of these articles is concerned with the people of the Turks. Further information is under Turk (term clarifying) and under chess Turk.
    Siedlungsgebiete der heutigen Türken
  • about 76 million
ethnical grouping

the Turks (self-designation: Türk, Pl. Türkler) are a Turkvolk in Turkey (51 to 58 million, 70%-80% of the population), in Germany officially 2.055 Mil. (with Turkish descent 2.8 million), and isolates in many other states. Altogether the number of the Turkish citizens amounts to according to official data 72 million inland and 4 million abroad.

The Turks living in Turkeyalso Turkey Turks are called. They speak that Turkishly Istanbuler dialect, which is called also high Turkish.

The Turkey Turks are a Turkvolk, just as the peoples of central Asia used linguistically closely with them. The Turkvölker is a wide-spread eurasische peopleand language's group. They educate together with the Mongol and Tungusen the Altaii language family. The theory, it formed with the finno ugrischen peoples a Urals altaische people family, could not so far not be proven. In the course of history they have also a great many Arab and Persian elements taken up.

Since 1965 becomes with Turkish censuses between the individual Turkvölkern (Kasachen, Kirgisen, Mescheten, Aserbaidschaner among other things) and/or. between the trunks (z. B. the Afscharen) on the national territory of Turkey any longer did not differentiate;they educate now uniformly „the Turkish state people “and/or. „the Turkish nation “. However the group of peoples of the Uiguren possesses modest minorities a status in Turkey.

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„Turk “is originally the name of a Nomadenvolkes, in 5. Century between Irtysch, Oghusen and Jenissei developed and of the Chinese T'u chueh, do-küe or door küt called, for as much was meant as „the powerful ones “. Obviously have Hsiung nu or Hunnen up to the 3. Century v. Chr. in the north and the west of China lived and rather early settles the steppes up to the Kaspi sea and to the Urals. Their history, which can be retraced until 1800 before Christ, is under Chinese history to find.

After the destruction of the Göktürken realm at the Orchon in 8. Century developed in the east the turkstämmige realm of the Uighuren, which extended from the Baikalsee to the yellow river. The Uighuren and Karluken pushed other Turkish groups far inthe lowlandses of Turan. They pulled later over north Persia to small Asia and on the Balkan Peninsula. The Urals Turks spread at the same time over southern Russia and the northern Caucasus under the names of the Agatziren, Polowezer, Petschenegen, Karapapaken/Terekeme and Chasaren out.

Today the term can have „Turk the “following meaning:

  1. Designation of the Turkish citizen (thereby also not turkstämmige social classes comprehensively),
  2. designation of a member of the Turkvölker) and
  3. name for the members of Turkish minorities


  • Europe and the Turksin the Renaissance, hrsg. of Bodo Guthmüller and William cooling man, Tübingen: To Niemeyer 2000, 451 S., ISBN 3-484-36554-4

see also

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