Tadschikistan

ҶумҳурииТоҷикистон (cyrillic)
Dschumhurii death ski gravel clay/tone
جمهوریتاجکستان (Arab)
Republic of Tadschikistan< /font>
Flagge Tadschikistans Wappen Tadschikistans
(Detail) (detail)
office language Tadschikisch
capital Duschanbe
system of government Präsidialrepublik
president Emomalij Rahmonow
head of the government Oqil Oqilow
surface 143,100 km ²
number of inhabitants 7.163.506 (conditions 2005)
population density of 49 inhabitants per km ²
independence from the Soviet Union to 9. September 1991
currency Somoni
time belt UTC +5
national anthem Surudi milli
Kfz characteristic TJ
Internet TLD .tj
preselection +992
Karte Asien, Tadschikistan hervorgehoben
Karte von Tadschikistan

'Tadschikistan (tadschik. Тоҷикистон/death ski gravel clay/tone (cyrillic) or تاجکستان (Arab); officially Republic of Tadschikistan, tadschik. ҶумҳурииТоҷикистон/Dschumhurii death ski gravel clay/tone (cyrillic) or جمهوریتاجکستان (Arab) is an centralasiatic state. Capital Tadschikistans is the metropolis Duschanbe.

Table of contents

geography

Tadschikistan is a high mountain country, which borders on Afghanistan , Usbekistan , Kirgisistan and the People's Republic of China. Nearly 50% of the national territory are on a height of 3.000 m over NN or still more highly. The east of the country is coined/shaped by the Pamir - mountains and the largest part of the Pamir Hochlandes. There is also the highest mountain of the country, the 7,495 m high spades Ismoil Somoni (in former times spades communism). In the north of the country the mountain chain of the Alai extends. Only in extreme the north possesses Tadschikistan with Ferghanatal, which by the largest river of the country, which Syrdarja can be watered , low country, which is intensively field-structurally used . The largest part of the country can be used because of the altitude and the relief only extensively cattle-economically. The largest lake is the Kara Kul (380 km ²) in the east of the country; further large seas are the Saressee (~ 80 km ²) and the Zorkulsee 38.9 km ². The largest artificial lake is the dock rack around rope lake (520 km ²) at the Syrdarja evenly specified.

The climate is an extremely continental with cold winters and hot summers. High temperature differences exist between more deeply and the regions of the country lain more highly. The yearly amounts of precipitation are relatively low, so that steppe vegetation prevails.

Klimadiagramm 8[Duschanbe]
Climatic diagram 8 [Duschanbe]
]
Klimadiagramm Chorugh
climatic diagram Chorugh

of cities

the largest cities are (conditions 1. January 2005): Duschanbe of 543,107 inhabitants, Chudschand of 144,865 inhabitants, Kulob (soot. Kuljab) of 78,786 inhabitants, Qurghonteppa (soot. Kurgan Tjube) of 60,084 inhabitants, Istarawschan (to 2002 Uroteppa; soot. Ura Tjube) of 52,851 inhabitants and Konibodom of 50,359 inhabitants.

See also: List of the cities in Tadschikistan

population

the Tadschiken are the last leftover of the Indoeuropäer in central Asia and belong to the Iranian peoples. They form 80% for the population. The Tadschiken is linguistically, culturally and ethnical very strongly related to the Persern and places also in the neighboring country Afghanistan an important population portion. In the Ferghanatal different minorities of Usbeken ( 15.3% of the population) and Kirgisen live, likewise in the east of the country. Further minorities are Russians (1.1%), act arene (0.3%), Ukrainer, German and other one. Nearly the entire population belongs to the Islam Sunni direction.

language

the office language Tadschikistans is the Persian Tadschikisch. Besides still Russian serves the international policy and economy as language.

history

major item: History Tadschikistans

the area Tadschikistans was alternating under the rule of the Perser, Hunnen and belonged also to the realm Alexanders of Macedonia. In 8. Century reached the Islam the region. During the Middle Ages Tadschikistan belonged to the Empire of Persia. 1868 became Tadschikistan colony of Russia, late Soviet republic.

Central Asia at the end 19. Century

1991 Tadschikistan explained itself independently and sank immediately in a civil war between Islamic fundamentalists and the government of Emomalij Rahmonow. The civil war ended with a government participation of the fundamentalists.

After the terrorist attack at the 11. Septembers 2001 were stationed US troops in Chorugh and Duschanbe as well as soldiers of France in Duschanbe. Nevertheless Russia still plays the role of an important order-keeping power of the region (the border safety device to Afghanistan took place up to the summer 2005 via Russian troops ) by its troop operational readiness level.

politics

Tadschikistan are according to its condition a democratic Präsidialrepublik.

To Tadschikistan the autonomous province belongs mountain-bath-oh-beautiful in the east of the country, which covers 44.5% of the surface of the country.

Tadschikistan is member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the advice for collective security, the GUS, the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), the organization of the Islamic conference (OIC) and the OATCT, to which it however only formally belongs by its affiliation to the oldTurkestan “.

political arrangement

Tadschikistan is divided into two provinces (вилоятҳо/wilojatho and/or. ولایتها; in parentheses the capitals):

an autonomous province (вилоятимухтор/wilojati muchtor and/or. ولایتمختار):

directly by the centre government administered a district (Ноҳияҳоитобеъиҷумҳурӣ and/or. ناحیههایتابعجمهوری):

  • Nohijahoi tobei Dschumhurij (Duschanbe) (dt. subordinated areas to the republic; former province Karotegin (Kofarnihon))

as well as the capital Duschanbe, the one special status (шаҳр/schahr and/or. شهر) possesses.

infrastructure

the traffic development Tadschikistans is very difficult due to the surface relief of the country. Traffic relies particularly on the only unsatisfactorily developed road system. The country has connected railroad lines of altogether 470 km length. The capital Duschanbe is attached by the Transkaspi railway to the international Eisenbahnnetz; Connections exist over Taschkent to Moscow.

In May 2005 the construction work at a first bridge began over the river Pjandsch to Afghanistan with financial support of the USA, which is to be locked in April 2007. The bridge is to replace the present dragging punt, with which on the day only maximally 60 cars can be transported after its completion and which precipitates many months in the year due to to strong current of the river completely.

economics

general

the gross domestic product (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT) amounted in the year 2001 to 880 millions Euro. With a GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT per head of 141 euro Tadschikistan belongs to the poorest countries of the earth. According to the definition of the United Nations the country ranks among the LDC. An additional complication is that it concerns a Binnenstaat, thus a LLDC. Still the importance of the agriculture is very great. It contributed 2001 with 29% to the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT, while 67.2% of the employed persons in the agriculture worked. The portions of the industry amounted to 29% and 9,6%, those of the service sector to 41% and 23,1%.

agriculture

an emphasis of the agriculture forms the cultivation of cotton. The extensive irrigation contributes substantial to the soil salting and to draining the river Pjandsch . Besides sheep and goats are held.

Bodenschätze

the country has reserves at oil, natural gas and brown coal. Most important export property with a portion of 50% of the receipts from exports is aluminum; 23% are obtained by the export of electricity.

between

1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service

culture

national holiday is the 9. September (day of independence).

To the oldest most important customs of the country belongs the traditional New Year celebration, Nauroz, which is solemnly committed at the spring beginning.

coat of arms

the coat of arms Tadschikistans is a Reinterpretation of the coat of arms from the time before the collapse of the Soviet Union 1991.

Web on the left of


coordinates: 37°-41° N, 67°-75° O

 

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