a telephone (v. griech.: têle = far, far + phoné = voice), also telephone mentioned, is special a means of communication for the transmission of tones and from language by means of electrical signals.
Colloquiallyusually not exactly distinctive between the “telephone” as overall system and the “telephone” as terminal of the telephone network. In Switzerland with “telephone” a telephone call (telephone call) is also often meant: “Giving you me a telephone” means then also “calls youme on ".
The telephone as system regarded, whereby the terminal is not meant, contains three main components:
- the equipment for the conversion of sound to electrical signals and back as well as components for the controlling of the connection, the actual telephone apparatus (also terminal),
- the telephone switching plant (local exchange),
- the channel - originally a pair fed with direct current, today also time slots or radio links.
(Enumerating is not complete.)
table of contents
in telephone apparatuses the sound by a microphone into electrical signals one changes and with the receiver again as acoustic wave one spends. The sound transformation on the transmitter side can under utilization more differentlyphysical effects take place. Thus the electrical resistance under the effect of acoustic waves changes with a coal microphone. A Piezo - microphone produces electrical tensions, which are directly strengthened in the microphone cap under the same effect. Microphones according to the electrostatic principle becomeamong other things of the company Ericsson uses. Finally a diaphragm - coils - produces a signal voltage for arrangement under utilization of the electromagnetic induction.
On the receipt side construction units are assigned loudspeaker (electro-dynamic principle) according to the diaphragm coil principle, today often also. Piezoelectric hearing caps findlikewise application. Which transducers where are used, depends on the year of construction and the Preisklasse of the equipment. The frequency range of the transferred sound does not correspond to the range, which can be heard by humans, it is for reasons of the economy of the signal transmissionlimited. A sufficient Silbenverständlichkeit is nevertheless given. For this in the start times of the telecommunication technology extensive investigations were accomplished.
Further components steer the connecting expiration. These are fork change over switch, dial for the automatic or semiautomatic connection establishment, the crank inductor with the manual connection establishment, Erdtaste andparticularly within the range of the PABX numerous further control elements.
The most important and most well-known telephone apparatuses in the history of the German telecommunications technology were the models W28 (starting from 1928), W38 and W48 (starting from 1938 and/or. 1948), as well as the FeTAp 611 (starting from 1961). For specialOperational areas were developed special telephone sets:Pit telephone, field telephone, installation telephone.
until today telephones are turned on mainly over the cable systems of the Telefongesellschaften to the local exchanges. Particularly by in-car telephones and mobile telephones increasingly also slack become Radio links for the Telefonie uses. At the beginning two wires ran at telegraph masts to a central office from each telephone, where they were locked on lamps - or flap cabinets. With this principle it gave soon from historical photos admitted indeterminable Gewirrefrom lines and telegraph masts at the roads, 50 lines at double and three-fold linkages were not anything unusual.
Because of the high susceptibility to interference one began in Germany in the spring 1876 to shift the entire Telegrafen long distance network underground as cable system. The project became 1881provisionally finally, were 30 millions Mark blocked. 1913/14 made at the beginning of the European cable system in telephone long-distance traffic the transfer of the so-called. Rhine land cable from Berlin to Hanover, which was not continued to lead because of outbreak of the war first.
see: No dial,
before the speech transmission interspersed itself by means of electrical signals, there were more or less successful attempts for not electrical telephoning. Around 1670 Samuel Moreland in London attempts employed,Language with instruments too transfer, which resembled a trumpet. The idea was taken up about 100 years later by Johann Heinrich Lambert again. 1783 appeared anonymous in of Paris a folder under the title over the reproduction of the sound and the voicein tubes […]. Hereby means should be in-recruited for a full-scale test. The project did not come with an estimated station distance of 4 km and because of the associated high susceptibility to interference to carrying. In 19. Century speech pipings became then for for a long timeTime used in the steam navigation.
The first sentence was ever spoken about the telephone reads: “The horse does not eat cucumber salad. ”
The history of the telephone actually begins 1837, when the American Samuel Finley Morse designed the Morse telegraph. Thus those becamefor the telephone important precondition of the transmission converted by signals by electrical Stromleitungen already into the practice. 1854 submitted Paris telegraph clerk Charles Bourseul (1829-1912) to that a paper on possible techniques of the electrical speech transmission. Practical developments of in principle followed thatfunctioning telephone apparatuses among other things of Antonio Meucci, Philipp rice, Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell. From these early inventors however only Bell had the organizational abilities, the telephone over the laboratory - test equipment outside as overall system to ready for the market ones to bring. Thus Bell brought 1876 in bad clay/tone (Massachusetts) the telephone for the first time to practical application; See also: Invention of the telephone.
Bells equipment consisted of a transducer, which was used alternating as microphone and as receiver. It possessed a flexibleMetal diaphragm, a staff magnet and the magnet enclosing wire coil. When discussing produced differently strong acoustic waves shifted the diaphragm in oscillation. In the coil electrical tensions were induced by the changed magnetic flow. In this way into electricalSignals converted acoustic waves were passed on over a wire communication to the receiver telephone. In its transducers now the reverse process took place. The arriving modulated river produced a variable magnetic field, which shifted the diaphragm in oscillations, whereby again acoustic waves developed.
With devicesthis kind became to 26. October 1877 accomplished in Berlin under the direction by general post office master Heinrich by Stephan and director of general telegraph Budde successful transmission attempts over first 6 km, then 26 km and last 61 km. Stephan leaves after these first attemptsfurther Bell telephones of the company Siemens & Halske make. These events mark the beginning of the operational Telefonie in Germany.
With the invention of the coal micro hair dryer 1878 by David Edward Hughes in connection with the improvement of the listener by Werner von Siemensa substantially louder transmission and thus a discussion were made possible over larger distances.
For the structure of telephone connections first the so-called assistance call was used.
In order to give to the user the possibility of developing his connection (automatic dial service), began Almon Strowger 1888 with the development automatic exchange system. To 10. March 1891 patented Almon Strowger this switching system (AUTOMATIC of telephones Exchange) under US patent No. 447,918 . With this system decimals were and in the telephone for the one,Hundred of the call number per a key which can be selected installs, which had accordingly often to be pressed the number. The operation was according to pedantic and error-prone and the installation expenditure highly, since each key was connected with the switching center by its own line.
Further self choice mechanisms for the telephone followed, as to 11. January 1898 of A. E. Keith and the brothers John and Charles J. Erickson, which were coworkers of the Strowger AUTOMATIC of telephones Exchange company, under US patent No. 597,062  patented Strowger finger wheel sub station dial. The number of line veins was reduced by this equipment for the transmission of the choice information to two.
To 18. May 1923 patented the Frenchman Antoine Barnay over long time the dial common in telephones,in the impulse choice procedure worked. The use of dials in telephones documented at least in Germany for the year 1908 and in the USA starting from 1907.
With modern electronics and computer technology the electromechanical elements could be replaced by semiconductors - construction units, the substantial reductions of the equipment and equipments with ever more additional functions permitted and boththe operation simplify and other use possibilities - for example the acoustic space monitoring - offer.
While for example the call signaling was made first by an electromechanical bell, this is now replaced by an electronic, usually adjustable audio signal. Additional characteristics are among other things call number transmissionoutgoing and arriving calls, number memory (directory, short or step-by-step selection), call forwarding, conference circuits, call list and acquitting. Beyond that the telephone is meanwhile occasional as unit with further terminals such as answering sets (usually with tele-call) and fax - equipment combines.
Beside itsprimary function for the voice communication the telephone is with the for this necessary transmission and exchange technique a substantial component of a world-wide communications network, over which apart from the language information of each kind will transfer can.
- Telephone Polka - Française of Eduard bunch
- Ms of the office (1954)
- E.T. - The extraterrestial one (1983), home the telephone
- or the love wants to telephone too third, an opera of Gian Carlo Menotti.
- Not presenting (2002), plays mainly in a telephone box
- the hello when telephoning is possibly due to the Hungarian “hallom”.
- After ISDN into the 1980er years begins with IP-Telefonie at present a further technical paging.
- Computer Telephony integration (CTI) links computers and telecommunications.
- A telephone call can out more technically and more sociallyView to be regarded.
- The telephone alphabet and radio alphabet are in the directory.
- AVON is colloquial the short form for official listing of the local codes, telephone preselection.
- With international calls the international telephone preselection must be considered.
- With telephone keyboards are the numbers of 1to 9 contrary to pocket calculators and computers from top to bottom arranged.
- Face-to-face phones and write telephone with different techniques became generally accepted usually only for gehörlose ones.
- A computer connection over the normal telephone network took place in former times with an acoustic coupler, today alsoa modem.
- Collard, J. (1928/29): Theoretical study over articulation and comprehensibility in telephone electric circuits
- Fletcher, H.; Stone mountain manufacturing costs (1929): Articulation testing methods
- Kaszynski/Schönhoff (1991): Telephoning devices, Berlin: Publishing house technology GmbH. With very extensive bibliography.
- Telephones 1863-2000: outthe collections of the museums for communication, hrsg. of Christel Jörges, Heidelberg: Edition Braus, 2001 (catalogs of the museum donation post office and telecommunications, 9)
- humans telephone. Aspects of telephone communication, hrsg. by Margret Baumann and Helmut Gold. With contributions of EH Apraku…,Heidelberg: Umschau/Braus, 2000 (catalogs of the museum donation post office and telecommunications, 8)
- Schwender, Clemens: “As I use the telephone?” The guidance for telephoning in the citizen of Berlin directory 1881-1996/97, Berlin, Berne, New York 1997
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Web on the left of
- museum donation post office and telecommunications
- virtual museum for telecommunications
- “museum for communication” in Berne(Switzerland)
- “forum for old persons and historical telephones” - also pictures
- police emergency call technology, history of the emergency call technology
- the history of the telephone & the dialling codes