|of these articles treats the beverage dte, for the plant sees dte (plant), for further meanings sees dte|
Table of contents
strict taken (according to ISO - standard 3720) is dte excluding the Aufguss of the dte plant Camellia sinensis (their old name Thea is still frequently used sinensis) and Camellia assamica. This Aufguss becomes as Black dte, and/or. Green dte designates. Aufgussgetränke from other plants (herb dte or fruit dte) will designated in the German colloquial language frequently simply only than dte, correctly should it however than dte-similar beverages be designated. There this term expansion in most, must one is not possible for other languages in fremdsprachigen discussions watch out. For example in England it is at the most back-asked whether one white the dte (with milk) or black (without milk) to have would like. In Spain Té of only black dte is, everything else is called“infusión”. Similarly it behaves in France: “thé” = (black or greener) dte, “infusion” = herb tea and the like. In the USA “tea” today often as “iced tea” (ice dte), a kind of schwarzteehaltiger lemonade, one understands. The actual hot beverage is hot then “tea " mentioned. The designation “dte” for beverages, common in Germany, which are made of plant parts by means of water on casting, originates from a time, when dte admits still little on the one hand in Europe was, on the other hand was so expensive that it only oneextremely betuchten social class, primarily king and prince houses and the urban middle class, reserved were. Since dte had a name also at that time already as cultural property and sense benefit, also humans, who had neither the necessary money nor the relations, wanted over onthe then rare product to arrive, hold their personal “dte hour”. But those had to then hold already well-known and also for a long time time used Aufgüsse from the native plants - and so evenly also less wealthy humans their “dte” drank.The expression was maintained and to habit, unawareness and language culture did a remaining in addition.
dte traditionally in four different kinds is manufactured, the substantial characteristic is thereby the degree of the fermentation:
- white dte - So mentioned, becausethe Epillärhärchen at the blade lower surface to the dried dte sheets a white-silver color give. No intended fermentation. Recent impulses are harvested and dried (like hay). Only point teas are suitable for the production of white dte. It is called also emperor of the teas.
- greener dte - minimum fermentation. During the traditional production the dte after the harvest in iron pans over the fire one withers and one dries then. In the case of the industriellen production this happens in large agitated containers. In Asia becomes greener dte howeverstill, z continues to partition. B. in Japan in the “normal” dte become green (緑茶: Ryokucha), before the Aufguss heated up become green to dte (ほうじ茶: Hojicha), with rice flakes mixed green dte (玄米茶: Genmaicha) and. A.
- Oolong - partly fermentiert. After the harvest becomes the dtein pasture baskets vibrated, the withdrawing juice reacts (= fermentiert) with the oxygen of air. This process is stopped by heating up in iron pans.
- Black dte actually becomes in Eastern Asia as red dte (紅茶: Hong cha) designates - complete fermentation. Like Oolong,the fermentation process is however not stopped. Only after longer time the dte finished one dries.
Apart from these four classical kinds of manufacture there are further, few common specialities:
- Puh he cha in Asia black dte (黒茶) one calls and is indeedalso substantially more darkly in the color than the black dte drunk with us - in the cup it looks coloured rather like coffee. It is several years more stored (more matured) black dte.
- Yellow dte is only a speciality produced in China.It is white dte, which after the harvest one processes not immediately. Thus a minimum fermentation takes place. It is one of the most expensive dte specialities, which are available. Sometimes it is classified also as becoming green places.
aromatized teas findsone in two developments. The classical aromatized teas come from China. Green dte or a mixture from green and black dte is aromatized by addition by fresh blooms. The blooms are regularly abgesiebt and replaced again by fresh blooms, until thatdesired flavour is reached. The most well-known variants are rose dte and jasmine dte.
Aromatized black or green tea enjoys of rising popularity in Europe. The dte with flavours of different Geschmacksrichtungen one enriches. Admitted flavours, which are added to that dte, are fruit flavours like cherry or Maracuja, vanilla and other spices (e.g. Anise, Zimt), or Zitrusaromen such as orange, Lemon or also Bergamotte (which is contained in the Earl Grey, one of the oldest flavour teas).
under smoke dte one understands oneTea places, with which the sheets are smoked with drying in the smoke by resin-rich wood. Thus gets the dte a completely special flavour with a strongly rauchigen note and an intensive smell. Common the sort Tarry Lapsang Souchong is furthest. In addition, in Russian mixtures it applies.
to the dte-similar beverages count above all
Besides also different sorts become such as
- Rooibos dte (also red shrub dte) from South Africa
- Honeybush dte (also honey shrubs) from South Africa
- Mate, a traditional beverage from South America
- Lapacho from South America
- spice dte like e.g. Yogi dte
ever more popularly.
In India Chai , sweet dte with milk, is the national beverage absolutely.
manufacturerDte is divided according to “sheet dte” (pekoe), “Broken dte” (pekoe broken), Fannings and Dust. Latter both teas have rather a bad reputation, since they consist of remainders of the sheet teas and Broken teas. However they unfold because of their larger surface with comparatively same quantityBroken or sheet dte of more materials in shorter time into the water. For the quality classification are crucial size, form and color (see glossary). The word pekoe originates from the Chinese one and designates the young sheets, in addition, a quality class. Itmeant “white Flaum”, which is on the blade lower surface.
Under the black teas point plants from cool high land situations of approx. develop. 1500-2000m (e.g. the Himalayas), from the region around Darjiling or from Sri Lanka and China particularly sprayingindustrial union-fine flavours.
Dte preparation and dte benefit
- fresh water to cooking bring. Soft water is better than hard. Fresh tap water is sufficient, when impairments by lime or chlorine is recommended every now and then the employment of a water filter.
- Large volume Teekanne with cover with cooking water well preheat. At the best one one uses dte table-ware from good porcelain. The Teekanne as well as the entire dte table-ware never for something else as for dteuse.Herb dte and aromatized teas in another table-ware prepare. Dte connoisseurs use also different cans, there dominanter dte, for different teas like z. B. Assam, a Darjeeling geschmacklich over-sounds.
- Dte is strongly flavour sensitive. Therefore dte sheets should always in closedContainers coolly, darkly and drying to be kept. Optimally (because poor in air depots), if also as aesthetically as noble doses, are not dte bags rolled firmly. When using doses it comes faster to effects of aging: The flavour-giving ethereal oils shrink andthe dte taste works more muffiger. After incipient crack dte in approx. should. 10 weeks to be used. In unopened packings it applies however up to three years after the harvest as fresh.
- Caution before the proximity to all other spices, flavours andKitchen smells. Also ascending steam of the stove or sink harms the dte flavour. Already with the purchase one also originals the dte should separate from parfümierten wash and finery means well.
- To the dte preparation is considered as guide: Per cup of approximately 2 gram of dte sheetsaufbrühen, with black dte is approximate that a Teelöffel. The ideal quantity depends on used dte, on the water, from the Erntejahr of the tea and on the personal taste. It is advisable to try first a weaker Aufguss and then the dte quantity so longto increase to one found its dosage.
- Strong black teas always with cooking water up-pour; with green teas and teas as well as fine black teas (roofridge Flush Darjeelings about) halbfermentierten should the water 65 to 90 °C have around the valuable contents materials andto receive the taste. Some Japanese green teas are also aufgebrüht even with only 50° and under it.
- The pulling time cannot be defined uniformly; it lies sort-dependently in a range between 20 seconds and 5 minutes, with white teas to 10Minutes. Depending upon duration works the dte differently strongly energizing. The old rule that up to three minutes of pulled dte energizing works, it starting from five minutes however calmed down, is only conditionally correct. Actually goes in the first two to threeMinutes above all the Koffein (in former times also Teein called, Duden: Tein, Thein) in solution and provides in such a way for the energizing effect. The Gerbsäuren contained in the dte sheet separates only thereafter and converts thereby the Koffein into an water-insoluble form.The longer, all the smaller becomes the portion pulls to the dte on physiologically “usable” Koffein. The 5-Minuten-Tee works thus not reassuring down, but only not energizing. In a glass can one can observe the changes of the tea. One will state that someSheets at the soil, other one at the surface swim. The upper sheets begin sometime to sink, while the lower ascend. This is a good time to pour off the dte.
- Dte enjoy immediately, because one can warm-hold dte only bad, all the same which onealso for it does, to the stagnant dte does not taste so good simply any longer. However again and again freshly prepare rather only less dte at one time.
- Greener dte usually purely is drunk, to black dte becomes often sugar, honey (caution: dominance!), Milk, Cream, lemon after personal taste added. Some connoisseurs reject the combination black dte/acid in principle, with the lemon to the restriction on the bowl would guess/advise. White Kandiszucker or brown Rohrzucker /brauner Kandis (rather for herb teas/teas aromatized) is considered as particularlybeen suitable. Kondensmilch and coffee cream are unsuitable.
- Teebeutel are practical, do not apply however not as real replacement for the good, aromatic, loose dte, there for Teebeutel in Germany usually inferior Fannings/Dust (“tea-deaf”, - remainders) to be used. It gives howeveralso many good to amazing counter examples.
- Instance teas consist usually mostly of sugar and have with dte only little relationship, therefore caution with children (because of Kariesgefahr). But there is pure black dte excerpt granulates in some department stores and large supermarkets (inGB of well-known).
- Ice dte will as refreshment beverage ever more popularly and can become easily home-made: Ice cubes pour, as desired with fruit juice, z for double-strong dte freshly prepare and after pulling over the same quantity. B. Lemon juice and/or sugar taste. With toPurchase offered “Ice Teas” usually concerns it sugar concentrates with artificial flavours.
- Alcohol (Rum) in dte is perhaps good to the late hour in the ski hut, but really good dte needs only few additions.
Water qualitydte is crucial for the taste with. Elizabeth II. spring water from the area could be flown around Birmingham for its daily cups OF tea with some foreign attendance by courier machine. In regions with very lime-rich water imagines itself on dteFilm and the taste are inferior. This applies particularly to less gerbsäurehaltige tea places such as Darjeeling, during e.g. Assam much less sensitively to hard water reacts.
In Korea, Japan, Viet Nam and China dte is differently prepared andenjoyed: One uses no filters or bags, but pours the hot water directly to that dte in the can or cup. The wet, usually unzerkleinerten dte sheets are heavier than the water and sit down at the reason of the containeroff. The dte can poured off so problem-free above and/or. abgetrunken become. Likewise in use filter insets are in the can. which the dte sheets to hold back are. It is up to three times up-poured, before one uses new dte sheets. After the first Aufguss toochange, is considered as an indication of Dekadenz.
in England is enjoyed the dte gladly with milk. The British Earl Grey was the first aromatized dte, who in the meantime innumerable flavour variants followed. Partly becomes with natural oilsaromatized, but innumerable variants originate from the chemical laboratory. For aromatized dte less fine-aromatic teas are used, which are often merged from different cultivation areas and countries, so-called “Blendings “. This is meaningfully, there the dte z. B. after Erdbeeraromato taste is; the basic taste withdraws behind it.
In Tibet butter dte ( Po becomes cha od. Sutschia) drunk; that is salty black dte also - occasionallymore ranziger - Yak - butter, for which in a pipe one prepares. It resembles a thin soup in the taste.
Reject the first Aufgusses
with some sorts improves the taste, if one, as common in Asia, the first Aufguss (usuallyout of little water) immediately away-tilted and then up-pours again.
This is to unlock the sheet property of the green tea only correctly. Contrary to the black dte, with which dried fermentierter Pflanzensaft from superficial structures of the sheet is to be washed, green dte one must withactual extraction to be accomplished. Therefore several Aufgüsse with an ever own character possible - two always, depending upon sort more are with it. Side effect: Pestizid /Düngemittel arrears could with the first Aufguss - if he to be rejected was - are partly rinsed off. A Bitterkeitthe first excerpt is however frequently because of wrongly selected dte quantity or unsuitable pulling time.
that in Europe the Englishmen drink to most dte, is inPlate, the dte time in the afternoon, the Tea Time, has however to today existence. Internationally Great Britain is only on place 7 in the per-capita consumption. With 3,2 kilograms per head and year the Irish drink more dte than any other people inEurope. East Frisia with proud 2.5 kg per year has the highest per-capita consumption in Germany, opposite approximately 250 g for completely Germany. The dte museum in the ostfriesischen north (Lower Saxony) considers to this record.
Largest dte consumption per head in the whole worldhowever Paraguay has. The average inhabitant of Paraguay had 1998 a consumption of 11,7 kg (Mate) - dte per year, which corresponds to 14.6 cups per inhabitants and day.
India has highest absolute dte consumption, followed from China.With 640.000 t (India) and/or. 466,000 t (China) the consumption appears in Great Britain (146,000 t) and Paraguay (61,000 t) to be small. These have however also substantially less inhabitant.
Dte is to today people beverage, luxury and medicine. It has also Politics and history made (bad clay/tone Tea party). Dte-drinks is an important piece of our culture history and our life, the Christian navigation and also the economy and the trade strongly along-coined/shaped.
For some years
there is dte and health the assumption that the benefit of dte is favorable for the health. Thus one takeson to get sick that dte danger to cancer, to decrease can, since in the parts of the world, in which much dte is drunk, the Inzidenz for certain kinds of cancer is smaller than in the remainder of the world. For the cancer-preventive effect becomein particular in some tea places contained Polyphenole natural-proves (v.a. the Epigallocatechingallat, EGCG) assumes. It could be shown that these materials restrain the growth of cancer cells.
For this hypothesis there is now also scientific tail wind: A study at patients also Prostatakarzinom, which at the center for human Nutrition to the David Geffen School OF Medicine of the UCLA was accomplished, could show that was provable the EGCG originating from that dte in the tumors and restrained cell growth. Obviously showed hereblack dte no effect showed a somewhat stronger effect than greener dte , the placebo (a soda beverage). The results point on the fact that can help greener dte and black dte to prevent Prostatakrebs.
By the addition of milk calcium oxalate precipitates as heavysoluble salt, which danger of kidney matte formation in such a way reduced.
A study of the Cheng Kung university in Taiwan according to two already lowerbis vier Tassen Tee pro Tag dasHypertonie-Risiko um 46 Prozent; higher consumption lowers the risk by 65 per cent. The study was accomplished with over 1500 persons. In Taiwan one drinks above all green dte and the native Oolong - dte.
Into the 1990er years became above all the green dte to the mode beverage and many consumers to hold these today still for healthier than the black dte. But the black dte differs to green dte only by the fermentation after thatHarvest. Also in him thus are the Flavonoide anti-oxidative working for the health responsible persons contained. Contrary to the green dte however some Flavonoide are connected with one another by the fermentation. But in the body these connections are partially again solved, so thatfinally the same Flavonoide by the black dte into the body arrives as by the green dte. So far thus isn't preferring of the green tea provable for health reasons (see dte bush and wonder drug of the Green dte?).
- Hobhouse, Henry: Six plants change the world. Chinarinde, Zuckerrohr, dte,Cotton, potato, Kokastrauch. Klett Cotta: Hamburg 4. Edition 2001, 401 S., ISBN 3-608-91024-7 (history with completely different perspective, excitingly which can be read)
- Aleijos: Becomes green wonder drug dte William brewing Mueller publishing house, December 1998. ISBN 3-700-31217-2 (good overview, something drying, old source situation, very doubtful lastlyPart among other things with a Polemisierung against the fermentierten dte)
- Otto F. Schleinkofer: The dte de Gruyter, Bln.: 3. Edition, Nov. 1982, 120 S. ISBN 3110091798
- Hans's G Adrian, Rolf L Temming, Arend Vollers: The dte book. History and stories. Cultivation, productionand prescriptions ISBN 3928127012 (very well, avails itself however partially. unrestrainedly with preceding works)
- Jane Pettigrew: Dte Benedikt bags publishing house, Cologne 1998, ISBN 3822875953 (reproduction 2002 by Gondrom publishing house ISBN 3811217011)
- Stephan Reimertz: Of the benefit of the tea:A cheerful journey by old landscapes, venerable traditions and modern conditions, including a small dte school Gustav Kiepenheuer publishing house, Leipzig 1998 (ISBN 3-378-01023-1, 207 sides, with glossary) on-line one read
- Alain Stella, Nadine Beauthéac, Gilles Brochard, Catherine Donzel: The bookby dte the Collection Rolf Heyne, 2001, ISBN 3899101367 (caution before reproduction from the year 2003 unfortunately without the large sized illustrations one offers!)
- Light courage large: Dte for knowledge-thirsty publishing house Albrecht (E.), 120 S., May 2000, ISBN 3870140038. (Very betterEntrance in the topic, the most important for dte friends.)
- Ernst Janssen: Janssens dte yearbook 288 sides, 2003, ISBN 3-927359-85-8. (Extensive manual approximately around the dte, clears up with some misunderstandings, by bringing in newer nourish-scientific realizations: Review)
Web on the left of
|Commons: Dte- Pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wiktionary: Dte - Word origin, synonyms and translations|
|Wikiquote: Dte - Quotations|
- a book concerning dte
- German dte federation registered association.
- Overview of classical tea places with photos
- active dte meeting place
- maxims of the dte preparation
- transportation information service: Specialized information to the transport of dte
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