Tanzania

United Republic of OF Tanzania (English)
Jamhuri ya Muungano wa
Tanzania
(Swahili)
combined Republic of Tanzania< /font>
Flagge Tansanias Wappen Tansanias
(Detail) (detail)

Wahlspruch: Uhuru well Umoja
Kiswahili for „liberty and unit”

office languages Swahili, English
capital Dodoma
seat of the government Daressalam
System of government Präsidialrepublik
president Jakaya Kikwete
head of the government Edward Lowassa
surface 945,087 km ²
number of inhabitants 36.766.356 (conditions July 2005)
population density of 39 inhabitants per km ²
independence from the united kingdom to 9. December 1961
currency Tanzania Schilling
time belt UTC +3
state religion Christian (67%), Muslims (12%), Animisten (18%)
National anthem Mungu ibariki Africa
Kfz characteristic EAT
Internet TLD .tz
telephone preselection +255
Lage Tansanias in Afrika
Karte Tansanias

the united Republic of Tanzania (United Republic of OF Tanzania) is a state in East Africa. It is because of the Indian ocean and borders on Burundi, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, Zambia and the democratic Republic of the Congo. To the state on the continent the pre-aged islands Pemba and Unguja ( those together the region Sansibar form ) belong as well as mafia.

Table of contents

geography

the national territory of Tanzania borders on three of the largest seas of Africa: in the northto the Viktoriasee, in the west at the Tanganjikasee and in the south to the Malawi lake. In the north of Tanzania the Serengeti ( Masai - language = „far area”, „large level”) is appropriate, for one the most famous national park of Africa.

See also: National park inTanzania

along the flat coast of Tanzania prevails a tropical climate, during in the mountains in the north, the south and the west the climate is moderate. In the northeast of the country, nearby the border to Kenya, the highest mountain massif of Africa rises,the Kilimandscharo massif, its highest place - the Uhuru peak - on the mountain Kibo 5,895 m and. NN lies.

population

the population of Tanzania increases further strongly. At present about 44 per cent of humans is under14 years old, so that on a further population rise is to be counted. At the same time one must proceed due to far common poverty and the relatively high spreading with AIDS from a high number of deaths rate. Roughly 20 per cent of the inhabitants are with the rear virusinfected (conditions 2003).

The population consists on the mainland to 95 per cent of African (21 per cent of the total population Sukuma and Nyamwezi, 9 per cent of Swahili, 7 per cent of Hehe and Bena, 6 per cent of Haya, 6 per cent of Makonde,2 per cent of Massai and other ethnical groups). This subdivides itself in approximately 130 groups and sub-groups. In addition live in Tanzania Arabs, Pakistaner, Indian and Europeans.

A Bantusprache speaks 90 per cent of the inhabitants, otherwise Niloti languages become and hamito nilotische languages spoken. Is Swahili lingua franca. English spreads slowly, then instruction on resuming schools on English is given.

In Tanzania predominantly Christians live, over 67% of the population are Christians, above all Protestanten(38%) and catholic (29%) however trailers of African churches. Approximately 12% are Muslims, above all Sunniten, the remainder of the population (approx. 18%) belong to traditional religions.

history

historical map (around 1888)

the coastal region was long timeSettlement area of dealers, who move exchange with Arab areas maintained. This area became in 16. Century of Portuguese, then of Arabs from Oman (S. Sansibar) and at the end 19. Century of Germans occupies (German East Africa, 1891).

Since 1920 the region stood as people federation mandate (after the Second World War as trust territory of the UN) under British administration.

To 9. December 1961 received independence from the united Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to Tanzania. Briefly after the declaration of independence were connectedthe two States of Tanganjika (Tan) and Sansibar (San) and created to 26. April 1964 the united Republic of Tanzania. First president became Julius Kambarage Nyerere with the Tanganyika African national union (TANU). On suggestion of Nyererefused 1977 TANU and the Afro Shirazi party (ASP) Sansibars to the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (a party of the revolution = CCM). Nyerere and its trailers aimed at the structure of a socialist society in Tanzania, put the banks under state control, accomplished education and Landreformen. A goalNyereres was a specifically African socialism in demarcation to the authoritarian socialism models after the model of the Soviet Union. Model for the socialist transformation of Tanzania should instead „the Ujamaa”, the village community as production and a distribution collective, to be. The expansion of theUjamaa model on larger production units however and with the degradation of the economic basic conditions also the socialist vision Nyereres failed. It withdrew 1985 as president and 1990 as a party chairman and 1999 deceased.

1992 ended then the one-party system, and to firstTimes 1995 for the 1970er years democratic elections took place , with which however the previous government party CCM could maintain their position.

politics

Tanzania are a Präsidialrepublik: The president selected in general elections every five years determinesthe policy. He appoints the prime minister as well as the Ministers of the cabinet. Despite the multiple party system guaranteed by the condition since 1992 on the mainland only a small meaning comes to the opposition parties, there with the parliamentary elections of 1995 and 2000 those A party of president Mkapa, CCM (Chama Cha Mapinduzi - German: A party of the revolution), over 80% of the voices received. With the choice 2005 the majority received CCM again. With this choice Kikwete has the office of thePresident taken over. The president and its Ministers experience opposition particularly from the own party. Criticism of powerful groups of interests within the own party already more frequently officiating Minister cost the office. The vice-president stands for the president to the side, at present Dr.Ali Mohamed light, officially its deputy, but rather with representative tasks entrusts. Differently than CCM, which is country-wide well organized, the opposition parties hardly have considerable structures outside of its few centers (CUF in Sansibar, TLP and CHADEMA in Kilimandscharo, UDP in central Tanzania). Since 1995 is Frederick Sumaye of CCM an Prime Minister. In December 2005 the second and term of office of the president Benjamin Mkapa last according to condition ended. Its party had in hard contested internal electionsthe present minister of foreign affairs Jakaya Kikwete appointed the candidate. Kikwete became after its choice victory to 21. December 2005 as a new president swears in.

Also in Sansibar in October 2005 a new parliament and a new president are selected. Sansibar possesses within thatUnion a certain autonomy, among other things an own parliament, an own government and an own president (since 2000 Amani Abeid Karume, which may stand as a candidate again). Differently than on the mainland, on which unquestioned dominates CCM, is thosepolitical society Sansibars split into two approximately equal strong camps: The trailers of the government party CCM and those the opposition party Civic United front (Chama cha Wananchi), CUF. Their Secretary-General soap Sharif Hamad, a former CCM prime minister Sansibars, steps as most promising challengersagainst Karume on. Both past elections, those under the multiple party system were accomplished (1995, 2000) had the reproach of substantial election frauds to leave itself fallen. In particular the trailers of the CUF feel around their alleged choice victory betrogen. After the elections2000 died about 30 CUF trailers with arguments with the safety forces - one in Tanzania so far ungekannte force escalation. After long negotiations CUF and CCM agreed on a reconciliation agreement (Muafaka), which was partly converted. Despite approximation and co-operation of the two partiesthere are hard liners, which radikalisert themselves clearly on both pages. Whether the CUF Hardliner will accept a possible defeat at the polls, is uncertain. It is just as uncertain whether the CUF victory will permit CCM , which dominates the state apparatus and thus also the electoral committee.In both parties wings and hard liner willing to cooperate exist. So the desire for more autonomy of the Inselgruppe is up to national independence not topic of the oppositionals CUF. In both parties there is both secessionistic wings and such, thosemake themselves strong for the national unit of Tanzania. These “unionistic” wings dominate at present in both parties.

administration

Tanzania is arranged into 26 administrative regions:

  • Pemba North
  • Pemba South
  • Pwani
  • Rukwa
  • Ruvuma
  • Shinyanga
  • singing IDA
  • Tabora
  • Tanga
  • Zanzibar Central/South
  • Zanzibar North
  • Zanzibar Urban/west

see also: List of the cities in Tanzania

infrastructure

the infrastructure is increasingly more badly developed from east to west. It givesoutside of the cities mostly no connection at water pipelines. In some regions no connection is to public electricity mains in the periphery of some kilometers. Telephone (149,100 fixed net - and 891,000 portable radio connections (conditions 2003)) and concomitantly Internet entrance are rare.

The few railway connections (3,690 km) are often interrupted. The net of the Tanzania Railway Cooperation essentially still originates from the German colonial age from 1914 ago. It was established in meter pure. Danaben gives it still the TAZARA, in Cape-purely (1067 mm) a connection between it Salaam and Zambia manufactures. Vehicles cannot go from the one to the other system over.

GET ores roads are outside of the larger cities only rarely. Particularly in the rain time are roads and railwaysnot passably. At the east coast is therefore the restaurant emphasis with direct entrance to the ports.

Tanzania has two international airports:

Economics

general

Tanzania belongs to the poorest countries in the world. The majority of the population lives on the agriculture, on which in the consequence the trade of Tanzania is substantially dependent. Tanzania is about two and a half time so largelylike Germany, possesses however less than half of the population.

Rising prices on the food sector led to the fact that the private incomes are used up predominantly for food. In view of the poverty in Tanzania the country 2001 of the World Bank a remission of debts became granted. Mining industry and tourism are industries, which are increasingly successful.

export

essentially become Cashewnüsse (18.3%), coffee (14.3%), minerals (13.2%), tobacco (8%) and cotton (5.2%) (conditions: 1999) implemented.

A further well-known export article of Tanzania is in the Viktoriaseefished, in Germany under the name Viktoriabarsch marketed Nilbarsch. The documentary film Darwins nightmare describes the conditions, on which this fish with promotion means of the European union is locally processed and gone on a trip after the sales markets in Europe, Russia and Japan ,the Austrian film producer stroke ore sow by.

between

1990 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures was to public expenditures related to the mainland for

education

There are several universities and other higher educational facilities in Tanzania: The most well-known university is the University OF it Salaam. Other important universities are the Sokoine University OF Agriculture as well as the stroke ore Kairuki Memorial University. The Evangelical-Lutheran churchin Tanzania the Tumaini University maintains, a university with three locations.

culture

national holiday is the 26. April, Tag of the union between Tanganjika and Sansibar (1964). „Sikukuu ya Uhuru” 9. December, Tag thatIndependence (1961).

literature

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Tanzania - word origin, synonyms and translations


coordinates: 1°-12° S, 29°-40° O

 

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