi borders and to the fight against the Kurdish worker's party is used. In rural area she notices also police tasks. To their equipment crew transporter and helicopters belong. The Gendarmerie is since 1993 member in the union of the European Gendarmerien (CHEEP).

Air forces are 60,100 men strongly and are in the possession of combat aircraft, transport aircrafts and helicopters.

In naval forces 52,700 soldiers serve men naval infantry plus 3.100. The navy uses different ship classes, like frigates, corvettes, submarines, speedboats and minesweepers.

Since July 1982 a coast guard , those exists approx. 2,500 men covers. The coast guard was subordinated the Turkish ministry of the Interior from 1982 to 1995 of the Gendarmerie and is assigned since 1995. For the coastal protection the coast guard can fall back to speedboats, coastal protection boats and to helicopters. The coast guard controls on the average over 13.000 ships per year.

Political role

the Turkish military sees itself as guardian of the democracy and the kemalistischen ideology and has itself already twice, in order to terminate political crises, geputscht to power, to 1960 and 1980 (in addition 1971 the government Demirel in a forced manner to the resignation). The expiration of both Putsche is relatively identical, the military remained few years at power and delivered it, after a constitutional reform, a civil government . The objective of the military was however different with the two Putschen. The coup d'etat from May 1960 was carried from officers of middle rank oriented rather left and led to a more democratic condition. The Putsch of September 1980 came from the generals and the right camp and led to a more repressive condition. The last mark led the intervention of the military 1997 to the resignation of the government of Necmettin Erbakan and its Refah Partisi. However this last revolution ran off nevertheless completely without force of arms.

In the context of the European Union entry efforts the parliament 2003 limited political power for that of military. In the national security council the military before the reforms had crucial power. The advice met monthly under the presidency of the president and treated all current interior and to topics with regard to foreign policy. Officially the advice had only advisory function. Unofficially equaled however an instruction power of the military in relation to the policy. After the reform the function of the advice is reduced besides to the political counselling and the number that of military in the advice is lowered on only one general staff boss. Also now a civilian manages the advice as a Secretary-General, who is subordinated to the deputy Prime Minister. Besides starting from 2003 the entire military budget of the parliamentary control is subordinated, what before the reform the case was not. The military could intend the expenditures for the military and maintained hidden posts for military expenditure in the total budget.

See also: Military government

economical one role

over the two organizations OYAK (“relief fund for the army” (Ordu Yardimlasma Kurumu)) and TSKGV (donation for the stabilization of the Turkish armed forces) holds the military participation in many enterprises from various industries.

OYAK at the 1 became original. March 1961 as a berufsgenossenschaftliche pension and invalidity insurance based. This task fulfills it also today still. Due to invested capital reserves, it controls however meanwhile a multiplicity of industrial enterprises.

Each officer exhausts 10% of his Soldes as contribution to the OYAK. Also all civilian coworkers with the military and all enterprises at that the military more for than 50% exhaust 10% of their wages hold by the OYAK. Equipped with this capital and various special rights the OYAK expanded into many sectors of the economy. The OYAK has the statute of a non-profit association and pays accordingly no taxes.

The participation contains approximately thirty industrie, handels and export enterprises. Altogether all enterprises employ together approx. 30,000 humans. Most enterprises, in which the OYAK is involved, are Joint venture with foreign or with domestic companies.

Would list all OYAK participation:

  • Automobile (OYAK Renault of VE CORN, Goodyear)
  • transport (OMSAN)
  • building materials (Adana, Bolu, Ünye, Mardin, Elazığ of VE OYSA çimento; OYAK concrete)
  • building (OYAK İnşaat, OYAK Konut İnşaat)
  • paper (OYAK Kağıt)
  • finances and banks (AXA OYAK getting thing, OYAK Yatırım Menkul Değerler, OYAK BANK, OYAK anchor bank, Halk leasing of VE OYAK Emeklilik)
  • chemistry (HEKTAŞ)
  • food (TUKAŞ, TAM GIDA)
  • trade and tourism (OYAK Pazarlama, OYTAŞ)
  • military technology and technology (OYAK Savunma of VE Güvenlik Sistemleri, OYAK Teknoloji)
  • energy (OYAK Enerji)
  • other (Hektafi, Tukafi)

a further economical organization forms the TSKGV. It possesses several industrial enterprises particularly within the range of the weapon technology and employs approx. 20,000 humans. 80% of the profits of the OYAK and TSKGV flow into Rücklagefonds. This fortune becomes estimated on dozens of billions euro.

International missions

of international missions of the Turkish military after the Second World War:

Tourism and objects of interest

museums and historical places

Topkapı Sarayı in Istanbul

Turkey are called due to its rich inheritance at historical monuments also „open air museum “.

The Hagia Sophia with nocturnal lighting

the Topkapı Sarayı in Istanbul was for many centuries the living and seat of the government of the Sultane as well as the administrative centre of the Osmani realm. Today it accommodates collections of porcelain, handwriting, haven advice, garbs, jewels and weapons from the Osmani realm as museum. Furthermore various Islamic Reliquien, like weapons Mohammeds and the first Kalifen, one the oldest Koranexemplare or also whiskers of the prophet Mohammed. Conservative Muslims demand therefore a locking of the palace for the tourism. The museum formed the window blind for 1964 to the film of the same name „Topkapi “with Peter Ustinov.

Just opposite is the Hagia Sophia formerly main church of the Byzantine realm and religious center of the Orthodoxie. After osmanischen conquest the Hagia Sophia main mosque of the Osmanen became. Today it is only used as museum.

İshak Paşa Sarayı in close proximity to Doğubeyazıt

also the most well-known city of the antiquity, Troja, is in Turkey. It is in the landscape Troas in the northwest of Turkey because of the Hellespont.

The İshak Paşa Sarayı is between 1685 and 1784 more delighted and today in ruins lying a castle-similar palace of the Kurdish Emirs of Doğubeyazıt Çolak Abdi Paşa and its son İshak Paşa II. It is to about 6 km in the extreme east of Turkey, far away from the city Doğubeyazıt because of a mountain-slope. The building complex unites Armenian, Georgian, Persian, seldschukische and osmanische architectural styles.

One of the routistic

centers of the country admits, is

bath beaches and landscapes port of Bodrum with the cross knight castle the south coast between Antalya in the west and the cape Anamur in the east of Turkey, also as Turkish Riviera. Beside Antalya Alanya is the wichtigeste city. Besides also the southern Ägäisküste is much likes for bath holiday-makers.

A further very popular bathing resort, particularly with the Turkish Schickeria, is Bodrum. Apart from the out-curving night life Bodrum is well-known for its medieval cross knight castle (Bodrum Kalesi).

Fethiye is well-known for its bays, islands and beaches. In the proximity is Myra, where beside lykischen rock graves also are the church of the Nikolaus.

Landscape in Kappadokien

Kappadokien is a landscape in Zentralanatolien in Turkey. One of the most well-known places is Göreme with its from the soft Tuff herausgehauenen cave churches. The area consists of Tuff, which weathers to the wind because of the small amounts of precipitation and only slowly. Harder rock stops, so that the Feenkamine in such a way specified develops.

Kalksteinterrassen von Pamukkale
Limestone terraces of Pamukkale

world cultural heritage and world nature inheritance

on the list of the UNESCO Welterbes stand the following Turkish places:

archaeological place of Troja (to details

see there in each case) statue


on

the mountain Nemrut antique world miracles two to lie in Anatolien. The temple that kind-badly (Artemision) in Ephesos and the Mausoleum of Halikarnassos in Bodrum. (To details see there in each case).

A fictitious representation of the Mausoleums

of protected areas

of protected areas 1.3% represent to the surface of Turkey. In addition belong ten coastal protection areas, 18 protected areas and 19 of national park, about which two of the UNESCO as the world nature inheritance were explained. Small financial equipment of the Department of the Environment prevents at present however a sufficient protection of the areas.

Literature

  • Udo Steinbach: Turkey in 20. Century. Difficult partner of Europe. Gustav Lübbe publishing house, Bergisch Gladbach 1996. ISBN 3785708289
  • Cigdem Akkaya, Yasemin Özbek, Faruk Sen, Faruk: Report on the situation in the countries Turkey. Scientific book company, Darmstadt 1998.
  • Udo Steinbach: History of Turkey. C.H. Beck publishing house, Munich 2003. ISBN 3406447430
  • Gazi Çağlar: Turkey between Orient and Okzident: a political analysis of its history and present. Unrast, Münster 2004, ISBN 3-89771-016-1
  • Stefan Stautner: Turkey: Europe or Orient? : Representation of Turkey between Europe and Orient, Rhombos Publishing house, Berlin 2004. ISBN 3-937231-3
  • Feroz Ahmad: History of Turkey. Magnus publishing house, meal 2005. ISBN 3-88400-433-6
  • Karin Hunn: „We turn next year back… “. The history of the Turkish „immigrant workers “in the Federal Republic of, barrier stone publishing house, Goettingen 2005, ISBN 3-89244-945-7

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coordinates: 39° 10 ′ N, 35° 40 ′ O

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