telecommunications (of griech. tele: far, far and lat. communicare: make, communicate) designation completely generally any exchange of information about a certain distance common away, without they materially transporting (e.g. as letter). Thus visible became in the 18.JahrhundertSignals of semaphores and Heliographen uses. Further examples of early attempts of non electric telecommunications are here: Telephone.
The German word is called telecommunication system. It is practically only used however since end of the 1980er years with military mechanisms andin the colloquial language nearly completely disappeared.
Strictly speaking today telecommunications is understood as data exchange using electro-technology, electronics and other modern technologies. The first telecommunication services in this sense were Telegrafie (telex) and Telefonie, also Remoteannounce mentioned. Before arising computers there were designated data communication services already as remote working for the control of plants.
Telecommunications mechanisms are today an elementary component of the infrastructure. For this reason their supply is a joint task that for the avoidance of spatial mismatchesRegional development (thus in practice a state function). Since beginning of the liberalisation (in Germany since 1998) telecommunication services in the competition become furnished, which basic supply ensured by a universal conscription.
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With enterprises of the telecommunications industry one differentiates between the operators of telecommunications networks (carrier), offerers of services - the service in such a way specified Providern - and the manufacturers of Telekommunkationlösungen, which are called suppliers or Supplier.
The ten largest telecommunications enterprisesthe world are:
- NTT, Japan
- German Telekom, Germany
- Verizon, the USA
- France Télécom, France
- Vodafone, Great Britain
- NTT DoCoMo, Japan
- SBC Communications, the USA
- Telecom Italia, Italy
- British Telecom, Great Britain
- Telefónica, Spain
conditions:11/2004 after conversion. Source:
The largest Ausrüster from telecommunications enterprises is:
- Lucent Technologies
- Nortel in former times Nortel network
according to data of the statistic federal office lay the prices for telecommunication service achievements from viewthe private households in the annual average 2003 in the comparison to the year 2002 around 1,2 per cent more highly.
The price index for telephone services in the fixed net lay in the year 2003 around 1,4% more highly than 2002. Local calls (? 2.9%), inland remote connections (? 0.4%), discussions of the fixed net inthe portable radio nets (? 0.5%) and international calls (? 1.2%) were more favorable in the annual average 2003 than in the previous year. On the other hand the connection and the basic charges rose around 5,8%.
Since the early 90's the so-called increase in value services in the fixed net ( preselection 0190 and 0900 stand) and crowd OD food services (preselection 0180) for the order. Here the costs of special telephone services are completed over the normal fee account of the caller (see also Audiotex, call center).
The prices for the mobile telephoning increased in the year 2003in the comparison to the year 2002 around 1,1%. In December 2003 the prices for the mobile telephoning layer around 0,5% over the level of the appropriate previous year month.
The Internet use was reduced in price in the annual average 2003 opposite 2002 by 1,3%.
- 1816Francis Ronalds (London) develops an electrical telegraph and sends messages over eight miles.
- 1877 on arrangement of the general post office master Heinrich of Stephan are operated the first regular Fernsprechdienst.
- 1881 the 1. Berlin telephone exchanges with 8 participants opens
- to 1906 firstUntersee Fernsprechkabel is put in the Bodensee
- 1908 to 10. July is inserted taken in Hildesheim the first public switched center of Europe in
- enterprise 1923 in the range around because home the direct distance dialing taken in
- enterprise 1935 for the first time carrier frequency - data communication equipment on underground layings of cables
- 1936 after attempts the automatic Zeitansage in several cities finally installs
- for 1950 the Federal Post Office becomes with 1,2 millions Telephone customer for the first time
- based 1970 is a direct direct-inward dialing to America possible
- 1987 ISDN with 750 testers is started
- 1989 post office reformI in Germany
- 1994 post office reform II in Germany
- 1996 post office reform III in Germany
- 2001 with only one optical waveguide cable could be transferred more than 10 TeraBits per second (15 millions ISDN channels parallel)
- Fridhelm miner, Hans Joachim Gerhardt: Paperbacktelecommunications. - 2. Edition - Munich: Hanser technical book publishing house, 2003. - ISBN 3-44621-750-9
- Hartmann, Frank: Global medium culture. Technology, history, theories. UTB for science 2723, 2006. - ISBN 3-85114-911-4