Taiwan

of these articles describes the island Taiwan, for the state sees Republic of China and for the province Taiwan (province).
Karte Taiwans
Map Taiwans
satellite photo Taiwans

Taiwan (Chinese: 臺灣 or 台灣 (traditionally), 台湾 (simplifies) ; Romanisierung: Táiwān (pinyin), T'ai wan (W. - G.)) an island before the Chinese mainland is separate in the Pacific, by the Taiwan road. Since 1949 it forms the main part of the Republic of China.

In former times the island Formosa was called, what stands on Portuguese for beautiful.

Table of contents

Name

in former times was well-known the island in the west under the name Formosa (after „Ilha Formosa “ , Portuguese for „beautiful island “). In China 17 already is since that. Century the name “Taiwan” (literally „terrace bay “) common, that at the same time the entire island as also the capital at that time (thattoday's Tainan) in the south of the island designated. The establishment of the city decreases/goes back to the dutchmen, who established 1623 the away Zeelandia as well as a further fortress in the heart of the today's Tainan.

In addition by Taiwan (in fact) a sovereign Chinese state is understood,that itself officially Republic of China (Chinese: 中華民國 (traditionally), 中华民国 (simplifies) ; Romanisierung: Zhōnghuá Mínguó (pinyin), Chung hua min kuo (W. - G.)) calls, which was in former times sometimes called in the west also national China. Becomes internationalthe independent island however only recognition of few governments de jure as state. A great many of the UN-member states call it frequently in consideration of the VR China a stabilized De-facto-regime (which the Republic of China rejects as disparagingly).

geography

Taiwan extends over oneSurface of 36.179 km ² (to the comparison: The surface of Baden-Wuerttemberg amounts to 35,752 km ²). In the longest place the island 394 km is long, the maximum width amounts to 144 km. The island is separated from China by the road from Taiwan and from the Philippines by those Road of Luzon. East the Philippines basin limits Taiwan.

Taiwan and associated islands

the Republic of China on Taiwan still the Pescadoren ( Penghu), the Matsu islands ( Mazu) and Quemoy (Jinmen) covers as well as some further small islands. It becomes similarly as Japan frequently ofEarthquake afflicted, which requires special safety standards with buildings.

climate

the turning circle of the cancer, which marks the climatic border between the Tropics and Subtropen, goes through the island rather exactly at its highest collection, the Yu beautiful with 3.997 m height. In the northern part prevailsaccording to a subtropical climate, the center and the south are prevailing with consideration of the climatic influence of the respective altitude tropical. Due to the high mountains in however predominantly is climate moderate by dailytemporal fluctuations coined/shaped - also in the altitudes of the southern part.In the winter blows a strong monsoon from northeast, in the summer a strong monsoon from southwest, which brings strong rainfalls with itself. The island is afflicted from May to Octobers also frequently by Taifunen. In February it can isolated to snows in altitudes over 3.000 mcome. The most well-known place for this is in the district Nantou the Hehuanshan attainable over a passport road on 3.275 m, which translates mountain of the harmonious joy meant. The average temperatures amount to in February 12°C and in July 25°C.

Geomorphologie

the west of the island formsa flat, of coagulating coming from the mountains durchzogene fruitful, today strongly populated level. Toward the east this ascends, up to the central mountain chain, which exhibits height over 200 summits with more than 3,000 m. The valleys usually narrow compared with the alps are from steep-rising slopes and up to over 2.000 m height partly flanks by Terrassierung and. A. for cultivation of dte and aminal husbandry agriculturally usable made.

The Yu beautiful is with 3.997 m and. NN the highest collection of the island. At the east coast is a further, somethingless high mountain course. The sun moon lake on 762 m and. NN is that largest inland waters and by its altitude as storage power station for the production of hydraulicelectrical energy is used.

population

today live in Taiwan approx. 24 millions Humans. The population consists predominantly of Han Chinese;in addition well 2% member of the native peoples come.

Taiwan exhibits the second highest inhabitant density of the world due to its small surface and the for this high mountain portion in its settlement areas with more than 620 inhabitants per square kilometer to Bangladesh. The urban population concentrates in the western levelthe country. Accordingly highly there the urbanization rate with an increasing concentration is on the dye of the capital Taipeh in the north of the island. Further settlement emphasis is around Taichung and Tainan along the west coast up to the southern port and second largest metropolis Kaoshiung.

The majority thatPopulation Taiwans is Chinese descent, which immigrated in several migration waves of the mainland. The native population in the levels assimilated, only in the inaccessible mountain regions could the indigenen peoples their self-sufficiency to in early 20. Century retain. Today become of the government of the republic Chinatwelve native peoples Taiwans officially recognition, further ten strive for acknowledgment (total number 2004: 400.000). Their cultures went down to a large extent since end of the Second World War, and/or assimilated by the chinesischstämmigen population majority. Since center of the nineties there are efforts to retain at least the languages of the natives.

As dutchmen and Spaniards in 17. Century with the Kolonisation began, lived already estimated 25,000 Han Chinese on the island, the population majority represented however austronesische indigene peoples (about 250,000). End 17. Century to in 20. Century began a substantial Zuwanderung of Han Chinese from thatChinese province Fujian. In the year 1919 the population on approximately 3 million Han Chinese, 100,000 Japanese and 120,000 became estimated member of indigener peoples. End 20. Century the relationship from Han Chinese to members of indigener peoples shifted on nearly 80:1; i.e. reviveTaiwan approx. 20 million Han Chinese and 300,000 Austronesier.

At the sun moon lake can be experienced old customs, dances and rites of the natives of visitors in two copied villages in a people customer open air museum as tourist program.

languages

the languages of the natives Taiwans belong to the austronesischen language familyon. In detail is this:Rukai, Yami, Tsou, Saisiyat, Atayal, Paiwan, Bunun, revision modifications, Puyuma, Pazeh, Kanakanavu, Saaroa, Seediq and Kavalan. Nowadays only about 2% belong to the taiwanischen population these groups of peoples,speak still less the native languages, which are threatened by becoming extinct therefore. Differently than in the People's Republic of China in Taiwan far the traditional Chinese characters are used. Latin writing, which were introduced by mission arene, served in some cases for the Verschriftung of the languages of the natives.

religion

many the native before the Chinese Zuwanderung of Portuguese and Dutchmen the Christian faith already assumed (5%). The majority of the Chinese population is buddhistisch (43%), konfuzianisch or taoistisch (34%). 1% are Muslims.

cities

thoselargest city is the capital Taipeh.
Das Taipei 101 in Taipeh. Der mit 508 m zur Zeit höchste Wolkenkratzer der Welt.
The Taipei 101 in Taipeh. With 508 m at present highest Wolkenkratzer of the world.

See also: List of the cities in Taiwan

history

major item: History Taiwans

the first settlement traces on Taiwan originate from the Jungsteinzeit (approximately around 4000 v. Chr.), a further settlement wave from the Chinese mainland showed up approx. around 2500 v. Chr.. This period was characterized by agriculture and a Megalithkultur, which set up stones and made graves of stone crates. On it following so mentioned the “geometrical”Period stepped on the mainland already off approx.1500 v. Chr., on Taiwan however only starting from 500 v. Chr. up. The “geometrical culture” became on the mainland around 700 v. Chr. from the Chou Chinese penetrating from the east and brought the Eisenverarbeitung displaces afterTaiwan. In the years of 200 v. Chr. to approximately 200 of our time calculation humans displaced by the Han dynasty immigrierten on the island in several waves.

Still during the first half of the 1. Millenium of our time calculation the cultures on the Chinese mainland and on that offeredthis pre-aged islands culturally and linguistically similar picture. After the Sinisierung by the Han dynasty there was no more cultural connection over longer time between Taiwan and China. The indigenen peoples Taiwans maintained however trade relations toward the south, z. B. with the Philippines.

During the Sui dynasty, in the year 608, first times an historically occupied Chinese “commercial expedition” took place on Taiwan: They penetrated militarily to the west coast of the island, plünderte the villages found there and kidnapped the native ones. Such expeditions took place in irregular distances again and again,until the Chinese in 12. Began century to establish themselves and commercial stations base on Taiwan. 1367 was integrated the Pescadoren lain to the west of Taiwan by the Ming dynasty in the Chinese realm and made a part of the province Fukien.

In the year the Portuguese discovered 1583the island and they called Formosa.1624 occupied Netherlands sailors and the Netherlands east India company the south of the island and 1626 conquered Spaniard the north and created addresses with Keelung and Tanshui.

Between 1624 and 1644 there were further immigration waves from Han Chinese to Taiwan. Over 1641 were however practically the entire island under Dutch administration. The influence of the Netherlands colonial administration on the culture of the indigenen peoples was devastating: the master structures were changed by the installation of chieftains in the more or less rule-free cultures, by the Christian Missionierung the mythologischenConceptions and traditional ways of life in reverse. Developed new behavior and thinking standards, new village structures and new rule structures.

The Netherlands colonial gentlemen were driven out by Koxinga (Zheng Cheng Kung), a war gentleman, a Piraten and a buyer of Chinese-Japanese descent, that itself as Loyalist to the fallen Ming dynasty (1368 - 1644) in China well-known. According to contemporary Chinese sources Koxinga with 30,000 Gefolgsleuten is after Taiwan moves its. 1683 annektierten the new rulers in Peking, the Qing created by the victorious Mandschu - dynasty (1644-1911), the island. The imperial Chinese administration controlled however up to the transfer of the islandat Japan end 19. Century only about a third of the taiwanischen territory.

The “civilization” of the indigenen peoples begun by the Europeans was resumed by the Chinese. 1734 was furnished 50 schools, where the children in Chinese language and culture were informed. 1758 becameLaw issue, which the inhabitants Taiwans forced to carry Chinese Haartrachten and clothes and accept Chinese names. The Han Chinese sinisierten above all the races in the flat areas of the island, those as aggressively valid mountain trunks with their traditional head hunters - culture more remained under Chinese ruleor less unaffected. Under the Chinese Buddhismus and Konfuzianismus were introduced and displaced again the Christianity spread by the dutchmen.

Stamp of the Republic of Formosa, 1895

in peacetime of Shimonoseki had China after the lost Chinese-Japanese war of 1894 /95 Formosa and the Pescadoren at Japantransfer, whereby Taiwan the Japanese empire was attached until 1945 as province. For Japan at that time considered on expansion the Annexion Taiwans meant a strategic improvement of the initial position during the preparation of further annexations on the mainland of China and in Southeast Asia.

The raw materials of the island becameat that time on a large scale exploited. With the exploration of tropical wood among other things the famous narrow-gauge railway developed on the mountain Alishan, those today as tourist attraction in approximately four hours travel time and by some tunnels from Chiayi to the wooded summits of the Alishan over 2.250Elevator meter overcomes.

The Japanese colonial administration brought also the mountain trunks under its control and furnished schools and a kind to police station in their villages. Although the Japanese let ethnologische and anthropologische investigations accomplish with the “wild ones”, they seized with the prohibition of the head hunt and the shame anise mashas well as resettling deeply into the culture of these trunks and changed thereby cultural practice naturally. The Japanese colonial administration tried for its part to introduce the Schintoismus. They forced the conquered peoples to a “normal” way of life. Despite all these efforts it came into the 1930er years occasionallyto rebellions of the trunks and as answer to it to massacres by Japanese or Chinese at the native population. The colonial administration turned into finally to a system with incite-wire-fenced reservations . During the Second World War men of the indigenen trunks became Taiwans (in particular the revision modifications) into thoseJapanese army drawn in. In the municipality today a memorial place would wash to a massacre in the year 1930 to be visited, in its process Japanese troops probably several thousand natives killed in the central mountains is.

1945 became Taiwan after the Japanese defeat into the Republic of at that time China under guidanceintegrated by Chiang dock shek, during on which Chinese mainland the civil war flickered between the governing Kuomintang (KMT) and the Chinese communists again. The troops of the republic were welcomed enthusiastically by the Taiwanern first, but came it because of pervasive corruption, galloping inflation and economic fallrapidly to tensions between Taiwanern and of the Kuomintang - government used administration, itself to 28. February 1947 in a bloodily struck down rising of the people unloaded.

1949 flee the Kuomintang - government (KMT) under Chiang dock shek after its defeat in the Chinese civil war on the island back. Withthe peace treaty of San Francisco 1952 it is determined that for the future Taiwans the right of self-determination of the Taiwaner must be considered.

Now the Republic of China limited to Taiwan and some islands before the Chinese coast still takes to 1971 the Chinese seat in the UN security council as constantMember. The Chinese seat was awarded after the exclusion Taiwans by the general assembly of the United Nations in the year 1971 of the People's Republic of China. The Republic of China belonged 1945 to the 51 founder states of the UN.

To 16. Decembers 1978 broke the USA their diplomatic relationsto Taiwan off. This happened in the course of the approximation of the USA to the People's Republic of China. Many other states did the same.

The Kuomintang governed many years the island as authoritarian a party state. 1987 waive the KMT the martial law, the first opposition party, those A democratic progress party (DFP) develops and the long suppressed “taiwanische” culture and language may be exercised again. Beginning of the 1990er years gives the Kuomintang up their autocracy and the democracy is introduced. 1992 is accomplished for the first time free parliamentary elections and 1996 direct presidency elections.

Since 2000 is also Chen Shui bian for the first time a politician of the DFP (a democratic progress party) president. It was red-elect 2004 scarcely and pursued a strict policy of the taiwanesischen self-sufficiency. Because of party-internal disputes and a defeat with local elections the cabinet stepped to 23. January 2006 closed back, after prime ministers Franc Hsieh had announced a short while before its resignation. As a new head of the government CSU Tseng Chang was sworn in, a former Dissident and a guidance member of many years of the movement of independence.

administrative arrangement

Taiwan is into 18 districts and sieves circle-free cities arranged (see table), under what Taipei and Kaohsiung as directthe centre government take subordinated cities a privileged position. The three districts Penghu (Pescadoren), Jinmen (Quemoy) and Lienchiang are in the Taiwanstrasse and/or before the coast of the Chinese province Fujian convenient Inselgruppen.

  • Cities
name Chinese pinyin inhabitant
Taipei 台北市 Táiběi Shì
2.621.000
Kaohsiung 高雄市 Gāoxióng Shì
1.510.000
Taichung 台中市 Táizhōng Shì
1.114.000
Tainan 台南市 Táinán Shì
751,000
Keelung 基隆市 Jīlóng Shì
392,000
Hsinchu 新竹市 Xīnzhú Shì
384,000
Chiayi 嘉義市 Jiāyì Shì
270,000

conditions: 2004

  • districts
name Chinese pinyin inhabitant
Taipei 台北縣 Táiběi Xiàn
3.694.608
Taoyuan 桃園縣 Táoyuán Xiàn
1.834.045
Yilan 宜蘭縣 Yílán Xiàn
462,614
Hsinchu 新竹縣 Xīnzhú Xiàn
461,566
Miaoli 苗栗縣 Miáolì Xiàn
560,597
Taichung 台中縣 Táizhōng Xiàn
1.522.986
Changhua 彰化縣 Zhānghuà Xiàn
1.316.321
Nantou 南投縣 Nántóu Xiàn
539,721
Yunlin 雲林縣 Yúnlín Xiàn
738,158
Chiayi 嘉義縣 Jiāyì Xiàn
559,329
Tainan 台南縣 Táinán Xiàn
1.105.983
Kaohsiung 高雄縣 Gāoxióng Xiàn
1.237.501
Pingtung 屏東縣 Píngdōng Xiàn
902,639
Taitung 台東縣 Táidōng Xiàn
241,676
Hualien 花蓮縣 Huālián Xiàn
350,468
Penghu 澎湖縣 Pénghú Xiàn
91,840
Chinmen 金門縣 Jīnmén Xiàn
61,614
Lienchiang 連江縣 Liánjiāng Xiàn
11,002

conditions: 2004

infrastructure

a net of most modern motorways connect thoseCenters of dense development among themselves. A high-speed course for the connection of the large cities completed at the 11. June 2005 its first test travel. The operating start was shifted several times and is new on the 31. October 2006 set. One struggle-strains the railway runs approximately around the island, there a crossing of the highMountains would be too cost-intensive and the east coast because of the east coast mountains little is populated. Airports connect the most important goals.

economics

Taiwan has a capitalistic economic system, which is strongly dependent on its exports. The country ranks among the most strongly deregulierten and denationalized national economiesthe world. The taiwanische investment river into the VR China amounts to in the year 2002 to the 34 billion Euro and exceeds thereby all other countries. Taiwan is under the largest producer of semiconductor - applications such as PC - motherboards , Notebooks and WLAN - components,most diverse (competitive) marks to be world-wide set off. In addition Taiwan is one of the four tiger states.

culture

of holidays

national holiday

day (civil) of the Chinese revolution, 10. October, also “double ten-celebration” mentioned. The day reminds of the rebellion of Wuchang (武昌),today quarter of Wuhan (武漢市), to 10. October 1911, which finally led to the establishment of the Republic of China.

other national holidays

Holidays after the moon calendar The following national holidays depend on the traditional Chinese calendar:

  • 4., 5. rarely also 6. April - Qingming and/or. Dead celebration (2005: 5. April; 2006: 5. April)
  • January or February - Chinese New Year celebration or spring celebration, about 4 days freely (2005:9. February; 2006: 29. January)
  • May or June - kite boat celebration (2005: 11. June; 2006: 31. May)
  • Septembers or Octobers - moon celebration; (2005: 18. September; 2006: 6. October)

time calculation

the official counting of the years depends in Taiwan on the establishment day that Republic of China at the 1. January 1912. Thus the year 2005 (after the Gregorian calendar) becomes as 94. Year of the Republic of China counted. In the everyday life and in the trade the western annuity is likewise common.

see also

literature

  • way gel, Oskar: History Taiwans. Of 17. Century until today. Cologne, Weimar, Vienna: Böhlau, 1991, ISBN 3-412-02891-6
  • summers, Katharina & Xie, Shu dock: Taiwanisch - word forWort. Bielefeld 2004, ISBN 3-89416-348-8.
  • New churches, Mathias, the agency of China and the status Taiwans in international law, 428 sides, ISBN 3-8329-0459-X.

Web on the left of

Commons: Taiwan - pictures, videos and/or audio files

to the Chinese anti-secession law: http://www.denkeanhenke.de/CH/Antisezessionsgesetz.html



coordinates: 23° 43 ' N, 120° 51 ' O

 

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