Hangeul: 태권도
Hanja: 跆拳道
Romanisierung revised: Taegwondo
McCune Reischauer: T'aekwŏndo
Schriftzug „Taekwondo“ in Hangeul
signature „Taekwondo “in Hangeul

Taekwondo (also Tae Kwon DO or Taekwon DO) is a Korean combat haven and stands for foot (Tae), fist (Kwon) and way (DO, herethe way of the spirit is meant). Although Taekwondo for the unprofessional viewer exhibits large similarities with other asiatic kinds of combat haven, then it differs nevertheless in some substantial points from these. An important point of distinction is the strongly minted form run (also shade fightcalled), in in particular positions, courses of motion and precision to be trained. Beyond that the Taekwondo technology is very much appropriate for speed and dynamics, which is due to the match not least. In the Taekwondo foot techniques dominate more clearly than in comparable kinds of combat haven.

Table of contents

term and contents of

the term Taekwondo for the first time 1955 emerged and by general Choi Hong rear (IETF) were developed. World-wide there are two Taekwondo styles (IETF and WTF), thosemainly in the form practice and in the sporty fight differ. Taekwondo developed during the Japanese crew in Korea and by Japanese carats with was affected. Naturally there were carats unarmed combat arts in more for a long time before the introductionor less systematic form in Korea. Their causal influence on the later combat kind Taekwondo may be excluded however with security. , Than different Taekwondo Unterstile began to out-crystallize, some elements were afterwards supplemented only later in addition, as for instance in the Taekgyeonaccording to existing prohibition of the olympic match system to meet with the fist the head. The word Taekwondo consists of the following three sinokoreanischen syllables:

Tae = “footstep” (stands for all foot techniques),
Kwon = “fist” (stands for all hand andArm techniques) and
DO = “way” to understand (as in German also as method or aiming vines, with chin. TAO understood in close relationship).

Taekwondo as modern sport is divided today into the individual disciplines:

  1. Form run (Teul, Hyeong, Pumsae (Taegeuk/Palgue)): fixed techniques are accomplished in given order.
  2. Self-defense (Hosinsul): Self-defense against one/several unarmed or armed opponents.
  3. Intervening fight (Hanbon Kirugi, Ilbo Matsoki, Ilbo Taeryeon): A looking fight with fixed technique sequence against an opponent.Apart from the intervening fight there is also still the two and three-step fight (Ibo and/or. Sambo Matsoki, Ibo and/or. Sambo Taeryeon), which have however meaning rather subordinated.
  4. Break test (Gyeokpa): Destroy from Holzbrettern, bricks or other materials by means of Taekwondo techniques.
  5. Free fight (Daeryeon, Matsoki or Gyeorugi): agreed upon or free fight in different combinations.
  6. Match (Chayu Matsoki): Easy, Semi or full contact fight against an opponent.
  7. Primary school (Gibon Yeonseup), gymnastic (Dosoo Dallyon) and theory (Ilon) constant training components in addition, should be.

By continuous training and conscious practice of these disciplines is the Taekwondoins, then all Taekwondo operation are called, its spirit to train. General Choi Hong rear, the founder of the original Taekwondos, has this in fivecombined into reaching goals, which are considered as “principles of the Taekwondo ” and read as follows:

  1. Ye-Ui, the politeness
  2. Yom Chi, the integrity
  3. in-Nae, the staying power
  4. Guk Gi, the self-discipline
  5. Beakjul bool gul to reach

the uncontrollability around these goals placedChoi a Hong rear oath up, which all Taekwondo pupils are to feel obligated:

  • I commit myself to keep the principles of the Taekwondo
  • I commit myself, mean coaches and all high-posed to respect
  • I commit myself to never abuse Taekwondo
  • I commit myself,me for liberty and justice to begin
  • I commit yourself to obtain in the creation of a more peaceful world

to cooperate over with a Taekwondo technology necessary Kraft and the associated piercing effect avails itself the Taekwondoin of certain physical regularities. The knowledgearound these physical laws Choi called Hong rear “theory Kraft”. It consists of:

  • Concentration: To let affect entire Kraft exactly for the moment the impact as small a surface as possible. Large surface = small Kraftwirkung, small surface =large Kraftwirkung.
  • Reaction force: Opposing Kraft plus own Kraft = Kraft, which affects the opponent.
  • Equilibrium: Attack will more effective and defense becomes more stable, if the body is in the equilibrium.
  • Breathing control: Own impact effect and protection of the ownBody increase by harnessing belly muscles (breathing out and pressing) for the moment the impact.
  • Speed: The more largely the speed, the more largely is effective Kraft. Into physical formulas expressed: Kraft = mass × acceleration, whereby acceleration = speedper time unit.
  • Mass: The more largely the mass taken part in the impact (hip and entire body, not only striking/stepping part of the body), the more largely effective Kraft. Kraft = mass × acceleration.

history and development

as in many countries,from those kinds of combat haven followed, give it also in Korea centuries an old tradition at combat arts. It is however no direct causal influence of them on the emergence and initial development its that late Taekwondo should become to determine.

Those occasionallystatement which can be found, one of the publicised forerunners of the Taekwondo descends already from the legendary state State of Dangun, Taekwondo is thus in the long run over 4000 years old and thus the oldest combat art of Eastern Asia, misses to each historical basis. It may rather as a sign of an inferiority feelingpatriotic Korean combat artist in particular China and Japan opposite to be understood, which are much too often to be found. In addition there is however no reason, because Korea can look on one about one and a half millenia old independent combat art tradition back, itself behind those the differentEast Asian nations to hide does not need. One should not mix this tradition for the sake of honesty however artificially with the development of the Taekwondo.

traditional one Korean combat arts

at present the dawn of the combat arts in Eastern Asia existed Korea out three kingdoms: Goguryeo in the north, the western Kingdom of Baekje as well as the smallest realm in the southeast, Silla. A large part of Goguryeos, largest three realms, lay at that time in the area of today's Chinese Manchuria. These areas were lost, afterthe small Silla with support of seaweed China the two other realms had subjected. At that time there were flower boys” in Silla the medals of the Hwarang, about “, the one special cultural, social and religious training experienced and at least occasionally also in martialArts were trained. Probably under it also the unarmed combat art Subak imported made of China, which press about just as meant as “the shoulder”, was. From this (Chinese written) Subak (in Hangeul written) the Taekgyeon , that developed probably sometimeup to the time of the Japanese Annexion Korea particularly in the simple people, thus also with Gaunern and robbers, likes was. Taekgyeon is generally considered as genuin Korean combat art, whose typical movement samples in no other East Asian combat kind are to be found. Due to duringthe 35-jährigen crew time of existing prohibition for Koreans to exercise combat arts became extinct this traditional Korean combat art almost. Occasionally by the founder fathers of the later Taekwondo such as Choi Hong rear and Hwang AI is maintained, in their youth Taekgyeon would have learned her, but neitherthere are over it recordings, nor one can discover the typical Taekgyeon elements as for instance the tänzerische rocker movement or the breathing rhythm in their original style.

A further traditional Korean combat art is Ssireum, a ring combat style, which there is for instance since the Joseon dynasty.It is this very day a popular spectator haven. In contrast to the Japanese Sumo it is with not the goal pushing the opponent from the ring or on the soil but, similarly as when Swiss swinging, the opponent by pullingto bring and digging from the equilibrium. A causal influence of this traditional Korean combat haven on the later Taekwondo can be excluded with security.

Excavations of Japanese archaeologists in the year 1935 in the area today's North Korea opened Wandmalereien in Goguryeo graves, on thosedepending upon interpretation dancers or duelists in close-in engagement floats are shown. In order it could act which combat style thereby, today no more is not to be clarified, because except this picture no written recordings were found over it. Frequently on official Taekwondo sidesstatement which can be found, this was a forerunner of the Taekwondo, is pure speculation and comes of the realm to the Fantasie, not the facts.

Besides the Keumgang Wächterstatuen consulted in Sukkuram as voucher centuries of an old does often. These are two guards,in remarkable combat positions the input area of a buddhistischen temple guard. But this voucher emerges as mistake, because such figures are everywhere in China and even to India (whereby the older figures weapons in the hands hold), and therefore would haveTaekwondo finally from India come.

A last combat kind, which was to be found in Korea before the Japanese crew time probably, is Kwon beop. But this is definitely no traditional Korean combat art, but only the Korean way of writing of the Chinese Quanfa and/or. Japanese Kempo, thus about “fist technology” means. Actually this combat kind had its origin in China and came over Manchuria to Korea. She was trained of soldiers for instance since the end of the Japanese invasion 1598 as last (unarmed) means on the battleground,as a comparatively small range under the large offer at armed combat equipment. Kwon beop - movements are in the military training work Muye Dobo Tongji, “illustrated manual of the combat arts” of 1790, represented. There a synoptic chart with many drawing back far becomesArm momenta by individual, deep kicks loosened up. A causal influence on the later Taekwondo can be excluded alone from the reason of the variability of the techniques.

The practice of combat arts experienced two large absorbers in the history of Korea. First was the transition from the Buddhismus to the Konfuzianismus as social order at the beginning of the Joseon dynasty. Everything that had to do with military affairs or the war nature, was socially devalued in favor of other cultural achievements. Ssireum, Subak, late Taekgyeon and in the military Kwon beop becamefurther exercised and experienced in some circles proper popularity. Taekgyeon plays about one exercised gladly on some celebrations, particularly by children. The second, by far larger cut followed after the occupation of Korea by Japan. The practice of combat arts was general Koreansforbidden, only in rare individual cases this seems to have happened. The Taekwondo founders learned all together Japanese combat arts abroad.

emergence and development of the Taekwondo in 20. Century

after the Joseon dynasty was annektiert Korea 1910 by Japan.Everything that and history of Korea had constituted culture, was systematically suppressed and forbidden. That applied also to traditional Korean combat kinds such as Taekgyeon and Ssireum. The Japanese Besatzer brought combat kinds such as Jujutsu, to Kendo, Judo, carats or Sumo from at home also, but Koreans was officially forbidden it learning it. There were exceptions for example for Koreans, who studied in Japan or served in the Japanese Millitär.

the five origin styles

after 1943 the prohibition fell,Combat arts to exercise, and more still after the independence of Korea in the year 1945 a handful of Koreans returned, those abroad, thus in Japan and Manchuria, above all Japanese of carats had learned. They opened the 5 original combat art schools, from thoselater the Taekwondo to develop should:

  • Lee Won Kuk had learned and began Shotokan - carats with Gichin Funakoshi already 1944, hiring Udo in its school, the Cheongdo Kwan (“resounded the true way”) in Seoul to inform. Lee fled 1953 for political reasonsto Japan and 1976 emigrierte into the USA.
  • Hwang AI probably learned carats starting from 1936 in likewise Japanese occupied Manchuria, even if he spent the style later than a Chinese. 1945 it created the Mudeuk Kwan in Seoul (about “resoundedthe combat virtues "). It called its style first likewise hiring Udo, later then, in Korea, Subakdo. On international level it maintained the name hiring Udo (written “seaweed Soo DO”, shortened TSD), under that its style particularly in the USAtoday still one operates.
  • Chun sing Sup had learned and followed Judo and carats during its study in Japan 1946 the Yeonmu Kwan , the largest Seouler Judo school, where he informed gong Udo apart from Judo also. Chun is considered as in the Korea war verschollen.Its pupils changed the school names thereupon in Jido Kwan (“way of the wisdom”).
  • Yoon Byung in returned as highest-ranking Korean Karateka from Japan, where he with Kanken Toyama (Shudokan Stilgründer) the 5. Dan in the Shudokan - carats had reached. It is in Manchuriaalso Kwon Bop (chinesiches Quanfa/Kung fu) learned.

Likewise 1946 it created the Changmu Kwan in the Seouler YMCA and called its style (probably from political, i.e. anti-Japanese reasons) of Kwon Bop (“fist method”). Yoon was probably kidnapped during the Korea war to North Korea.

  • Ro Byung Jik hadtogether with Lee Won Kuk Shotokan - carats with Gichin Funakoshi learned and carried with his return the 1. Dan. It already created its first school before independence in Kaesŏng in the today's North Korea, pulled however for lack of success 1946 after Seoul andopened there the Seongmu Kwan (derived from “Seong DO Kwan”, the Korean discussion of the Japanese Shotokan).

the hiring Udo style

their style first hiring Udo ( Tangsoodo ) called all = “way (hiring) of the China hand” or gong Udo (Kongsoodo) = “way of the empty hand”. In bothCases concerns it the Korean discussion its that is read on Japanese carats. The word of “carats” experienced into the 1930ern an interpretation and a change of meaning of” (hiring) China hand " in “empties hand”. In these five first Seouler Taekwondo schools became originally thusor other kind the carats trains, and it was introduced opposite to foreigners into the 1960er years inside as “Korean carats”. However existed between the schools different standards for Dan examinations. Thus it already came before the Korea war to firstDiscussions about a possible roof federation, but only during the war the Kwan representatives agreed in Busan on the Korean gong Udo combination.

This first combination disintegrated already after few months, because Hwang AI immediately thereafter in Seoul in the single-handed attempt “Korean hiring Udo combination “based, whereupon also Son withdrew Duk sung from the gong Udo combination. Son Duk sung had taken over, at that time in the meantime the line of the Cheongdo Kwan the largest civilian combat art school.

at the Second World War

short after the war succeeded it to major general Choi Hong rear to take by its pupils influence on the line of the Cheongdo Kwan; he became a Kwan boss honour for the sake of. Choi had at the beginning of the 1940er years in Japan depending upon source the 1. or 2. Dan in carats attains, before heonly joined the Japanese, to of Korea independence of the Korean army. With each opportunity trained he his Untergebenen and colleagues in carats and met thereby the hochtalentierten Nam Tae rear, the hiring Udo in the Cheongdo Kwan had learned and equal Chois rightHand became. Nam does impressed of Korea president Syngman Rhee during a demonstration in the year 1952 with a roofing tile break test so much that this gong Udo - training for all soldiers arranged. In addition Choi and Nam 1953 created the military-internal Odo Kwan (“My Way”), thatin the course of the time the most influential combat art school became, because sooner or later each young Korean the military had to happen. Thus the situation for the other Kwan was intensified, because in the military first only the Dan graduations of the Choi hörigen Cheongdo Kwan were recognized.

the 1950er years

into the later 1950er years intensified itself the situation on a struggle for power between Hwang AI and Choi Hong rear one. Hwang organized several hiring Udo - demonstrations and strove, its style over its pupils in the militaryadmits to make.1955 organized Choi with support of the government a commission, which again over a combination the different gong Udo - styles negotiated. This commission covered however not all Kwan concerned, but consisted of representatives of the Cheongdo Kwan, the Odo Kwan,the military and the government. On this occasion Choi created Hong rear at the 11. April 1955 the name “Taekwondo “, a name, which, schmissig expressed, should remind completely consciously of the traditional Taekgyeon, even if it no contentwise relationship in additiongave. This name was not thus used into the 1960er years outside by Chois sphere of influence, the Cheongdo Kwan and the Odo Kwan.

Hwang AI created likewise a new name for its style, after he 1957 the old book “MuyeDobo Tongji “(about “illustrated manual of the combat arts”) of approx. 1790 had again discovered and into the modern Korean had translated: Subakdo, about “way of the striking hand”. Besides it maintained the name hiring Udo for its international efforts, under which itfirst local demonstrations and starting from the 1960er years international tournaments organized.

With support of the Rhee government organized Choi 1959 the establishment of the first Korean Taekwondo combination and became their first president. Hwang AI and other thereby for the name hiring Udo pleaded,but by means of its military authority Choi could become generally accepted. Its power base broke however in the course of the student revolution to 19. April 1960 under it together, likewise the freshly based, but officially yet did not register doing. Hwang AI used the favourto it shortly thereafter surprise-raidlike the registration of its own federation, which it renamed into Korean Subakdo combination, succeeded to the hour, and assistance of a good political contact in the Ministry. Thus the way for Taekwondo was first blocked, because a second combination for thatregister to let was not possible for same sport.

the 1960er years

to 16. May 1961 putschte general park Chung hee, and after it became short by decree No. 6 the re-organization of the Dangsudo/Gongsudo/Subakdo - registration orders. This would have thoselarge hour of the general Choi to become Hong rear to be able, but there were differences between the two military leaders, and Choi was pushed away as an Ambassador to Malaysia. The Korean Taekwondo development took place for the next 4 years without Choi. It developed in the exilehowever its Hyeong - system (S. and, “form run”) and set its efforts arbitrarily away, for Taekwondo internationally, approximately with US - troops in Viet Nam to make well-known.

In September 1961 it came to the establishment of the Korean Taesudo combination (“Korean Taesoodo Association“, briefly KTAS), whereby one agreed on the new name Taesudo “(about “footstep hand way”) as compromise between hiring Udo, Subakdo and Taekwondo. One developed uniform test and match rules and sent Show teams abroad.

Korean Taekwondo Association

1965 returned Choi Hong rear to Korea, and he was selected directly to the new KTA president. It changed immediately the names of the art in “Taekwondo “- allegedly the change of name with a voice majority was decided - and forced thoseEfforts after internationalization. Thus Taekwondo came finally also to Germany and led 1967 to the establishment of the German Taekwondo federation with adjustment of the 1. German Taekwondo championship (see below, “Taekwondo in Germany”). Hwang gravel Mudeuk Kwan split over the point of issue whether one Chois KTAto follow is or not, and many its pupil followed the KTAS. Hwang AI remained independent of the KTA and based later abroad, in particular in the USA, different hiring Udo federations.

establishment of the IETF

the permanentControversy between KTA president Choi and the other Kwan leaders led to it that one already forced Choi one year later, from the post to withdraw and it in response the establishment of its own federation, which assured internationally Taekwon DO Federation, briefly IETF. It becameto 22. March 1966 in Seoul with the establishment countries Arabia, Germany (west), Italy, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Turkey, the USA and Viet Nam carried out. First and president only up to its death was naturally Choi Hong rear.

In the following years the conflict grewbetween the KTA and the IETF, so that one developed own forms in the KTA, the Pumsae (only eight Palgwe, then eight Taegeuk) and the nine Yudanja (Korean discussion of the Japanese “Yudansha”, see below, “form run”).

the 1970er years

1971 became Dr. Kim Un-Yong to 6. KTA president selected. In the same year the South Korean president park Chung hee placed itself to the re-election, and because he saw a crisis coming, it proclaimed end of the yearly the national state of emergency. Discovered still beforeit Taekwondo as national educating means and manufactured to 20. March 1971 maximumpersonally a Kalligraphie on, with which he explained Taekwondo as the Korean national sport (Gukki Taekwondo, about “national treasure Taekwondo”). In the same year the Grundsteinlegung of the Gukkiwon took place (about“Practice place of the national treasure”), the “world Taekwondo headquarters” (so the official title), which was finished placed 1972. President was likewise Kim Un-yong.

separation of the federations in WTF and IETF

in the same year probably left Choi Hong rear because of federation disputes South Korea.It shifted the seat of the IETF after Toronto in Canada and began the reform of its Taekwon DO. As consequence of it became to 28. May 1973 in the course of the first Taekwondo world championship the World Taekwondo Federation , briefly WTF, taking place in the Kukkiwon, alsoSeat in Seoul based. Kim Un-Yong president became also here. KTAS, WTF and Kukkiwon worked now with support of the park government hand in hand on it to dissolve the different Taekwondo schools (Kwan) South Korea in order to implement a uniform Taekwondo system. Hwang AI won variousProcesses against it, but the pressure on it and his school continued to increase, until it finally gave way and into the USA pulled 1974. 1976 was replaced the still existing Kwan by numbers and two years later completely were dissolved.

Work on []

On the way to the olympic discipline

the later 1970er and 1980er years were coined/shaped by the conflict of both Taekwondo world unions, respectively their presidents Choi Hong rear and Kim Un-Yong. Kim could build thereby on the substantial support of its government, and so1980 the acknowledgment of the WTF finally succeeded to it as a world professional association Taekwondo of the IOC. With the olympic plays 1988 in Seoul and 1992 in Barcelona were certified the WTF Taekwondo as demonstration competition, 2000 in Sydney and 2004 in Athens were itadequate olympic discipline. To sportsmen of the world the American surely belongs to the best double olympia winner Steven Lopez, which as only athlete so far in each case the gold medal 2000 in Sydney (- 68 kg) and 2004 in Athens (- 80 kg) to achieve knew.

end of the era of Choi and Kim

Choi went another way and visited with a team 1981 North Korea, where since then IETF Taekwondo is operated. That was charged to it in South Korea immediately as Landesverrat. Until today becomes itsName concealed to a large extent there, and its achievements as a “father of the Taekwondo” are not recognized. It died 2002 in North Korea, Hwang AI likewise 2002 in South Korea, and Kim Un-yong became in June 2004 because of corruption and defraudation a two and a half-year old imprisonmentcondemns, from which it became to dismiss however at the end of of June 2005 in the course of a general amnesty already again.

generally federations and

organizations [work on


Taekwondo is both national and internationally into a great many federations splintered; leavehowever identify themselves to two dominant factor organizations: the two world unions IETF (internationally Taekwon DO Federation, based in the year 1966) and WTF (World Taekwondo Federation, based 1973). In Germany the DTU is - German Taekwondo union registered association.- the world union WTF attached. The DTU is attached and thus the German sport federation and the national olympic committee official Taekwondo federation in Germany.

Beyond that there are many independent schools, to the federation styles more or less leans orsich am "traditionellen" Taekwondo-Stil orientieren, wie er ursprünglich von GeneralChoi Hong Hi in den 1950er und 1960er Jahren entwickelt wurde. An example for this is the “traditional Taekwondo” after Kwon Jae hwa, which itself clearly of the “modern” Taekwondo thatDTU, IETF and WTF differentiate.

the two largest federations: IETF and WTF

the IETF have its seat in Vienna, after her founder general Choi Hong rear to Canada emigrierte and the seat of the IETF first after Toronto and then 1985 had shifted to Vienna.

The WTF has its seat in Seoul (South Korea), the founder is Kim Un-Yong. It became 1973 as reaction to the emigration of general Choi and the parallel taking place transfer of the IETF centerbased. Reason for it was that Taekwondo should absolutely have its central seat as Korean national sport in Korea. Under the roof of the WTF the olympic Taekwondo takes place, therefore a participation in the olympic plays is possible only as a member of the WTF.

style differences

for federation-political reasons developed in the Taekwondo different styles, also, because the straight large world unions develop themselves further purposefully: above all the WTF tries to arrange the sport more attractive more public-effectively and thus the matches. In contrast to thisset the traditional schools on the traditional, which they want to retain. The styles differ therefore particularly in the form runs, in the naming of the techniques as well as in the kind of the match. The techniques are identical in the reason. In additionit comes that various large masters affect the respective style likewise easily, which leads to the fact that all subordinated schools take over this style. This concerns above all certain techniques and here in particular the respective course of motion. Some large masters require soft, flowing movements, other sharp-edged-dynamic.Also the remark speed of the respective technology often differs.


the way of writing of the term Taekwondo had to hold ways of writing for demarcation. It is called Taekwon DO , this way of writing traditional also the IETF kept. The WTF writes the names“Taekwondo”. Some schools separate the syllables completely and write “Tae Kwon DO”. The official transcription of the term 태권도 is Taegwondo in South Korea (Romanisierung revised) and T'aekwŏndo (McCune Reischauer - Romanisierung) in North Korea, these ways of writing are however never used practically. AlsoTechniques are sometimes differently designated, although they are in the same way implemented. It results above all in the fact that the translation of the Korean ways of writing is not completely clear into western writings. Therefore such designations can deviate from each other (see.Taekwondo terms).

form run

forms (English. Pattern) are fixed walking and technique sequences, them resemble a fight against imaginary opponents and serve above all the automation of motion sequences and the training of suitable breath techniques.

The historical background is alleged that itwould have been in former times much too dangerous to lead a training fight against a genuine opponent - with injury or death this would have led to substantial economic problems (worker in the agriculture) and appropriate acts of revenge of the family of the victim. It gives howeverstill further theories about the emergence of forms, which developed in all asiatic combat kinds and in the most different cultural contexts.

With the fixed movement forms one differentiates between

  • Pumsae (Taegeuk/Palge and Yudanja),
  • Hyeong (the traditional forms, of Choi Hong rear arranged) and
  • Teul (of Choi from the Hyeong develops further Hong rear later).
Name, name and relevance of the form
number Taegeuk/Pumsae 1 /3 Hyeong/Teul 2 relevant for…
1 IL jang Chon ji 7. Kup
2 I jang Dangun 6. Kup
3 SAM jang ton-san 5. Kup
4 SA jang Won hyo 4. Kup
5 Oh jang Yul gok 3. Kup
6 Yuk jang Chun gun 2. Kup
7 Chil jang Toi ge 1. Kup
8 Pal jang Hwa struggled 1. Dan
9 Koryo Chung mu 2. Dan
10 Kumgang Gwang gae
3. Dan
11 Taebaek Eui to
Choong jang
Ko-hiring again: Juche
4. Dan
12 Pyongwon + Sipjin SAM IL
Yoo sin
Choi yong
5. Dan
13 Jitae + Chonkwon Yon gae
Moon MOO
6. Dan
14 Hansu + Ileyo then-san
7. Dan
15 Tong IL 8. Dan
16 9. Dan

¹) up to the 1. Kup are called the forms Taegeuk Pumsaen. Alternatively Palgue Pumsaen are run. Starting from that 1. Dan are called them Yudanja Pumsaen.
²) there are traditionally 20 Hyeongs. Then becamesupplements the 20 Hyeongs around further 4 Hyeongs, in order to have symbolically for the 24 hours on the day also 24 Hyeongs. The Hyeong Tong IL was the 20. Hyeong and became then 24. Hyong, there it for the reunification of Koreastands. As gene. Choi began to change the Hyeongs and even a further form developed, in order to exchange these against another, designated it the Hyeongs in Teul over.
³) conditions: 11/02 (www.dtu.de)
and which forms to which examinations to be queriedvarriert from federation to federation.


the Taekwondo has itself from a Korean people sport with the spreading in the world, delivering of international matches and the admission into the program of the olympic plays for a modernMatch haven develops. According to data of the WTF train world-wide over 40 million athlete the dynamic full contact match haven, since the official olympic acknowledgment in Sydney 2000 with rising tendency.

Regularly also military world championships (CISM) in the full contact match (WTF) take place. The last CISM-WMtook place in October 2004 in goods village, with which the German crew could win several medals.

The match (free fight) takes place on a defined field and by several arbitrators is evaluated, by a combat judge led. The match goesover few minutes (olympic three rounds over in each case three minutes with in each case one minute of break), in which the participants try must, with do the opponent to meet (full contact). Depending upon met body place and hit effect points will assign,unsportlichem behavior can also punishments, i.e. Point departures to be assigned. The exact combat orders differ from federation to federation, can be however usually seen on the web pages of the federations (see Web on the left of, below). The olympic matches find international after thatvalid match rules of the WTF instead of. In the full contact the fighters carry accurately prescribed protection equipment (helmet, schienbein and Ellbogenschoner, Tiefschutz).

As consequence of strong match orientation in the olympic discipline techniques and combinations are practiced in particular, those in the match in accordance with the match order points of hitbring. In contrast to it the traditional schools deliberate themselves upon a Taekwondo without match pressure and practice therefore the entire technique spectrum. Free fights find also here nevertheless (usually easy and/or. Semikontakt) instead of. Here stand however instead of the hit effect rather the correct andaesthetic execution of the technology (EN) in the foreground.

Apart from the free fight also form tournaments are delivered, this match discipline are not however not olympic.


style/federation form designation match
WTF (olympic) Pumsae full contact with (soft) helmet, protection waistcoat, Tiefschutz, lower arm and Schienbeinschoner as well as everafter age group also with clamping protection. A tooth protection is optional, but on many tournaments prescribed. Foot techniques are the center of attention to the body and head. Hand techniques to the head are not permitted, only due to increased danger of injury fist techniques to the trunk. Deep foot techniques (on the legs)are forbidden.
IETF Teul light contact with hand and foot protection. Foot techniques in all variants and combinations combined with material fist-fight techniques, also fist impact techniques to the head.
“traditionally” Hyeong without contact and/or only light contact, no protection. Except for few potentially very dangerous exceptions(for example hand edge against the neck) all regular Taekwondo techniques are permitted. One may not affect however the opponent thereby or only easily.

Taekwondo in Germany

short history

Taekwondo became starting from 1965 by the large masters Choi Hong rear and Kwon, Jae Hwa also in the German-speaking countries common (this work was supported later by many other Korean large masters and continued, who reside partially today still in Germany). To emphasize is the DTU coach of the national team of many years Park Soo Nam made of Stuttgart,under its direction Germany continuously in consequence (1976, 1978, 1980, 1982, 1984) European champion brought and numerous medals out on world level. Among other things the German team achieved 2 x gold, 1979 by Rainer Mueller and 1982 by Dr. Dirk young, as well as 2 x bronze in Korea with the first olympic fe matches 1988 in Seoul by Markus Woznicki (European champion 1988) and Michael Arndt (world champion 1987).

The first German championships took place already 1967 in Munich. The first WM-participants of Germany wonin Korea 1973 silver by Armando Chavero and bronze by George truck mountain (both Leichtgewicht). Likewise in Korea achieved 1975 in each case silver medal a Professor. Dr. Wolfgang Dahmen (feather/spring weight) and Meinolf Lüttecken (heavyweight), as well as bronze for stroke ore Leuchter (Bantamgewicht).

First coach of the national team thatSection Taekwondo in the German Judo federation DJB became Kwon, Jae Hwa 1972.

the German Taekwondo union registered association.

The German Taekwondo union (DTU) was created 1981 and came out from the section Taekwondo of the DJB. The DTU is member inthe European Taekwondo union (ETU) as well as the world roof federation WTF. Thus the DTU is to be sent by the NOC and recognition by FCB as only official federation and entitled sportsmen to the olympic plays. Today train over 58.000 active ones inder DTU, welche in ca. 850 associations exercise the sport.

further Taekwondo of federations

the ITF-D with seat in Cologne is of three German national federations of the IETF and is their European federation and the world union attached. Presidentis for over 15 years Paul Weiler (7.Dan). A further German IETF federation is the Taekwon DO Federation Germany (TFG) with head office in Stuttgart, under the presidency of Dr. Björn wool (4. Dan) and the vice-president Stefanos Gaidartzakis (8. Dan).Those GNAW with seat in Bochum is a further German IETF federation and becomes from Tarcisio Martella (5. Dan) led.

olympic Taekwondo match

since 2003 finds in Germany within the DTU does, those in the free fight (olympicDiscipline) the German Taekwondo Mannschaftsmeister determines and the sport public-effectively a broader spectator circle on regional level more near brings. With the olympic plays 2000 in Sydney Germany won silver medal for the first time by Faissal a Ebnoutalib (Mr. -80 kg). The world champion of 1995 Aziz Acharki occupies the 6. Place (Mr. -68 kg) and Fadime Helvacioglu (ladies - 49 kg) separated with the women in the Vorkämpfen prematurely.

2003 took place the WTF world championship in mixing part churches. About 1000 participants out over 100 countries tookto it part. Germany achieved altogether three medals: Silver for Mohamed Ebnoutalib, bronze in each case for Thucuc Pham and CISM (military WM) gold medal winner Erdal Aylanc. After the WM 1979 in Sindelfingen again a Taekwondo WM in Germany could after 24 yearsare delivered.


the combat suit (Dobok) is a suit from light, white-bleached linen, which consists of jacket, trousers and belt (Ty). It is strainable, permits all movements, and one can with certainTechniques to it zupacken also times firmly, without the suit tears. To the basic clothing come if necessary. still protection equipment for the match in addition (see above). Any form of decoration (rings, neck/foot small chain, bracelets/clocks and large Ohrringe) must because of the danger of injury before trainingare put down.

The feet remain unbekleidet. There are exceptions for sportsmen with foot injuries or the like, if necessary should one the teacher ask. There are but should special Taekwondo shoes, these only to special causes (demonstrations or training in the free one) carriedbecome.

In the Taekwondo the white Dobok as well as the white belt have an also symbolic character. The color white is clean and can still easily all other colors accept. It is completely empty like a still blank sheet. A pupil in the whiteDobok is comparable with a still empty glass, into which slowly new knowledge of the masters is cast in. The pupil should “absorb” a this knowing and being able, processes, to then convert around it successfully into the act. Independently of this importance that developedwhite training suit probably completely pragmatically from the fact that coloring materials were in former times very expensive. The color of the belts likewise a symbolism is the basis.

  • The white belt is carried for the Taekwondo by beginners, is still ignorant and open and point-avidface.
  • The yellow belt stands for fruitful ground, on which knowing and being able to prosper to be supposed.
  • The green belt symbolizes the first Sprösslinge and fruits, indications for the fact that the efforts of training were worthwhile themselves and something ripens in the pupil.
  • The blue beltstands for the sky and thus sense-figurativy for a border. The pupil must show now that he is able to aim at and also reach higher.
  • The red belt represents a signal color, a warning color. The pupil stands briefly before it,Master to become, and is stopped to be occupied still more intensively and persistent with the Taekwondo. Some schools use the brown belt in place of the red belt. Brown the bark of the trunk symbolizes, what means that the techniques itself alreadystrengthened and the pupil stands briefly to become masters.
  • Black and also the “black belt” is the color of the masters and only these reserved. Black and is thus the strongest of all colors combines all other colors in itself.Black is also the authority, which knowledge and the experience of the masters symbolize. Therefore also only Dan carriers Doboks with a black written undertaking may carry, as all ornaments at the training suit in black only for the masters generally being entitled.

Jacket and trousers

the jacket are to cover the gesäss, its sleeves reach at least over the half lower arm, at the most up to the wrists. Black edge and black written undertaking are permissible only for Danträger. The jacket is contrary to jackets outthe Judo and carats on the front closed. , Limited usually a Aufnäher hands the cutout to that for instance up to the Solarplexus.

The trousers are in such a way worked that a lateral Spagat is possible. It reaches at least up to the half calf.

At jacketand/or also federation badges know and imprint trousers to be attached; the clothing orders of the respective federations and schools regulate.

For the first Schnupperstunde hands normal sport clothing, it should be however strainable and high leg momenta permit. If one wants to train seriously, should one a Dobok purchase.

belt and graduation system

to be mentioned are here as the first that the recognition of rank is not the principal reason that with the Taekwondo belts are carried. It is many more important that 3 finger widths under thatBelly navel the center specified in asiatic philosophy often lies that for the emergence of the vitality (Chi) it is responsible.

At the correct place and with correct pressure bound it makes possible the belt to harness almost the entire body lightning-like over toTo implement example a footstep purposefully or put in around a hit „“. One can observe this phenomenon also with Gewichthebern, who do not carry the force belt at the belly, but 3 finger widths under the belly navel.

The graduation and/or belt systems of the kinds of combat haven is only in 19. Century developed and were introduced for the first time by the Jigoro Kano the founder Judo. In addition, in historical times different dress and belt colors already showed different ranks in the höfischen hierarchy on (both in Asia and in Europe).

TooBeginning of the modern Taekwondo gave it to only four belt colors: black-and-white, blue, red and, the colors of the Korean flag. This meanwhile supplemental through yellow and green. The modern graduation system serves above all to represent the training and knowledge conditions.The list with Taekwondo training is made for practical reasons arranged in the block according to belt colors: the maximumgraduated stands right in front, on the left of in the back the lowest degree.

The belt degrees are divided into pupil class (Kup, counting downward) and master class (Dan and/orPum (WTF; only 1. - 3.) with under 15-Jährigen, counting upward).

Designation belt color
10. Kup knows (new A RISERs)
9. Kup knows or white-yellow
8. Kup yellow
7. Kup yellow or yellow-green
6. Kup green
5. Kup green or green-blue
4. Kup blue
3. Kup blue or blue-red and/or blue-brown
2. Kup red and/or. brown
1. Kup red and/or. brown or red/brown
1. to 9. Dan black (with children 1. to 4. Pum, red lengthwise)
10. Dan black (becomes from the Kukkiwonhonour for the sake of lent, at present there are 5 carriers 10. Dan WTF)

Belt examinations take place usually according to fixed patterns (test order) and from master degrees are decreased. They contain theory knowledge, form run and demonstration of techniques (agreed upon fight, free fight, break test).

Behavior as a Taekwondo sportsman

Taekwondo has enormous Potenzial, with a small inattentiveness can one and others hurt itself. The teacher is responsible for the arranged operational sequence of the practice hour. It can provide however not for loud individuals, itself not to thoseRules hold. Therefore it must be carried out for the instructions of the teacher absolutely consequence, belonged to the fact also that one gives its full attention to the teacher.


are rules depending upon style direction, school or large master differently strict, strict or obligatoryRequirements and requirements of the behaviour or the behavior of the Taekwondoins during a training unit. Ever traditional Taekwondo is exercised, the more strictly is these rules calm and the more exactly also to its observance is paid attention. Some rules apply however in principle tothe Taekwondo and are listed in the following:

  • To training one appears punctual and in clean sport clothes (Dobok). Hands and feet are washed, finger and foot nails are briefly held, in order to prevent injuries.
  • During a training unit may not be drunk or eaten. Chewing rubberchew or a smoke break are not not permitted likewise. The entire attention should be dedicated the teacher and/or the exercise partner.
  • During a training unit the training range should not be left if possible. On the toilet one should go before beginning of the training. Inurgent cases logs out oneself one with the teacher, but should be considered the fact that each interruption disturbs the instruction altogether which again lets own body cool down and thus danger of injury saves. In addition can so dirt, Steinchen or fragments from the course range upthe training surface to be brought, which can likewise lead to problems, since many train barefoot.
  • Before training begins, the pupils before the master in a firmly given order set up themselves in accordance with their graduation. The highest degree always stands therebyin front right.
  • Training begins, if the teacher gives the instruction for list. Usually the coach is greeted by the first pupil (in front right) on Korean, then the group to the teacher and the teacher bow themselves to the group. Some schoolsit attaches importance to the fact that with the greeting ceremony additionally the flag of Korea is greeted.
  • With training may not be chatted or laughed loud. The commands of the teacher must be able to be understood at any time and have to be also obeyed.
  • Only the teacher or highGraduations may teach techniques to other pupils or correct the pupils. Thus it is guaranteed that the techniques are not learned correctly and carelessnesses to inclusively-calibrate itself. This particularly applies to the form run, since otherwise fast wrong courses of motion can spread.
  • Attacks against each other,Break test, exercises with weapons (z. B. during self-defense) or other difficult exercises may be accomplished only after express permission of the teacher under its observation. Otherwise the danger of injury is too large.
  • The teacher instructs exercise abort (command Geuman or Baro or Gallyeo), all exercises must be terminated immediately.

ceremony and respect

respect and form keeping is straight contents of the daily life natural in Asia. So also with the Taekwondo.

A conspicuous characteristic of this ceremony is that slopes: With the inclinationnot only respect for the teacher and the exercise partner is expressed, it serves for above all to the collection and concentration. It should happen consciously, because it indicates it that one concentrates on the forthcoming task. Concentration is a substantial elementin the Taekwondo, it makes complex courses of motion possible and guarantees that the partner is not inadvertently hurt.

With the greeting one that one strips the everyday life concerns, is confirmed concentrated on the forthcoming exercise. It signals to the partner that one it asPerson respected and paid attention will to practice fair and without danger with it.

The noble one leans, but bends themselves not.“(Confucius)

one usually leans

  • when entering and leaving the exercise area: Thusone crosses completely consciously also mentally the threshold from the everyday life to training and in reverse. If national flags are hung up (z. B. with examinations the Korean beside the national) one welcomes also the flags, in order to show the origin and host country respect.
  • at the beginning and end of the practice hour: Pupils and teachers state mutual respect and insure themselves their concentration on the exercises.
  • before and after partner exercises: Thus the partners that they put all attention into the practice of the technology, signal themselves thusthat the partner is not endangered.
  • before and after a break test: Taekwondo is meant for defense and not for destroying. Since with the break test something is to be destroyed (for example a Holzbrett), asks the practicing with the inclination opposite the teacheror examiners around permission after for being allowed to destroy exeptionally something.

Die Verneigung wird meist mit dem Kommando Cha-ryeot (Achtung!) vorbereitet (Füße nebeneinander im Moa Seogi, Fäuste am gestreckten Arm leicht neben dem Körper, Gegenüber ansehen) und mit dem Kommando Gyeong nye (greet, bend) introduced (torso bends itself 45° forwards, arms with the fists is easily bended).

“strange ceremony” or “sporty label”?

cultural views of a large master

large master Song Chae Yong reported in an interview 1987 overits beginnings as Taekwondo teachers in Munich and the differences of the cultures (from “Taekwon DO in the west”, monk owl publishing house, 1989):

I made Taekwon DO at the people's highschool in such a way, in the autumn 1972. At that time I made many errors. I wanted original Taekwon DOshow and a hard training made. The people could not however. I wanted in such a way to pass Taekwon DO on, like I it from my teacher had learned, in the same kind, but the people could not stand that and are again and again left. Thereupon I have training moderate made.
With us that was something else. Discipline is very hard in Korea and a judo or a Taekwon DO coach is particularly considered as a respect person. One says Sahbum Nim to a master inthe Budo kinds of sport. If thus a Sahbum Nim leads the training, which is then perfectly accepted, which makes, nobody can say somewhat against it. I did not dare here that. In Korea Sahbum Nim is a term, but not in Europe, herethink the people: Oh, that is only one coach! At that time we training in Korea strictly with Meditation began, but I feared that the people do not know that here that they find it amusing, simply so toosit, with closed eyes. In Korea one was allowed not to speak in the exercise area, in the Dojang, one was allowed not even the teeth to show. One paid attention even not to step on the shade of the teacher. A teacher is an absolute for usRespect person. As I in Munich at a High School a practical course made here for my diploma as a german teacher, there was I surprised from the atmosphere of instruction. I could not do that. That were pupils of the 9. Class and those were naturalvery impudently. At the conclusion of the hour they packed simply their things and ran away, without greeting. Does not give it such a thing in Korea.
A teacher is in principle a respect person, thus also a Sahbum Nim. Perhaps one has in addition,Fear of him, because he DO-in, thus not only, but also a physically trained man is charakterlich. One is afraid it thus also a little. For Japanese, Korean, Chinese is a Sahbum Nim a term, which those understand immediately. .....Which he says, we accepted that without criticism. We would have never dared “why?” to say.

to ceremony in the “west”

straight line asiatic kinds of combat haven are considered usually as epitome to ceremonies. Many Europeans or “normal” sportsmen make themselves merry over itor it unpleasant, see perhaps even religious or sektiererische find background.

Apart from the practical aspects (z. B. Inclination as signal to concentrate and it no injuries cause on the partner) gives it in addition, another interesting aspect: So, as one always assumes in Europe, politeness rules are not at all unknown, as examples from typically European kinds of sport show:

  • With the riding formal greeting of the arbitral tribunal is prescribed by the rider strictly and leads during neglect to the disqualification.
  • With typicalEuropean kinds of sword haven (for example fencing) is likewise formally greeted, upon exactly specified operational sequence (for example leading the Floretts to the Gesichtsschutz).

The slope to mystischen interpretations and meanings may be very pronounced in the asiatic culture area, however are also asiatic observersbeeindruckt von der Hingabe (inklusive dem Sammeln von symbolischen Gegenständen und Zeichen) der europäischen Fußballfans.


  • the high leg techniques of the Taekwondo can with long-term more wrongly or to short warming up phase and during wrong execution to Hüft or muscle damage(Pulling, muscle fiber tears and Vernarbung of the muscle tissue), there fast stretches lead with use of high-speed strength to be implemented. In principle Taekwondo is however a very healthy kind of sport, in particular for the hip. Possible physical complaints should be absolutely clarified before beginning of training with the coach.
  • Abhärten of skin and bones by appropriate measures (impact training etc.) can harm in the long term, are however with the Taekwondo less usual.
  • Some match techniques, which are stepped with bare foot, became in an emergency with high probability the break of the foot joint orthe toes lead, if these are not implemented in a general manner or even wrongly. That applies naturally exactly the same to every other combat art.
  • A part of the techniques is in case of self-defense for the user risky, there these techniques only from by rulesto protected, but reduced match situation their use draw. On sporty-fair match of trained Taekwondo sportsmen a reduced spectrum of expected attack movements has, - in-trains combinations and defenses (close RAM formation of automated complex movement samples). It is helpless in relation to scruplesless and compromiseless attacks deviating from it rather, ifhe not just as such expectation and movement samples trains, which for him in the match can be again rather hinderlich. Those applies however not with traditional Taekwondo, there here the emphasis not to the match but to the Verinnerlichung of the combat artone puts.
  • In case of emergency (self-defense) the first footstep should sit and make the opponent with the application of a leg technology, because footsteps are, if they are not correctly implemented, by whom longer way more slowly than arm techniques and open disabled, if wrongimplemented, own covering. On the other hand these, if well trains, are naturally by far more effective and more effective (more kinetic energy, longer combat distance, surprise effect). Experienced Taekwondo sportsmen can snap Kicks an opponent with very much and also angetäuschten to make also disabled, if the first Kicknot the desired effect obtained

sees also


  • does. Korean art of self-defense(Gene.Choi Hong rear one, 767 S., Dt. First edition 2003. Under cooperation of CHH summary of the 15-bändigen revised fe encyclopedia).
  • Taekwon-Делают Lexikon, плашка 12
  • Taekwondo Hyong ISBN 3930918226 (Майкл Unruh и Manfred Zakrzewicz) и perfekt ISBN
  • 3878920490 TAE-KWON-DO. Technology, training, form school (Eric Wagner), ISBN 3833007958
  • Taekwondo perfectly 1 (Konstantin Gil, Kim Chul Hwan), ISBN 3806808902
  • Taekwondo perfectly 2 (Konstantin Gil, Kim Chul Hwan), ISBN 3806809763
  • Taekwondo perfectly 3 (Konstantin Gil, Kim Chul Hwan), ISBN 3806810680
  • Taekwondo perfectly 4 (Konstantin Gil, Kim Chul Hwan), ISBN 3806812500
  • Taekwondo. Traditions - bases - techniques (Charles A. Stephan), ISBN 3613504162
  • Taekwondo - technology/training self-defense (W. Pieter, J. Heijmans), ISBN 3891242557
  • Taeguek: The new one form OF Tae Kwon DO (Pu Gill Gwon), ISBN 0897500970
  • Taekwondo self-defense (Jürgen Höller,Axel Maluschka), ISBN 3891249543
  • Taekwondo (Lee Kyong Myong), ISBN 3405159415 Taekwondo
  • decay correctly (touch, George), ISBN 3932576179
  • a step fight Ilbo Taeryon (Robert tile), ISBN 3878920717
  • Taekwondo - the Korean close-in engagement technology (Willi Kloss), ISBN 3878920288
  • Taekwondo: Philosophy and Culture of KyongMyong Lee Hollym Intl (2001) bound expenditure/language English

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