Telegrafie

as Telegrafie (also telegraphy) one designates different forms of the transmission of texts over more or less far distances. Contrary to the voice transmission and the Telefonie with the Telegrafie one does not speak, but one does not transfer the letters about a code. The transmission functions only ina direction, contrary to the bi-directional connection via telephone.

The oldest form is the optical Telegrafie with that the codes by humans was produced and evaluated. With the younger Morsetelegrafie was likewise necessary this. Only with the Zeigertelegraf and the teleprinter the letter coding later becameautomatically accomplished.

Special Telegrafen were in former times: Feuertelegrafen, optical Telegrafen (semaphores), Feldtelegrafen, Eisenbahntelegrafen and Haustelegrafen.

Table of contents

optical Telegrafie

transmission of Morse codeby means of light signals in the navigation

the French technician Claude Chappe undertook first attempts to the optical Telegrafie 1792 with the establishment first 70 km composed of optical Flügeltelegrafen is enough for Telegrafenlinie between Pelletier pc. Fargaux and pc. Martin de Thetre. This Flügeltelegrafen possesses tiltable arms, of themPosition agreed upon indications corresponds before and which by telescopes to be recognized and further-obtained can.

The first optical Telegrafenlinie in Germany was taken up 1830 between Berlin and potsdam.

This was not sufficient however soon. There Prussia from the resolutions of the Viennese of congress as „is awake toRhine had come out “, needed one for the fast transmission of news a stationary system on a large scale.

This became under line of the major in the general staff Franz August O'Etzel (1783 - 1850) and the developer of the Telegrafen, the secret post office advice Carl Philipp Heinrich Pistor (1778 - 1847), whateverresponsible for the equipment of the stations with signal generators and telescopes was put on.

The Prussian Balkentelegraf led Höxter from the observatory in the Dorotheenstrasse in Berlin across the Dahlemer village church to the Telegrafenberg with potsdam, further across Magdeburg, half, to Cologne and from there after Koblenz. Between 1832 and 1852 this line insisted on a length of 700 km. In Cologne tearing pool of broadcasting corporations still the only received tower of this Telegrafenlinie is to be visited, completely with the original pointer device on the roof.

Pistors Balkentelegraf was a system of the Englishman barn pool of broadcasting corporations L. Watsonhad a feeling for. At the upper end of a mast tree six wings were installed, which by roles and cords were connected with a Observationszimmer and could from there out be served. With altogether 4096 wing positions thus a complex transmission system was possible.

The messages became in each case from station toStation passed on and were faster around some than comparable horse messengers. Optical Telegrafen of short range were and. A. simple flashing mirrors and more complex Spiegeltelegrafen, sign character („TIG-dare “and/or. nautically) as well as „the simple “ Flaggensignale. Until today Morselampen are common in the navigation for short distances, laser radio communications for dataand modern means of communication in competition represent language to sparkling International Telecommunication Union gene.

electrical Telegrafie

wire-bound Telegrafie, the so-called electrical Telegrafie, could itself only after the realization that electricity reproduces itself along a cable (1730) and the invention of a constant power source (1800) develop by Volta. Samuel F. B. Morses achievements played an important role during the spreading of the electrical Telegrafie. A global net was developed, first press agencies (Associated press, Reuters) developed.

1809 designed the Anatom Samuel Thomas von Soemmerring in Frankfurt/Mainan electrical Telegrafen, with which the indications became to transfer by galvanic decomposition of the water. A model of its construction is today in the museum for communication in Frankfurt.

After discovery of the electromagnetic induction by Michael Faraday in the year 1832 webers and Carl Friedrich Gauss led William1833 attempts with an electromagnetic Telegrafen through. In the same year the first telegraphic transmission of news of the physics building in the Göttinger city center succeeded to them at the Göttinger observatory. For the transmission of news serve positive or negative tension pulses, which are produced by purposeful commutating and up and Abbewegen of an induction pick-up coil.The coil is pushed for this over a bundle by magnetized steel rails. A reproduction, which weber for the world exhibition gave to 1873 in Vienna in order, is kept in the historical collection of the first physical institute of the University of Goettingen.

1836 discovered Carl August von Steinheil thatone the Telegrafieströme also wirelessly by the earth to lead can. For this at two as far as possible from each other distant points at the earth's surface a very strong electric current is sent into the earth. The propagation area extends with sufficient high amperage then up to the receiving place, at thatthe changes of signal (interruption of circuit, current locking) to be determined and noted can. With the help of a code (for example the stone welfare writing or the Morsealphabets) messages were conveyed in this way.

The crucial break-through came 1837 with from Samuel the Morse designed and 1844 improved Schreibtelegrafen.

With thatTransfer of submarine cables was begun 1839. After several misses the first connection between Europe and North America 1857/58 was furnished.

wireless Telegrafie

the German physicist Ferdinand brown received 1909 the Nobelpreis for physics for its contribution for the development of the wireless Telegrafie. It divideditself the Nobelpreis with Guglielmo Marconi.

Brown had already to 20. September 1898 a spark connection at physical Institut in Strasbourg developed, which shortly thereafter led 30 km in the Vogesenort Mutzig. it bridged 1899 from Cuxhaven from 3 km up to the ball beacon andto 24. September 1900 62 km long distance Cuxhaven - Helgoland.

Marconi established the first wireless connection to 1899 over the English Channel. To 12. December 1901 succeeded the first transatlantic radio transmission (between Poldhu (peninsula The Lizard, Cornwall) and Cape Cod (the USA)).

For the wireless Telegrafie at the beginning of “Funkensender” were used. These devices consisted of a wagnerschem hammer and condensers, which produced sparks and strong high voltage impulses. These were clocked with the help of a Telegrafieschlüssels after the Morse code, led into an antenna and into the atmosphere as electromagnetic waves (radio waves) radiated. With a simple receiver (coherer) then these impulses could be received and shown as audible noise.

This invention was recognized and introduced fast of the marine ones as important. The procedure is the basis of the German term broadcast.

terminals and Telegrafiearten

related topics

literature

  • Patrice Flichy: Tele - history of the modernCommunication. Campus publishing house, Frankfurt/New York 1994, ISBN 3-593-35011-4
  • Tom Standage: The Victorian Internet. Berkley trade, 1999, ISBN 0-425-17169-8

Web on the left of

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)