Technology

under the technology (griech. τεχνολογία technología = the manufacture and/or. Processing teachings) one understands the whole of the procedures for production about goods and services, which at the disposal is to a society. For the translation of the English word “technology” is suitable“Technology” therefore only in cases of exception, there the possible meaning spectrum of “technology” is broader and of “technology” over “equipment”, “tool”, “computer program” up to “system” and “procedure” is enough; accordingly is to be differentiated in the case of the translation from the English into German semantically. Technologycontain components of the technology (tools, devices, apparatuses) and components of logistics, the material and organizational conditions and their application. In recent time the technology assessment gains ever more significance. Beautiful dyeing technology becomes frequent in place of Technology uses. Jemand im Zusammenhang Z. de Spricht. B. with vehicles of newest assigned technology, actually the vehicle technology is meant. Technology is thereby usually a wrong translation from English collecting mains and is the word up technology only to probably blow andto appear larger leave. In all other respects generally less the kind/manufacture technology of a product, than rather the technology, interests the customer which provides the customs advantages for it.

Summarized one can define technology in such a way: Technology is designated a minor of the technology and thatUse one or several physically, chemically and/or. biological procedures in fixed logistic cross-linking, over materials determined and/or. To win products to process and/or. to manufacture. Beiispiel: With the help of also towards technical methods changed a bacterium, in its Genom a new protein Towards , this protein was built towards technological into special plants on a large scale is produced.

Technology has a temporal and cultural context, so that a technology often as synonym for a certain epoch (for example Bronzezeit, information age) oras regulation for a culture (for example bind-ceramic culture) serves.

The available technology limits the attainable productivity both qualitatively (which I can produce, which I need at conditions) and quantitatively (costs, productivity).

Hightech contains with techthe common trunk of “Tech NIC " and “Tech nologie ". “Hightech product” one calls a product, both complicated technical construction solutions exhibits and to its production in addition difficult and/or. complex processing methods and/or. Manufacture procedures technologies for the employment come.

In contrast in addition Low carousing designates intentionally as simple, fail safe a techniques as possible (with their development naturally also newest scientific realizations to be used can), thereby in production , application or maintenance is simple.

Legally there is the term state of the art, thatrather in the sense about innovation one understands and from the more conservatively coined/shaped term recognized rules of the technology to differentiate is.

With the development of technology one differentiates two beginnings: on the one hand “technology push” - the beginning, with that first onenew technical development is made and for it for possible applications and users looked, and on the other hand the beginning “demand/market pulls”, with technical development after the needs of the users is taken place. Since the 80ern becomes in the industry andthe technological policy usually uses a double strategy.

Table of contents

history

although the use of tools also with animals, is coupled the term technology was proven to the human culture. The presence of technology (tool use, fire) to the production of artifacts was also often used therefore for the demarcation between humans and animal.

The technological progress is closewith altogether links social progress. While to for instance for revolution the technology in the everyday life became industriellen hardly apparent (because it itself slowly only if at all, changed), is at the latest with the occurrence of technology disasters in 20. Century thatTechnology understood compact into the consciousness of humans.

in before-historical time

(Steinzeit, Bronzezeit, Eisenzeit) the available technology the basic conditions for the developing culture already created and became pre and early history therefore the coining/shaping term.Although today often rather abschätzig regarded (your mobile phone probably still is from the Steinzeit?) the technology of these epochs is quite aufwändig and complex, which is expressed in the today still existing finds from these epochs (for example Ötzi).

Coining/shaping technologies:

antique one to 1. Half 18. Century

after the technology of the Vorzeit was certain of the available materials and tools particularly, developed already in the antique advanced cultures first machines, and the advancementand spreading of techniques was systematically operated. Nevertheless progress developed only slowly, since many techniques, as were developed only later for example steam engine, electricity , although the basic principles partly already admits was.

In this time became from technologynot yet spoken. Nevertheless there were attempts again and again to describe the existing knowledge. Starting from approximately that 16. Century became generally accepted teachings, which the rapidly developing trades, whose procedures relating to crafts and technical means, described. The general agents of theseEpoch were Georgius Agricola and Réaumur. Agricola wrote an encyclopedia over the mining industry and the metallurgical engineering. Under the suggestion and the direction of Réaumur on that Paris Academy of Sciences a collection was provided by descriptions of the most different trades.1805 21 volumes filled and represented this collection of descriptions thus the most comprehensive description of methods and procedures of its time in the year.

In this time the word technology was literally translated, “art of the speech”. Thus it described the ability,to speak about scientific procedures.

Coining/shaping techniques:

2. Half 18. Century to 1. Viertel des 19. Century

with the invention of the steam engine in 18. Century sets one the beginning for that industriellen revolution on. The possibility of producing energy artificially in large yardstick gave a undreamt-of upswing to the technology. And the term became even the the subject of the science.

1777 published the Göttinger professor for economics and coming ral sciences Johann Beckmann the “guidanceto the technology ". Thus the first time is the term of the technology pleases. Already in the explanation for this word choice becomes evident, which intended Beckmann. It wanted a science, the “work, their consequences and reasons with the technology completely, properly andexplains clearly ". But the largest achievement of Beckmann is the systematic collection and order of the technological knowledge of this time. Its working was not only limited to its time. In further writings beginnings, techniques even already were not from that Produce-oriented to describe but from the process-oriented view. In its “draft of the general technology” so 51 method and procedure classes, those independently of the treating basic material, are the production process describe. Thus had succeeded the first time in history,the methods and procedures, detached by the original use developed over the time, to see. Thus now the apparently connectionless production processes in relationship could be set to each other.

Karl Marx is the person, whom this development as the first observes and describedhas. According to its statement thereby the modern science of the technology was created.

The view of technology as independent science does not have itself interspersed, most closely is linked probably the engineering sciences with the technology, although in an abstract sense all sciencesContributions to the technology supply.

1. Quarter one to end 19. Century

in this phase is to be recognized a strong development of special technological ranges. Thus works develop to the mechanical, chemical and agricultural technology. The development of these ranges walkedindependently in front in principle. This can actually be regarded as stop of the development of the technology as science. Only Karl Karmarsch seems to attach the thought of the unification of the technology. Like that “manual of the mechanical technology” is from 1837 in its workto already find the differentiation into the general and special technology. Also the today still current study of the production process and their systematic representation is based on its working.

end 19. Century to center 20. Century

in thisTime arises the industrielle large-scale production. The steam engine is replaced by the individual electric drive. Thus now the possibility existed of arranging and of organizing the production process new. But it is to be accepted that new production processes, like the flowing and mass production, notrealized would be, if it had not given a radical change of the viewpoint of the production process. Thus the production procedures of a abstrakteren criterion were regarded and could be so better optimized. From these optimizations, itself predominantly within the range of the mechanicaland played chemical industry, developed the finishing technique, process engineering, the promotion technology and also the processing technology . These ranges were now bound no more to the individual technology directions and could develop so generally accepted procedures and processes.

Coining/shaping technologies:

starting from center 20. Century

with the development and the arising of the atomic technology for the first time in history the self extinction of humans was made possible for the atom bomb by technology.Handling technology and technical progress became thereby the vital question of mankind. Other technologies have likewise potentially global, catastrophic consequences (genetic engineering, global heating up), so that for some the term technology receive a negative Nebenbedeutung for the first timeand it entails efforts for the delimitation of the technical progress and gives. However the technological development is to be relatively positively evaluated altogether, concerning its consequences. The second half 20. Century the possibility gave, the computational to mankindAchievement of the brain by means of computers to multiply (with exponential speed), which will have by far larger consequences for the human progress, when multiplying muscle power of humans by the industrielle the revolution came.

Coining/shaping techniques:

word origin

from the Greek one τεχνολογια (technologia), which is derived from τεχνολογος (technologos) out τεχνη (technä), handicraft, art, technology and λογος (logos), (here) science, thus the science of the production or technical skill relating to crafts or more modern the science thatProduction.

examples

the invention of the treatment of bronzes to weapons and tools, which lends the name to the mankind era of the Bronzezeit, is an example from history, where a technology due to its fundamental meaning for all areas of life a unitwith the technology formed. One finds a modern parallel for example in the information technology, which motivated the designation information age already now.

literature

  • Seiffert, Helmut; Radnitzky, Gerard (Hrsg.) (1992): Hand encyclopedia to the science theory. 2. unv. Aufl. (Orig.1989), Munich: dtv, ISBN 3-423-04586-8, S. 362-365 (keyword technology and their demarcation to other sciences).
  • Building twisting pool of broadcasting corporations, Jean; Böhringer, Hannes; Flusser, Vilem (1989): Philosophies of the new technology, Berlin: Merve, ISBN 3883960667.
  • Brödner, Peter (1997): The outwitted Odysseus,Berlin: Edition sigma, ISBN 3894046112.

see also

Wiktionary: Technology - word origin, synonyms and translations

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