|of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see temple (term clarifying).|
Temple (v. lat. templum) is the German designation of buildings, which served since the Neolithikum in many religions as Heiligtum. Before nature caves became and Abris as cult places used, which maintained this function also still for a long time and beside the first temples existed. The oldest building, to which the designation is applied directly, is the Maltese temple (starting from 3.800 v. Chr).
Of the primary meaning of the wordoutgoing, temple (in the etruskischen and Roman religion) is however first nothing else as a district distinguished from the range of the everyday one, in which Auguren exercised the observation and interpretation of the bird flight. Also in the old-Greek religion was the temple at firstno “place of worship”, but altar and God picture were within the holy district, but outside of the actual temple (so still in directly before-classical time for example on the Akropolis of Athens). Accordingly the God admiration in the free one took place, which alsoto other peoples applied.
The temple is merged in various way into the religion system. The visual aspect is not the center of attention at first yet. The temple is the place, at that ritual actions for or by the Gläubigen (rather by thosein its order acting) to be implemented. A cosmological symbolism wins already with the temple of Newgrange (3150 v. Chr.) at meaning, remains however limited to few parallel cases. In some cultures the temple represents the cosmos absolutely. Temples often become as place of residencethe Gods understood. If one places oneself the mountain as seat of the Gods forwards (Olymp), then is and. And. also the temple as mountain (pyramid, Ziggurat) conceives. It comes finally to the conception of a domestic life of the Gods, that that of humanscorresponds; e.g. Routines of the day with waking, toilet, supply. The sakrale district is always separate from the everyday area (Temenoi); the temple can be reserved certain Gods or be divided into different ranges, which presuppose also different göttliche authority with the oldest temples.
For the Gläubigen the course means the meeting with the holy one to the temple. In city cultures the temple is the central building and coins/shapes the settlement. Apart from the religious meaning of the temple, particularly in advanced cultures, also the economical is not toounderestimate. It comes for the change of material and mental goods. Also the educational facilities are frequently bound to the temple.
thoseIsraeli tables temple
the Hebräer possessed only one temple. First the tent temple, Tabernakel or pin hut. Of it in the Hebrew Bible one tells. The salomonische and the herodianische temple followed to Jerusalem. The temples of the Judentums differedof the temples of the classical antiquity (see below).
See major items of Israeliti temples
to origin of the temples of the classical antique ones
the oldest buildings also excluding ritual function developed already around 10.000 before Chr. in the Levante. With the peoples of theclassical antiquity the divinity a geweihter district, then on the same standing buildings, for the admission of the God pictures, the altar and the priests, but the people determines only rarely.
Inside the actual temple house or the cell (cella) stoodoften the picture column or the picture of the divinity, the temple was dedicated to who, on a Postament at the entrance facing the wall, before it either round or square victims - and pray altar.
The cover classicallyTemple consisted of wood, rarely of stone and was usually evenly, later sometimes also curved. The floor was at first made of Steinplatten, later from mosaic. One decorated the columns of the Portikus with captured hostile Schilden.
Stages had those Greek temple usually, they always ran. The stage underbody created thereby was called Krepidoma.
The place around the temple, as far as it was geweiht the divinity, was called Peribolus. Surrounded with a wall, he contained altars, statues, Monumente of all kinds.
temple of the Greeks
training highest in Athens experienced the building of temples by the Greeks. The first beginnings of a temple developed approx. in 10. Century v. Chr.At this time the building method was still very simple. With the introduction of stone as building material differently kinds differentiated themselves from temples. Today one up to nine building methods and three architectural styles (dorische order, ionische order differentiate, korinthische order). The Greek temples had been not only for the Romans determining, but they had even on later architectural styles influence.
See detail articles of Greek temples
to temples of the Romans
in the Roman Sakralbau mixingitself etruskische and Greek influences.
The etruskischen temples have a base and to lift itself thus clearly from the environment. They are direction, have thus a rectangular sketch. An outside staircase at the narrow side leads an open Säulenhalle into the Vorhalle,before the often three-part Cella, for the interior is appropriate. The Roman architect Vitruv examined the temples and delivered the proportions length to width: 6 to 5; Length of Vorhalle and Cella: ever 1/2. The whole becomes from a flatSaddle roof covered with Tonziegeln.
The Roman temples transfer the etruskischen models, Greek influences become however in the run the time particularly after the Roman conquest of Greece to 2. Century v. Chr.- ever more strongly: the sketch becomes in longitudinal directionstretched, the Cella is given up in relation to the Vorhalle more largely, their three-division in favor of a region. A well received example from the augusteischen time is the Maison Carrée in Nîmes.
temple in the Christianity
in the Jew Christianity playedin the first time of the Jerusalemer temple still another role. Since Jesus had behaved critically opposite the temple and baptized humans were understood as temple of God, the temple cult in the Christianity ended with the destruction secondIsraeli tables of temple.
Starting from Konstantin I. (Rome) a new form in the buildings of churches developed. The design of the Basilika is on the one hand a neutral, since also court and market buildings looked similar, last on the other hand in addition, the cult of the God-light emperors had servedand to that extent the separation of the emperor cult made visible by the new religion.
Under the newer communities on Christian basis the church Jesu Christi of the holy ones of the last days ( “Mormonen “) is well-known for their temples established world-wide. See in addition the article temple of the church Jesu Christi of the holy ones of the last days. A further community, which appoints itself to the same founder figure Joseph Smith, the community Christi, possesses two temples. Likewise the community in Christo Jesu calls its central Heiligtum, the Eliasburg, temple.
temples in the Hinduismus
in the Hinduismus represents the temple (one you) the cosmos absolutely. In the temple the world of the Gods and the world of humans “touch themselves”. Contrary to the house rites is the temple attendancehowever not mandatorily. There are pious Hindus, which never or rarely go into a temple.
In the temples priest of different rank serves. In the large Heiligtümern one leaves the technical actions to the assistant of the main priest - often persons of small reputation.Bathing and fire ceremonies are implemented by Veda - well-informed priests. Other priests are specialized in the Rezitation, other (not necessarily brahmanische) aids are responsible for the Salbung of a picture.
Also in fast-increasing large cities buyers and land owners always created templesand poet, dancer and Sanskritgelehrte favour. Donating temples belongs to the religiously deserving actions. Beside the enormous temple complexes and Pilgerzentren such as Tirumala Tirupati gives it thousands of very simple village temples, in those less formed village to Brahmanen its serviceperform. The entrance to the temples for untouchable box improved in the modern India.
The temple tower - as northIndian Shikhara or as southIndian Vimana - represents the center of the universe as image of the mythischen world mountain Meru. In the temple toweris the holiest area of the temple, the Garbhagriha (wörtl.: “Lap house”), which forms the excavate-like unlighted interior. In the ritual the divinity becomes present; the principal item of each priesterlichen activity is the Puja. A lecture as in the Christianity plays in the hinduistischenTemple ritual no role; for this there are religious lectures (lectures), which take place however outside of the temple.
temple in the Buddhismus
to the large world religions, which have temples as Heiligtümer, belongs the Buddhismus, to also the Zen, Tantra (- ismus) and Lamaism count. In the Buddhismus the term temple is to be separated closely connected with monastery and not always clearly.
A ritual, which is frequently held in temples, is the Puja, a devotion in honours Buddhas. Smoke, flowers, are used food victims and so on but Buddha rejected (large) victims as senseless.To that extent it is to be understood that one by good works (e.g. presenting monks) of earnings/services acquires, which are to affect well the own luck.
The temples can be very different depending upon school and culture area. So e.g. are. India and Sri Lanka for its cave temples admit. With the spreading in Germany, also there buddhistische temples, which are adapted to the there climatic and cultural needs, developed like e.g. The Buddhisti house.
temples in the Shintō
tothe term has itself better distinction of the buddhistischen temples in Japan „shrine “and/or for the religious building places of the Shintō. „Shintō shrine “in-patriated, although long time in Japan no substantial difference between the Religonen Buddhismus and Shintōas well as its buildings one made.
temples of the Baha'i
the Baha'i establish world-wide their houses of the devotion, those to the unit of the religions dedicated are open and all humansstand. In the center of the devotion are located the holy writings of all world religions, which are rezitiert without lecture, interpretation or comment in the source language or translation.
Sung prayers in all languages and mirror-image-ritual traditions of mankind are welcome in the temples. ThoseAcoustics of the domed structure central put on carry the human voice. No other noises are to disturb individual reflection and Meditation.
In the dome point, an Arab Kalligrafie is to be seen to the traffic light, an expression of the praise price: „O glory of the allwonderful! “.A further characteristic connects the temples: Nine gates in all directions symbolize openness for the trailers of the different religions.
Otherwise the houses of the devotion straight are characterised the completely consciously different styles and symbols by its architectural variety,the different cultures represent.
The most well-known Baha'i temple is in India.
temples as routistic points of attraction
the temple ruins of past cultures as of Egypt, Assyrien, Babylon, Greece, Rome, or the Aztecs and Inkaas well as those of the vorschichtlichen cultures on Malta, Sardinien etc. are important archaeological monuments, which are frequently also routistic points of attraction.
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|Wiktionary: Temple - word origin, synonyms and translations|
Web on the left of
- antique temples and cult places
- the temple towers in Orissa (India), from Dr. Bernhard Peter
- the temple cities of Tamil Nadu (India), of Dr. Bernhard Peter
- Tempel of the Hoysala culture in India, of Dr. Bernhard Peter
- Architektur of the Jain temples in India,of Dr. Bernhard Peter
- of the plumb bob US temples of the Baha'i in new Delhi, of Dr. Bernhard Peter