Talaat pasha

Mehmet Talaat, admits as Talaat Bey or Talaat pasha, (* July 1872 in Kardschali /Regierungsbezirk Adrianopel; † 15. March 1921 in Berlin), was Minister of the Interior and Grosswesir of the Osmani realm and leader of the young-Turkish nationalists.

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origin and ascent

Talaat came of small conditions and represents a social Aufsteigerschicht, which arrived with the young-recent revolution of 1908 in the Osmani realm at power. As six-year one experienced it the Russian-Turkish war of 1877/78 and the Russian occupation of its closer homeland. These childhood experiences coined/shaped it and put the germ for the exaggerated nationalism, which should pull itself by its whole life. While the student time attached it itself the nationalistic wing of the young-recent movement, which publicised a rescue of the Osmani realm against its threat by the imperialistic (Christian) great powers by purposeful modernization projects, ever more strongly in addition, by models more ideologically “national” unanimity.

After conclusion of the university studies he was transferred into the government service and knocked the career of a Telegrafenbeamten. At the same time it developed to a prominent head of the young Turks, whose older founder generation it pushed aside, and was initial member of the committee for unit and progress. The political activities of this party were directed against the government under Sultan Abdülhamid II., which avoid-has the liberal condition of the Grosswesirs pasha of 1876 had repealed set. The fight for the civil fundamental rights culminated 1896 in a tried coup d'etat, which failed however. Talaat continued to work in the committee for unit and progress and ensured for the fact that the young-recent movement won trailers in the Turkish Offizierscorps increasingly by the turn of the century. In particular to the native garrison in Thessaloniki it had close connections and promoted the ascent young Ismail of the Enver.

young-recent revolution

under the guidance of the friendly, charismatischen Enver Bey came it 1908 into Thessaloniki to the open rebellion, which the officers and crews followed. The military superiority of the troops mobilized by Enver Bey forced the government to the resignation. To 24. July 1908 had Abdülhamid II. the condition of 1876 again into force set, the censorship waive, an amnesty issued and reactionary of cabinet members dismisses. Talaat drew Adrianopel for the committee for unit and progress as a delegate of the governmental district into the parliament. Its party won crucial influence on the again educated government. Against the seizure of power of the young Turks forces undertook reactionary to 13. April 1909 a Putschversuch, which revolutionary troops under the guidance Envers and Cemals struck down however after three days. Afterwards the young Turks dethroned Sultan Abdülhamid II. and by its brother and successor to the throne Mehmed V. replaced it., swore to the condition loyalty and the new balance of power accepted.

time as Ministers of the Interior and Grosswesir

as political leading head of the committee for unit and progress succeeded it to Talaat starting from 1909 to occupy influential positions in the state with Gefolgsleuten. In the course of the change of of the young-recent program - whose originally democratic-parliamentary adjustment, which contained a close co-operation with the minorities of the realm, was displaced in view of which increasing problems ever more strongly by the conception of a taut nationalistisch Islamic dictatorship - Talaat Bey 1911 occurred even as a Minister of the Interior the government and intensified the Turkish-nationalistic adjustment of the state. Due to the military defeat in the Italian-Turkish war, the political pursuit of oppositionals of forces inland and the nationally sanctioned acts of violence against citizens, who Turkish nationality were not, the young Turks lost power however in July 1912. But already in January 1913 - in the middle in the first Balkans war of 1912/13, that the Osmani realm a recent defeat given and with massive massacres at the Muslims of the Balkans and driving the survivors out to small Asia was connected - organized Talaat in the association with Enver and Cemal a Putsch of the young Turks against the new weak government.

The Putsch successfully ran, Talaat became again Minister of the Interior of the Osmani realm, which it controlled from now on together with war Minister Enver pasha and Marieneminister Cemal pasha in a Triumvirat with almost diktatorischen authority. Differently than the two military leaders of the young Turks Talaat relied on the administration of the realm, which he implemented since that time systematically with confidence people also in the provinces, and on ideologically a core of the party machinery of the young-Turkish “Ittihad” always nationalistischeren.

Differently than Enver pasha, which a military alliance aimed at with the German empire, opted to Talaat for a neutral foreign policy. With its conceptions with regard to foreign policy it could not succeed however, so that the Osmani realm in the autumn 1914 as allied Germany and Austria Hungary into the 1. World war occurred. Talaat, which remained to 1917 Ministers of the Interior of the Osmani realm, was as such the chief executive for the genocide at the Armenians, which took place particularly in the years 1915/16 and was central organized from Talaat with the help of the public administration, in addition, some secret organizations of its party. Talaat issued the concrete Deportationsbefehle, which were justified officially as war-conditioned evacuation of an unreliable minority as a Minister of the Interior, and ensured at the same time unofficially for the fact that these instructions were understood and converted more realiter than Genozid instructions. For this purpose it used an party-internal young-Turkish militia and used at the same time his powers as a Minister of the Interior, in order to replace against-striving governors and officials by trailers of a radical line.

By February 1917 until October 1918 Talaat, which received therefore the title to “pasha”, officiated as Grosswesir and thus as a head of the government of the Osmani realm. When the war defeat already appeared mainallied Germany, it had to 8. October 1918 withdraw.

In order long the personal prosecution for the Armenian Genozid to escaped, announced by the Ententemächten, Talaat escaped to 2. November 1918 like the two other members of the entmachteten young-Turkish Triumvirats with German assistance to Berlin, where it lived since that time in the exile. While he was condemned under a new, a liberal and a per-British government in Konstantinopel 1919 in absence to death, worked Talaat from Berlin on a political comeback in the Turkey, where he supported the nationalistic insurgent around Kemal Atatürk, at whose point he in the future to place itself hoped. In addition it did not come, because 1921 it was sought out and shot in Berlin by the Armenian Soghomon Tehlirian - the member of an Armenian terrorist organization, which was decided to throats the mass murder at their people -. Tehlirian was acquitted in the following murder trial in Germany by the reproach of a Tötungsdeliktes, which became process rather an accusation against the murdered one, which had been a people murderer.

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