Turk wars

Europa im Jahre 1600
Europe in the year 1600
Persische Waffenwerkstatt Mitte des 16. Jahrhunderts
Persian weapon workshop in the middle 16. Century

under the Turk wars one understands oneself the wars between the Osmani realm spreading after the fall of Byzanz northward and the west and like a Christian coined/shaped Europe. The most important opponents of the Osmanen were Austria, Spain, Venice, Poland and Russia.

Table of contents

history

after the victory of 28. June 1389 in the battle on the blackbird field and particularly after the battle ofMohács 1526 came the expanding Osmani realm into direct contact with the large states of Europe. First Venice tried to secure its influence in the eastern Mediterranean by numerous wars, had however consideration to its trade relations with the high gate to give.

The main load of the defense wars carried that habsburgische Austria. It furnished particularly in Croatia the “military border “, which was settled with military farmers. First hard pressed, it succeeded to the Austrians to strike back the Turks, who were allied with France unofficially for many centuries, since the second FE storage of Vienna 1683 and even into thoseTo go offensive one.

With the victories in the battle with Zenta and in the battle of Peter Peter-be-being your could be released Hungary from the Osmanen. Ludwig William of bathing , the Turk Louis, and the field gentleman prince Eugen von Savoyen had called a crucial portion of it.

A further of allied Austria in the so-called.Holy league was the republic Venice, which could conquer the entire peninsula Morea (Peloponnes) of the Turks starting from 1684. With this war ascended Austria to the great power and the Osmani realm lost more and moreat power.

The military conflicts between the Christian states of Europe and the Osmani realm were delivered on three continents. Beside South-east Europe was temporarily also Italy contests, where already 1480 conquered a osmanisches army Otranto. With the Osmanen allied Piratenflotten undertook in 16. Century of plundering courses approximately Spanish and Italian coastal towns. Habsburgische Spain undertook for his part campaigns against the Osmani realm and its Vasallen in North Africa and conquered 1535 Tunis, while the conquest of Algiers failed 1541. By the colonial acquisitions of Portugal in India also Asia became the scene of the conflictwith the Osmani realm. From their bases at the west coast of India out the Portuguese undertook attacks on osmanische ports. In response the Osmanen attacked 1538 Diu , which could be defended by its Portuguese colonial gentlemen. 1550 penetrated the Portuguese up to the osmanisch controlled Basra into Mesopotamien forwards.

Since the end 17. Century expanded Russia in southern direction, with the long-term goal of the back conquest of Konstantinopel for the orthodox Christianity. The Russian Zaren stressed the further protectorate as inheriting the Byzantine dock ore around over the orthodox peoples in OsmaniRichly. In addition it concerned the right to the passage of the straits, which would make economic advantages possible. Since Russia in the wars could become generally accepted against the Turks and substantially at influence won, on the other hand the Osmani realm ever at soil continued to lose (the ill manat the Bosphorus) the position of the remaining European states changed. Their interest consisted now of receiving the Osmani realm in order not to endanger their economic relations and to risk no political instability in the region, and around a further territorial and influence gain of Russiato prevent, which could have led to a Russian hegemony. Therefore they supported the Osmanen in the Krimkrieg against Russia.

The Turk wars also still found their continuation in the first Balkans war and in the broadest sense in the First World War.

overview of the Turk wars

war of To process/remark
1. Veneziani Turk war 1423 1430 Venice, when prominent handels and sea power in the Mediterranean began themselves, with the help of its professional armies the Osmani realm to set against, when it saw its commercial interests threatened toward Adriati sea by the expansion of the Turks. Around its trade privileges in OsmaniRichly to secure, it closed however soon again peace and surrendered Thessaloniki to the Turks.
2. Veneziani Turk war 1463 1479 after the case Konstantinopels (29. ) The Turks began and drove May 1453 with the conquest of Greece the Venezianer out of the Greek mainland.
3.Veneziani Turk war 1499 1503 internal disputes of the Osmanen used Venice around 1489 Cyprus to acquire. Despite the support by Spain, Portugal, France, the church state and the Johanniter Venice further Greek cities had to give up and pay tribute.
FE storage of Rhodos 1522 1523 the Johanniterorden1309 had established itself checked for the island Rhodos and from there the maritime trade in the eastern Mediterranean. After a first futile FE storage 1480 landed to 26. June 1522 a large osmanische invasion army on the island, around the rule over the eastern Mediterranean for OsmaniTo conquer richly. Few thousand defenders faced up to 160.000 the invader. After heavy fights the Johanniter had to 22. Decembers capitulate and pulled on the 1. January 1523 off.
1. Austrian Turk war
4. Veneziani Turk war
1526 1555 the Hungarian king Ludwig II., Adoptive son Emperor Maximilian I., before-light 1522 Maria von Habsburg, its sister were again with Ferdinand I. married. In order to proceed against the strengthening alliance, Sultan Süleyman the magnificent one attacked the Hungary and struck it to 29. August 1526 in the battle of Mohács; 26. September - 14. October 1529 comes it to the 1. FE storage of Vienna, the bad supply situation forces the Turks however to the retreat; 1537 occur Venice the war, 1538 become its fleet, under Andrea Doria, in the sea-battle before Prevesa of the Turksstruck; Venice closes to save again in order its trade privileges 1540 a separate peace, in that it Dalmatien, which surrenders Ägäis and the last cities on Morea (Peloponnes) to the Turks; 1552 victory of the Osmanen over the Austrians with palace; Hungary is three-divided, emperorsFerdinand I. must an annual tribute of 30.000 Dukaten to the Osmanen pay.
FE storage of Malta 1565 1565 after 1522 the Turks the Johanniterorden of Rhodos, offered emperors Karl V. had driven out. the medal the island Malta as new medal seat on. The Johanniter left itself 1530 on the island down and became the Malteserorden. To 18. 40,000 Turks on instruction Süleyman of the magnificent one began May 1565 with the FE storage of Malta. Those about 9,000 medal knights withstood the FE storage, until the Osmanen to 8. September, after losses of roughly 20.000Man, because of which threatening autumn towers had to break the FE storage off.
2. Austrian Turk war 1566 1568 cause was a rebellion of the Siebenbürgener prince Johann II. Sigismund Zápolya, in peacetime of Adrianopel is repaired the status quo.
5. Veneziani Turk war the Turks conquer 1570 1573 1570Cyprus; Spain, the church state and Venice close to 20. May 1571 to the holy league together. Their fleet under Don Juan de Austria strikes the Osmanen to 7. October 1571 in the sea-battle of Lepanto. Despite the victory Venice 1573 closes a separate peace, done withouton Cyprus and 300,000 Dukaten pay to the Osmani realm.
3. Austrian Turk war (long Turk war) 1593 1606 defense protection against the Austrians, justifies by nearly annual Turkish ideas; 1606 peace of Zsitvatorok, the emperor are recognized by the Sultan as equal official contacts, a unique paymentfrom 200,000 guldens terminates the annual tribute.
6. Veneziani Turk war 1645 1669 the war took place mainly on Crete . After the Turks to 24. To conquer the island besieged they had begun June 1645 at 1648 21 years long the heavily fastened, from mercenariesdefended capital CAN dia. (the today's Heraklion), before it was conquered 1669.
4. Austrian Turk war 1663 1664 by Ludwig XIV. encouraged, the Turks begin an offensive, lose however 1664 against the Austrians with Levice and pc. God hard to the Raab, moreover applies the status quo.(See also:The Slowakei in the early modern times (1526 - 1711))
Polish Turk war 1671 1676 the Kosaken in the Polish Ukraine placed themselves under the protection of the high gate; those demands thereupon the transfer of the areas of Poland, 1671 begins the Osmani realmthe war; after heavy defeats January Sobieski leads Poland at the 11. November 1673 in the battle from Chotyn to the victory, January Sobieski becomes thereupon to the Polish king Johann III. selected
5. Austrian Turk war
1. Russian Turk war
7. Veneziani Turk war (large Turk war)
1683 The Turks an offensive begin 1699 again in coordination with France, 1683 come it to 14. July 1683 to 2. FE storage of Vienna, that of Pope Innozenz XI. initiated holy league and January Sobieski succeeds it by its victory in the battle at the bald mountain to 12. To frighten September the city; 1686 attach Russia the war against the Osmani realm, 1688 open France for the discharge of the Turks the Pfälzer succession war; 19. August 1691 victory by Ludwig William I. by bathing (Turk Louis) over the TurksNovi Slankamen;11. September 1697 victory of the Austrians under prince Eugen with Zenta; 26. January 1699 peace of Karlowitz: the Osmani realm must accept extensive cessions of territory: Hungary, filter defiency guarantee, Batschka at Austria, Podolien at Poland, Asow at Russia and Peloponnes at Venice; Beginning ofEnd of the Osmani realm, Austria becomes great power.
2. Russian Turk war
(part of the 3. Nordi war)
1710 1711 after Peter the large one Sweden under Karl XII. 1709 in the battle with Poltawa had struck, fled these into the Osmani realm. The Russian troops occupy Bessarabien are included however at the Pruth and must in peacetime of Pruth to 22. July capitulate; Asow will osmanisch and Karl may freely take off.
8. Veneziani Turk war
6. Austrian Turk war
1714 1718 first lost Venice 1715 the Peloponnes; 1716 demands the Austrians the return of theArea at Venice; to 5. August 1716 strikes prince Eugen the Osmanen in the battle of Peter Peter-be-being your, 1717 conquers it Belgrade; in peacetime of passport aero joke of 21. July 1718 receives Austria Belgrade and some far areas; Venice did not take part away in no moreat the Turk wars.
7. Austrian Turk war
3. To conquer Russian
Turk war 1735 1739 war of Austria around Bosnia; Victories of the Turks in Serbia; 1735 the Krim by the Russians, 1737 are devastated are occupied Bessarabien of Russia; to 18. September 1739 peace of Belgrade,Austria loses conquests from the last war again, Russia cannot not the right desired to free passage for its ships on the Asow and black sea implement.
4. Russian Turk war 1768 1774 in the Polish civil war the Turks become by the Konföderation from bar toAssistance called, Russia occupies Bessarabien, Moldau and the Walachei, 1770 the Turkish fleet in the port by Çeşme of the Russian is destroyed, 1774 victory of the Russians with Schumla; 21. July 1774 peace of Küçük Kaynarca, the southern Ukraine with the deltas of Nose, Dnepr and Don come to Russia, which Krim independently and 1783 of Russia annektiert, Russian ships may the straits drive through, to Russia receive protectorate right over orthodox ones in the Osmani realm, 1. Division of Poland.
8. Austrian Turk war
5. Russian Turk war
1787 1792 war toBelgrade and Bucharest, Russian Bessarabien and Moldau conquer allocation of the Osmani realm, 1789 Austrians, 1790 victory of the Austrians with Kalafat; 9. January 1792 peace of Jassy, Dnepr becomes border river between Russia and the Osmani realm; Austria takes Osmani to distance from the planTo smash richly, since it stands for more and more in competition to Russia; Russia receives free hand to 2. Division of Poland; 1787 undertook Zarin Katharina II. an inspection tour on the again conquered Krim, their advisor and lover Potjomkin let mockups of villages set up allegedly,in order to pretend a larger settlement and Russifizierung (Potjomkin villages).
6. Russian Turk war 1806 1812 the Serbian rebellion of 1804 Russia comes to the assistance, it occupies Bessarabien, Moldau and the Walachei; to 28. May 1812 must close Russia the peace of Bucharest, at itselfto concentrate on the attack Napoleon which can be expected. Russia receives Bessarabien, the Pruth becomes the new border between the two realms; 1813 are subjected Serbia by the Turks again, the Südslawen, in its striving for liberty, set from now on on Russia and no moreon Austria.
7. Russian Turk war
(end of the Greek war of independence)
1828 1829 encouraged of the Serbian rebellion also the Greeks rose 1821; Russia occupies Moldau and Walachei, 1829 crosses the Russians for the first time the Balkans - the mountains; 14. September 1829 peace of Adrianopel Russiareceives territories south the Caucasus; Moldau, Walachei and Serbia will autonomously and turned out under Russian influence, the straits are free for all ships.
8. Russian Turk war
(Krimkrieg)
1853 1856 the demand of the Russian Zaren Nikolaus I.over a protectorate for its orthodoxFaith brothers in the Osmani realm by the high gate is rejected, Russia occupies the Principalities of Moldau and Walachei; England and France support the Turks and conquer in the Krimkrieg Sewastopol. In Paris peace of 30. March 1856 Moldau and Walachei under a protectorate that comeWestern powers, which Danube navigation internationalized, the black sea demilitarizes; the internal crisis of Russia steps to day and leads to reforms and. A.Farmer release.
9. Russian Turk war
(Balkans crisis)
1878 after the defeat of Serbia in the Serbian-Turkish war ( 1876 - 1878) lead 1877Russian troops the war away, occupy those in the meantime to Romania of united former Principalities of Moldau and Walachei again, conquer polarize-polarizing whom and stand before Konstantinopel, as it at the 3. March 1878 to the peace of San Stefano comes: The Osmani realm must itself for Russia a favorableDictated peaces bend. There this increase in power the great powers Austria Hungary, Great Britain and France too far goes, becomes the Balkans on the citizen of Berlin congress to 13. July again divided: Romania, Serbia and Montenegro become independent, Bulgaria receive a special status, remains however for the Osmani realm opposite tributary, Austria Hungary may Bosnia and the Herzegowina occupy, receive Cyprus to Great Britain, while Raszien, Albania, Macedonia and Rumelien with the Osmani realm remain.

See also: List of the wars, list of battles, realm Turk assistance

literature

  • Klaus Peter Matschke: The cross and the Halbmond. Historythe Turk wars, Winkler, Duesseldorf 2004. ISBN of 3538071780

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