a tanker is a ship to the transport of liquid substances, like water, crude oil, oils and fuels or petrochemical products.
The silhouette of a tanker is easily of the other ships toodifferentiate. It possesses a flat deck, which carries superstructures except the bridge hardly. It does not need a cargo handling gear (on deck of installed cranes), up to amidships on all tankers installed Manifoldkran so mentioned, with that hoses of country on boardto be lifted can, in order to connect they with the line system of the ship. These connections (also Manifold called) are likewise good from the distance to recognize.
Tankers have their pumps for the deletion of the charge on board. Are supervised also with tankers,like meanwhile with nearly all ships, all loading and delete operations with a charge computer, with which all forces, which affect the ship, can be predicted.
Main parts of the naval technology is the boiler plant, the drive turbine, the generator turbines, the Ladepumpen with an individual performanceof over 10.000 t per hour and an inert gas plant.
With inflammable tank charges nowadays fires at sea become and - explosions by filling the empty spaces of the tanks by the employment of an inert gas avoided. The inert gas replaces the voherige, oxygen-containing tank atmosphere by nearly oxygen-free gas,in order to guarantee in such a way that the charge gases cannot catch fire. The inert gas can be a particularly prepared incineration gas manufactured on the ship; in addition, it cannot do every different one, with the respective charge inflammable mixture of screen end gas than inert gasare used.
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Oiling anchors, which supply the European market with crude oil from the oil-promoting countries, have nearly always a size of over 100.000 BRT. Approx. 90% all oiling anchorby means of steam turbines are propelled. This offers itself with the construction of such ships, since for the heating of the charge anyway large steam boilers are on board. Crude oil is loaded in the heated condition and heated during the entire sea voyage further, over inTo be able to be evacuated port of unloading.
Since speed is not so important in the case of the transport of oil, oiling anchors with approximately 15 knots (28 km/h) are relatively slow ships.
size size of
- the first oiling anchor was luck on, to 13. July 1886 to their first travel ran out. It belonged to the German shipping company DAPG (German-American petroleum society). It was 97 meters long and could load approximately 3000 tons oil. Since the transport costs per ton are lower crude oil with larger ships,ever larger oiling anchors were built.
- 1914 were the Jupiter of the DAPG with 12.000 tdw the largest tanker of the world.
- 1928 were delivered the C.O.Stillman with 23.060 tdw as largest tankers of the world (at the same time world largest tanker with diesel engine drive) by of Bremen the volcano,this size was exceeded only 1949.
- 1953 run in Hamburg with the Tina Onassis (48,000 tdw) of one of the largest tankers of the world from the pile.
- The first tanker also over 100.000 tons tdw was the 1959 in Japan built university Universities of Apollo.
- 1962 were built the Nissho Maru with 110.000 tdw in Japan.
- In January 1966 the Tokyo Maru with 150.000 was tdw world largest tanker. With 90.000 BRT measurement exceeded it also the largest ship of the world, the English passenger liner RMS Queen Elizabeth with 83.673 BRT.
- In December 1966 first 200,000 tdw tankers, the Idemitsu Maru followed.
- 1968 became the 300,000 ton border with the six ships of the university Universities of Irish country built in Japan - class (ever 326,000 tdw) crossed.
- 1971became with IHI; Kure in Japan built Nisseki Maru with 372.000 tdw new record owner.
- In February and/or. Octobers 1973 followed with 478.000 tdw the Globtik Tokyo and the Globtik London of the shipping company Globtik of tanker Inc., London, built with IHI;Kure in Japan. Length among other things 378.0 meters, width of 62.00 meters, page depth of 35.90 meters, depth of 28.00 meters, transmissions a turbine with 45.000 HP;
- 1975 with that is Maru the largest tanker of the world with 484.000 tdw delivered. Built of IHIin Kure, Japan for the Tokyo tanker CO, Japan. Dimensions such as Globtik Tokyo.
- At the end of of 1975 is built for Japan with the 423,000 tdw large mountains Emperor first with Mitsui Heavy Ind., over 400.000 tdw large tankers. The ship has onemaximum depth of only 22 meters, exceeds however with a length among other things of 381.8 meters as well as 68 meters width the largest tankers of the world. The page depth amounts to 29.8 meters.
- 1976 became for the first time a tanker with more than500,000 tons tdw Ladevermögen in service posed, with the “Batillus” for Shell France. It is 553,000 tdw two-screw turbine tankers, which was built in France with Chantiers de L'Atlantique in St.Nazaire. At the same time also first ship of the world, that the 400Meter of length mark exceeds. Further 3 sister ships followed Pierre Guillaumat in October 1977 and Prairial with Bellamya at the end of of 1976 (Shell France) , 1979 (both for Compagnie national ones de Nav. ) Length among other things 414.2 meters, width of 63.05 meters, page depth of 36.00 meters;
- In August 1977 and December 1977 Hitachi Heavy Industries, Ariake yard in Japan built two 516,000 tdw screwing in turbine tankers for Esso of tanker Inc., Esso Atlantic and Esso Pacific. Length among other things 406.6 meters, width of 71.00 meters, page depth of 31.20 meters, depth25 meters;
- 1978 built the Swedish Uddavallavarvet threw 499,000 tdw two-screw turbine tankers the Nanny for a Swedish shipowner, for that with 365 m among other things and 79 meters width a max. Depth of only 22.3 meters had. It is to today thatbroadest ship of all times.
- In October 1976 Heavy Ind becomes with Kawasaki. in Sakaide (Japan) with the 416,000 tdw large Esso Germany largest ever tankers to Esso AG, Hamburg, fahrene under German flag, delivered. Length among other things 378Meter, width of 69 meters;
- The 1975 with Sumitomo Heavy Ind. built, but only 1979 in enterprise 420,000 come tdw screwing turbine tanker in Seawise Giant of the Hongkonger of shipowner C.Y.Tung, was extended 1980 by 80 a meter amidships section and with now 564,000 tdw more largelyTanker of the world. Since 1991 renamed into years Viking are today unsurpassed as the largest (tank) ship of the world until. Length among other things 458.45 meters, width of 68.9 meters, depth of 24.5 meters;
- 1980 and 1981 became with the 360,000 tdw tankers mountains Pioneer and mountains Enterprise the world largest tankers with diesel engine drive to the Norwegian shipowner Sig.Bergesen d.Y. delivered.
- In December 1992 the Danish Odense yard delivers that world-wide first ULCC double trunk tanker Eleo Maersk with 300.000 tdw to the shipping company A.P.Möller, Copenhagen.
- Afterover 20 years break for the first time again tankers over 400.000 were built for 2001-2002 tdw. The 4 ships of the Hellespont Alhambra - class with ever 450,000 tdw became with Daewoo Haevy Ind. in South Korea as first double trunk tankers in this size for a GreekShipowner built. Propelled of 9 cylinders a Sulzer diesel engine 9RTA84T-D with 36.900 KW are it at the same time also the largest motor ships of the world. Length among other things 380 m, width 68 m, depth 24.5 M.
Oiling anchors over 200.000 tons become as VLCC (VeryLarge Crude carrier), tankers over 300.000 tons as ULCC (Ultra Large Crude carrier) designates. With a total weight of over 250.000 tons one speaks of a very large crude carrier. Despite their size also the largest tankers come usually with 30-40Man crew out.
Size growth does not however only bring advantages with itself, but leads also to problems. With ships of this size structural problems arise, since the forces, which affect thick ship covering the 3-4 cm, are so large thatit to deformations and tears to come can. By the large depth can be only started few ports, in addition they are too large for the Panama channel. The Suez channel however can in runs dry also of 450.000 tdw ULCC tankers to drive onbecome. The idea to build so large sea-going vessels is among other things to attribute also to the blockage of the Sueskanals between 1967-1975. In this time all ships from Persian Gulf had on the way to the USA and/or. Europe the cape of the good ones Hope in South Africa umfahren.
two-covering tankers and/or. Double covering tanker
a two-covering tanker is a cargo boat for the transport of liquid goods, which exhibits a double outer hull.
Contrary to conventional cladding tankers these are actually a higher security against running out the cargooffer. The double covering of the tankers must be usable however as ballast tank for water ballast, in order to know the ship - according to the current loading - trims (as ballast with ships sea water is used, which is pumped to the appropriate tanks).
By sea waterthe inner walls of the covering of an extreme corrosion are suspended which with on-board means by the crew - also due to the spatial tightness in the tanks - neither to be controlled nor prevented can. In experts therefore entitled doubts about the effectiveness existthe double coverings.
After the tanker disaster 1989 (Exxon Valdez) the adjustment authority decided international sea-going vessel travel organization IMO that all tankers, which are built starting from 1996 and over 5000 tons transporting weight be had, only with double covering equipped may.
After the “Erika disaster”(2001) the IMO decided that starting from 2015 only oiling anchors with double-walled outer hulls may drive on the Weltmeere.
Originally the development of the double-walled tankers had been made not for safety reasons, but around energy (and thus costs) to save for thatTransport of hot goods, like bitumen, molasses or paraffin. A double covering offers a good lagging.
liquefied petroleum gas carriers
liquefied petroleum gas carriers serve the transportation by sea liquefied gases as bulk material in ship-own load tanks of different execution. Only the liquefaction of gases make their transportation by seadue to the enormous volume decrease economically meaningfully.
The liquid gas which can be loaded is led into large Drucktanks. During the loading procedure gas forms above the liquid gas. Very fast thereby a pressure would develop itself which brings the loading procedure to succumbing. ThisGas must be liquefied thus thereby itself the pressure reduced. The gas becomes therefore either:
- by onboard high pressure compressors sucked off, liquefies and the charge again as liquid supplied (LPG shipping).
- or over a so-called gas pendulum line back ashore given (LNG navigation).
This evenSuck off the gas above the liquid gas permanently one continues, in order to let the pressure rise not further. Before the gas which can be loaded is led into the tanks, all load tanks with inert gas are filled up. One can compare inert gas with exhaust gasesfrom an autoengine. If the tank thereby is filled up and with the fact guaranteed that no oxygen is more contained, the load process can begin. An automatic exhaust ensures during the loading procedure for the fact that the inert gas escapes slowly from the tank.
Internationally obligatory standards overthe construction and equipment of liquefied petroleum gas carriers specified the IMO in the IMO gas code (IGC). This code types the ships on the basis their ability, certain damage (caused e.g. to project by collision or stranding). Type 1G-Tanker, are regardingpossible escaping of the charge of safest ships.
The following liquid gases e.g. become. transported through:
- Type 1G-Tanker: Chlorine, Ethylenoxid, methyle bromide
- type 2G-Tanker: Ethan, ethyls, methane (LNG), typically for LNG-Tanker
- type 2G/2PG-Tanker: Acetaldehyde, ammonia, butadiene, butane, Butylene, Dimetylamin, ethyl amine, Ethylchlorid, methyl chloride, propane, propylene,Vinyl chloride
- type 3G-Tanker: Nitrogen, different safety refrigerants (Rxx)
LNG-Tanker serve the transport of liquefied natural gas (LNG = Liquefied Natural gas). The first ship of this kind was methanes Pioneer” converted by the freighter “standard anti” to the tanker “. (Aluminum tank, 5123 m ³Total tank volume, start of the young remote travel to 29. January 1959 of Lake Charles, Louis IANA)
with this in the last years ever more frequently used transportation method is to be determined a trend to larger units, beside that at present. prevailing LNG-Tankern with 125.000 - 135,000 m ³ total tank volumes,divided on usually 5 to 6 tanks, ships with up to 250.000 m are planned ³ tank capacity. The liquefied natural gas becomes with small positive pressure (Membrantank e.g. max. 230 mbar) and the corresponding temperature from -164°C to -161°C transports.
A litreLNG evaporates with air pressure about. 600 litres gas (standard temperature and pressure). In order to keep the evaporation rate of the gas as small as possible, the tanks are isolated (e.g. with pearlite). So that the pressure in the tank does not take inadmissibly high values, the evaporated must Gas, which so-called “Boil off” is exhausted -- and for steam generation for the ship turbines one uses (propulsion and generation of current). LNG-Tanker are predominantly implemented as turbine ships for fuel oil and/or natural gas enterprise for this reason. With a too much one at Boil off gas the overproduction becomesat steam in an auxiliary condenser against sea water condenses, so that with no ship operating condition methane must be blown off into the atmosphere. Some few new buildings are equipped with diesel electric drive, whereby natural gas and/or Diesel fuel and/or. Fuel oil in the engines is burned. Uplong period probably also in the LNG navigation the turbine ships will be displaced by the motor ships with gas back liquefaction plant.
A back liquefaction of LNG on board is from today's viewpoint too aufwändig. Some older ships are equipped with back liquefaction plants, these came however due toof technical and profitability problems never correctly to the employment. Some modern LNG-Tanker are prepared in expectation of rising natural gas prices for the installation of a back liquefaction plant and can thereby if necessary. after stands become unproblematic (e.g. TGT “British Trader”, foundations, flanges and a comparatively large fuel oil tank capacityare present).
World-wide are at present approx. 200 LNG-Tanker in the employment. New ships of this kind are built with priority in South Korea, in addition, in Spain and France. LNG-Tanker become due to the high construction costses (typically 200 Mill. US$) for one life span of approx.Designs and usually only on Kiel put to 30 years if long period charter (20 years) is present. In addition, a tendency is here for the training of a Spotmarktes, like in the oil business to observe in most recent time.
the oil running out with Tankerunglücken causes large damage to nature (“oil pollution “). Water birds and in the water living mammals plumages become and/or. Skin stuck together, by poisonous components perish fish, shells and cancers, whereby many other animalsthe food basis is extracted.
In order to reduce the danger of running out oil with ship collisions or when accumulating to a reef, the internationally maritime Organization (IMO) decided that two-covering tankers may be only built. To 2015 are all cladding tankers shut downbecome.
- cargo ship
- tanker (railway)
- to oil pollution
- product and chemical tanker (ship)
- tank car