Teófilo Braga

of these articles is concerned with the Portuguese politician Teófilo Braga, further meanings of “Braga” sees: Braga (term clarifying)

Joaquim Teófilo Fernandes Braga [ʒu̯ɐˈkĩ ti̯ˈɔfilu fɨɾˈnɐ̃ðɨʃˈbɾaɣɐ] (* 24. February 1843 in Ponta Delgada on the Azores; † 28. January 1924 in Lisbon) was a Portuguese man of letters and statesman. He was a first president of its country after the case of the monarchy. He was twice (1910 - 1911 and 1915) a president of Portugal.


Teófilo Braga
Teófilo Braga

in its youth was coined/shaped Braga by the early death of its nut/mother. It studied jurisprudence at the University of Coimbra, 1868 attaches Braga its law studies, 1872 it as the literature professor will appoint.

In this time Braga makes itself a name particularly with a set from publications to the history of the Portuguese literature. Also Braga published four poem volumes. To its works it supports the philosopher Augusts Comte and introduces the positivism into the philosophical discussion into Portugal.

Braga was a convinced trailer of the republic and stood for a consistently antiklerikale policy. It justifies these in an essay over the church (the church and the modern civilization - A Igreja e A Civilização Moderna). 1879 it publishes the article of “positives solutions of the Portuguese policy” (Soluções Positivas there Política Portuguesa) in which it for an abolishment of the monarchy and the republic expresses itself.

1888 are selected Braga, as first republicans at all in the history of the country, into the Cortes, the Portuguese parliament.

In January 1910 it belongs to the founders of the Portuguese republican party (PRP), whose member of the board becomes he. After the case of the monarchy it becomes finally to 5. October 1910 as the first president of its country appoint.

Portugal had at this time still no republican condition, Braga was therefore only one transition president. 1911 are then selected a condition-giving meeting and a new condition is adopted. After this the president should be selected not in direct choice by the people, but by the parliament. The Cortes selected Manuel José de Arriaga to the first constitutional president of the country. With it ended to 4. September 1911 the first presidency Bragas.

1915, only four years later, had already maneuvered itself the republic into a large crisis. The condition did not give the power to the president to dissolve the parliament. The party landscape had split itself up in the meantime, in the parliament sat a multiplicity of political parties, so that a government majority was no longer possible. Since it could not dissolve the parliament, president de Arriaga saw itself, military, general Joaquim Pimenta de Castro finally forced to appoint the head of the government. This putscht to 25. January, dissolves the parliament, suspends the condition and governs diktatorisch (dictatorship of the swords - ditatura espadas). De Arriaga remains however a president. The dictatorship of de Castro becomes to 14. May by a rebellion of democratic-republican forces fallen. Also president de Arriaga, who had finally appointed de Castro as the head of the government, is compromised and to the resignation is forced. Teófilo Braga is appointed again as the transition president. Its second presidency ends to 5. October as Bernardino Machado is selected from the parliament to the new president.

Braga was married and had two children, from whom one deceased already briefly after the birth.

See also: History of Portugal, first Portuguese Republic of, list of the political parties of Portugal.

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