the Taklamakan desert (also Takla Makan, Takelamagan Shamo or Taklimakan Shamo) is after the Rub aluminium-Chali the second largest sand desert of the earth. It extends in central Asia in the northwestChinese Uiguri autonomous area Xinjiang by the western part of the Tarim basin up to the road 218.East the desert Lop Nor is to this road because of the deepest place of the Tarim basin. In former times the Taklamakan desert and the desert Lop Nor were separated by the underflows of the rivers Tarim, Konche Darya (=Konqui-He) and Chärchan Darya (=Quarqan-He), however south of Tikanlik already sinceDecades drained.The meaning of the name Taklamakan was for a long time unclear. The name originates from Uiguri and was so far in such a way translated: Go you inside, and you come out never again, place without return or desert of death. After Qian Boquan, historianthe Xinjianger academy of the social science in Ürümqi, is the wrong translation if you is once imprisoned, then it gives to come no escaping a group of journalists, who visited Xinjiang into the early 1980er years. Qian Boquan came to detailed studies of the uigurischen dialectto the result that Taklamakan actually means country of the Pappeln, since Takli is a derivative of the Turkish word Tohlak or Tohrak, which means Pappel. The syllable mA, which follows after Takli, stands for large and kan, a modification of kand from the old Persian, mean country, city or village. According to historical documents Pappeln were still very common in the years 420 to 589 in the Tarimbecken. Source: China.org .cn, Xinhua, 22. August 2005.
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the Taklamakan desert fills about twoThird from Xinjiang. Their surface of approximately 300,000 km ² is covered to the majority also over 100 m high dunes, some indication amounts even to 300 mice age, in that the Taklamakan nearlywas completely covered by a Glazialsee. Investigations of the heavy metal spectra depending upon catchment area of the rivers could prove that those have sand a fluvialen origin (from former river courses) . The dunes let the strong hoist move very fast, in addition they lead also to the figuration of Yardangs.. They developed by dust and Sandablagerungen of the last
The Taklamakan is earthquake-endangered as part of Xinjiangs.
In the desert salt lakes lie. In few meters depth large ground-water supply, probably also from the meltwater of the surrounding high mountains, formed.
also under 30 mm precipitation in the yearthe desert is considered as hyper+arid. This extremely dry climate results from the combination of two factors. On the one hand the Taklamakan is a relief desert, a desert, which lies in the rain shade of mountains. In addition the continental situation comes. Air masses advanced by the sea lost their humidity,before it central Asia reached. This cloudy appearance poverty can strengthen the high temperatures.
By the distance to a sea with compensatory warmth the temperatures vary extremely strongly. Since it is a very inaccessible area, meteorological statements are uncertain and differ as a function of the source.According to Bruno Baumann can come it on the day to 62 degrees of heat and in the night to 12 degrees of cold weather. Roughly the temperatures in the course of the day around 70°C, in the yearly process vary around 90°C. The variations in temperature have no effects on the drynesses, yet are they infurther life-hostile factor.
notorious is kara buran, „the black sandstorm “. It can whirl up tonnenweise sand and persist over days or weeks. It received its name, because it often verfinstert thereby the sky. The time of the KaraBuran is from February to June; the sandstorm comes all three to five days particularly from the northeast. The dust nebulas persisting for weeks can reduce the irradiation substantially. Since it already many caravans, and probably even whole cities fell to the victim, he becomesconnected with many myths. Thus tell the native legend of the army of a Chinese emperor, which is to be buried under the sand 250 m of a high dune.
At the foot of the high mountains there are numerous oases with enriches vegetation. The meltwaters of the Kunlun beautiful and Tien beautiful form among other things the Tarim. This flows at the edge of the desert into east west direction, where he makes agricultural use possible on the very fruitful Löss.
The vegetation-rich areas are surrounded by of a belt from thin plant stature. This vegetation belt offers to a large extent protection from propagation of the desert, increasing use as Viehfutter and firewood threatens the protection belt to destroy. The devastating at the existing predatory exploitation in relation to moderate use is that thatvery dry Oberboden a natural regeneration makes so well impossible .
As examples of plants in the belt the Tamarix is to be called ramosissima and Populus euphratica, which were examined by Göttinger researchers. The Tamarix ramosissima grows on salty and alkaline soils and hasdeep roots. Over the shed sheets the plant salts separates. The Populus euphratica (Euphrates Pappel) is a salt-tolerant plant, which causes a temperature tolerance of the sheets increased by Isopren by the emission. Both must get along at river-far locations with 33 mm annual precipitation, which onlyby purchase of groundwater is possible. Both kinds occur differently frequently, since the Tamarix with deeper groundwater can grow than the Populus .
Behind the protection belt the vegetation removes and the core desert begins. The actual Taklamakan is an hyper+arid and accordingly nearlyliveless desert, with animated half deserts like the Kalahari is thus not comparable it. In the literature hardly are data for the core desert. Thus walter & Breckle indicate in „vegetation and climate zones “only that the sand desert is vegetationless Taklamakan. Probably one can of thatCore desert something similar as of the Lut and parts of the seeing era maintain: Although over thousands square kilometer is not missing here visible plant stature, there soil samples showed thousand bacteria and mushroom pores per gram soil .
many archaeological traces are throughthe dryness well conserves. So are to be found into the Taklamakan some sunk cities, which became uninhabitable either by desert propagation and sandstorms or whose supplies drained. The archaeological finds point on tocharische, brightistic and buddhistische influences. The researchers and discoverer Nikolai MichailowitschPrschewalski, Aurel stone, Albert von Le Coq, Paul Pelliot and particularly Sven Hedin described the dangers of the journey and the gone down cities of the desert.
Beside city ruins also mummies in the region were found, from which some up to 4000 years are old.They show, which different peoples crossed the desert once. Many of them seem to originate originally from Europe and could members of the Tocharer have been.
Later the oases of the desert were inhabited by Turkvölkern. During the seaweed dynasty the east Turks were defeated for the first time, and China could so that its influence on the important silk road expand. The silk road was split in this region: their stages led at the northern and southern edge of the inaccessible Taklamakan along. Phases of the Chinese rule were interrupted by the rule of east Turks , Mongols and Tibetern. The today's population existson the country mainly from the Turkvölkern of the Uiguren and the Kasachen, while the larger cities are populated by Han Chinese predominantly in the meantime.
in Europe came the Taklamakan the first time 1888 (according to other sources 1889) into the field of vision. After the murderat the British dealer Andrew Dalgleishs in the Himalaya fled the author along the desert. A second notice the survivor Bowers pursued the author and discovered in an oasis old documents. They were in an Indian language from that 5. Century writes and acted ofa city in the desert sand. They are considered as first buddhistische documents, which prove the influence of the Indian culture at that time.
1895 made itself the discoverer Sven Hedin on its journey the crossing of the desert. During the crossing he got off because of Wassermangels only scarcely the life.The dramatic journey became one to today continuous myth. The extreme sportsman Bruno Baumann dared to 8. April 2000 a journey by the desert, around background from Hedins journey to explore and survived likewise only scarcely. Sven Hedin found at that time the remnants ofDandan Oilik, a city sunk in the desert. There Wandmalereien showed Indian, Greek and Persian influences.
due to its climate was inaccessible the Taklamakan long time. The routes of the former silk road are today to asphalted traffic routes developed, on those the entireWild umfahren will can. On the north route of the silk road today the road 314 is, on the south route the road 315; the east connection of both roads forms the road 218. Because of these roads at the edge of the Tarimbeckens oasis cities are such as Hotan (= Khotan), to Kaschgar and Aksu. The oases are supplied by meltwaters of the surrounding high mountains with water. The earlier middle route of the silk road of Korla over Loulan Gucheng after Yumenguan Guzhi and after Dunhuang (= Mingoshan) does not continue to exist no more; therefore the building of the road 218 became necessary.
Approximately in the center of the desert large oil and gas occurrences were discovered. To its development the Chinese government built 1995 for approximately 10 million € per kilometer the Tarim Highway, that the desert Taklamakan of the place Luntai which was because of the road 314 (= Bügür) up to the place which was because of the road 315 Yawatongguzlangar with Mingfeng (Niya) in north south direction completely crosses. With a length of 520 kilometers it is considered as the world-wide longest desert road. This road with reciprocal sand dune attachments and permanent road cleaning service becomes thereforealso regarding their building and preservation as the most expensive road of the world outstandingly.
To 4. October 2002 was opened the motorway with the name Qieta the ore Highway for traffic. This leads likewise in north south direction by the desert and connects Korla (Kurla) with thatCircle Qarqan (Qiemo xian, 且末县) and its principal place, the greater Qiemo (Qiemo zhen, 且末鎮, Chümo = Tarran). Those can be mastered by the building of this new motorway formerly two days continuing journey from Korla to Qiemo in only eight hours.
The building of a further highway by the Taklamakan was begun in May 2005. This road will connect the cities Aral and Hotan with a length of 400 kilometers from north to south. For their realization 800 million Yuan (74.4 million €) are estimated.
- Baumann, Bruno: Caravan without return Malik publishing house, Berlin 2000. ISBN 3890291775
- Baumer, Christoph: Spirit cities in the desert Taklamakan Belser, Stuttgart 1996. ISBN 3763023348
- Baumer, Christoph: The southern silk road. Islands in the sand sea. Sunk cultures of the desert Taklamakan publishing house Philipp of Zabern, Mainz on the Rhine2002.ISBN 3-8053-2845-1
- Kausch, Anke: Silk road. Of China by the deserts Gobi and Taklamakan over the Karakorum Highway to Pakistan. Dumont art travel guide. Cologne 2001. ISBN 3-7701-5243-3
- Second Channel of German Television documentation: Sons of the desert part of 2: By the Gobi and the Taklamakan. Documentation ofBernd Liebner and Cheng as, 2002 (with photographs of the cameraman Paul Lieberenz of the Chinese-Swedish expedition). Also as DVD: Publishing house completely Media 2003. ISBN 3831288119 ↑
- Michael Martin: The deserts of the earth Frederking & Thaler, Munich, 2004 ISBN 3-8940-5435-2, S. 313f. ↑
- ecological ones Basis for a lasting use of desert vegetation University of Goettingen ↑
- influence of the height over the ground-water level on growth and water regime of Tamarix ramosissima and Populus euphratica on silt dunes in the Taklamakan desert, size China. Dirk Gries ↑
- Martin, S. 323 ↑
Web on the left of
|Commons: Taklamakan- Pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- west China. Yardstick 1:2 700,000. Travel know-how publishing house Bielefeld 2005. ISBN 3-8317-7163-4.
- Map of the end 20. Century
- the silk road and the neighbouring oasis cities in the Tarimbecken
coordinates: 38° 53 ' N, 82° 11 ' O