Takelage

Takelage at the nose of a flat soil ship

as Takelage or Takelung one designates the cordage, the masts and sails of a boat or a ship. With the Takelage it concerns non as frequently accepted - only the cordage of the ship; the Takelage closesrather everything, which rises over the bottom structure of a sailing boat.

Table of contents

Takelungsarten

Segel einer Viermastbark
sail of a four-mast bark
Stehendes Gut einer Viermastbark
standing property of a four-mast bark

one differentiates between today the following Takelungsarten:

history

emergence

when and where humans for the first time simple boatswith mast and sail equipped, is so far unclear. Many thousand years were an individual mast and a simple Rahsegel the only used elements of a Takelage.

A substantial advancement arises only during the Roman realm , the Bugspriet, more like a precariously bent Fockmastlooked. In the Mediterranean area, where the Rudergaleere played a larger role, mast and sails developed differently (keyword Lateinertakelung) than in Western Europe, where the mast and the Rahsegel in 15. Century were prevailing. The current property was very simple. ToSail-set necessary traps were led simply after aft and served at the same time as a baking day, by supporting the mast with sails.

the early Middle Ages

in the Middle Ages one set Bulinen at the Seitenkanten of the very bulgy sails and led her forward to one“Bugspriet “Spiere mentioned, over the nose the exceeded. The standing property became also young far from (see list of maritime technical terms) and Taljereeps strained and with Web linen connected, whereby a ladder from ropes developed, which served the easier up/Abentern. At the Masttopp (see pattern) that received Sailing boat engagements Mars after the Roman war God Mars, because in this height the elbow contactor/shell throwers (late riflemen) were brought in position, over from there out on längsseits the lying ship too schiessen/zu throw.

11. - 15. Century

in Scandinavia becomes Marsaround 1150 in the legend of “Snorres Konungssagor " mentions. At the beginning 15. Century began one in northwest Europe to build sailing boats with two or three masts. The grossmast received its place in the center of the ship, and the additional masts became in the preand figure eight castellets (with fights at the board it had proven that one could defend the ship so better) set up. These masts developed probably in such a way that one go-ate at these masts at the beginning of flags or banners and just as fast draufgekommen is, at the Flaggenstöckento set small sails. These small sails were led at first by the sailors in Mars, about which itself the term “Marssegel “((English. topsail) see pattern) derives. Soon a further at the Fockmast followed the large Mars gel. At first they were very small, however constantly took at sizetoo. The Schothörner were led to the cams of the Rah present under it so that the sails became more easily operated. The Lateinersegel, which was used in the Mediterranean area, came as Besan with the large sailing boats into use.

Toward end of the Middle Ages became under the Bugspriet Rahsegel set, the so-called. Blind one (a sail below the Bugspriets, fastened to a Stenge); this blind one was most likely it, which made a lookout at a higher place necessary, since she took the view forward to the Schiffsführung. To the end 15. Century came also sailing boatswith four masts in the use. The two achteren masts led generally only Lateinersegel. The small Besan “Bonaventura Besan” (a mast, in order to down-push shut the ship with sails at the tail to get around more pressure on the rudder) extended usually beyond the tail. The sail surface grewconstantly.

16. Century

in the center 16. Century got the large Segler a third Rahsegel, the topgallant sail (see pattern) at the Fockmast and grossmast. Until at this time the Stengen firm extensions of the Untermasten were approximate and could not be moved. Offone began 1570 to use the Stengen mobile; these became secured with a lock wood (mobile shipbuilding part at the mast), so that the Stengen could be applied and down-gotten. This invention is attributed to the dutchmen and is taken over soon by all navigation nations.

17. Century

in17. Century became it usually to equip the mizzenmast with a Marssegel (see pattern) and the Bonaventura mizzenmast became redundant; the “Vollschiff “(English. fill rigged ship) was created. Up to the center 18. Century lasted it, until the Takelung had so far developed that everyoneMast the same number of Rahen carried. The sailing boats 17. Century were built with low nose and high tail. By this design its maneuverability were very small with wind, and in order the associated luffing greedyness to reduce, was led more Vorsegel. To the end of the17. Century began one to lead between the masts steam turbine and gas turbine system gel (see pattern) and somewhat later outside across the Bugspriet. This front steam turbine and gas turbine system gel were difficult because of the complicated Takelage the blind one and Bovenblinde to set. The steam turbine and gas turbine system gel became generally accepted however. At the beginning 18. Centurythe Bugsprietstenge disappeared, and the current property was gradually extended, in order to be able to serve the steam turbine and gas turbine system gel more simply. When the Bugsprietstenge disappeared, a new Stenge was attached at the Bugspriet; thus the “Klüverbaum” was born.

18. Century

a new steam turbine and gas turbine system gel became to the Klüverbaum attached, Klüver mentioned. In the second half 18. Century the large Lateinerrah of the Besan was replaced by a Gaffel. The Besan was increased and driven at a tree exceeding over the tail. Under the Bugspriet a new Spiere was attached, the so-called. Ramming stick ((dolphin scourge)see pattern), in order to improve the verse conference of the Klüverbaumes. From this improvements a new Spiere with a steam turbine and gas turbine system gel (flying jib tree) with the flying jib developed. On the large sailing boats at the same time a fourth Rah was added over the Bramrah, the Royalrah.

19. Century toModern times

around the center 19. Century with sailing boats the standing property was replaced by wire. The enormous Marssegel of the sailing boats were very difficult to handle; in particular with strong wind, if a Reff had to be set. Around 1850 one happened in addition over, these Marssegeldivide. About twenty years later drove the large like smaller sailing boats double Marsrahen and double Bramrahen ((under and main topsail) see pattern). To the end 19. Century arose the hoist , so that less sailor were on board needed, around the Rahen of the sailing boatto braces.

see also

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)