Temple mountain

Tempelberg zu Herodes' Zeiten
temple mountain to Herodes' times
south wall

the temple mountain ( the distinguished Heiligtum; also God mountain, Moriah; arab. الحرمالشريف aluminium-Haram asch scharīf, hebr. הרהבית Har haBeit) is a hill in the southeast part of the Jerusalemer old part of town, above the Kidrontales. At his summit is an artificial plateau. The two original Jerusalemer temples stood here; beside the rock cathedral there is there the aluminium-Aqsa-mosque Islam. The temple mountain is one of the most disputed holy places of the world.


Table of contents

historical and religious meaning

before 3000 years established the Jews under king Salomo the first temple according to to the Bible - commencement of construction957 v. Chr. - here, which forms the holiest place in the Judentum. The temple was the center of the Jewish service. As Nebukadnezar II. Jerusalem conquered, left it the temple 586 v. Chr. destroy. After their backhonour from the Babylonian shank established the Jewsin the same place the second temple - completion 516 v. Chr. -, that the Romans in the Jewish-Roman war in the year 70 n. Chr. destroyed. The destruction of both temples in the distance of nearly 600 years forms central points in Jewish history. The reconstruction of theTemple in Jerusalem central request of the Jewish prayers was in the last 2000 years. The west wall or complaint wall is remnants of the walls, which support the original temple plateau. Many Jews perform there prayers and them left frequently prayer notes in the wall columns.

In the Jewish faith is the temple mountain of the navels of the world, from which it was created. It should be also the place, at which the Patriarch (ore father) should sacrifice Abraham Israeli tables of the people in accordance with the instructions of God (JHWH) its son Isaak. When God saw its obedience, leftit it by an angel stop.

after the destruction of the second temple developed on the temple mountain first a Roman Jupiter temple, later a Christian church. After the Muslim conquest of Jerusalem in the year 638 the temple mountain of the Muslims aluminium-Haram became asch scharīf(the large Heiligtum) mentioned. To the Islam the temple mountain applies as one of the three holiest places. In accordance with the Islamic excessive quantity the prophet Mohammed is to have undertaken a nocturnal dream journey (Koran Sure 17) to „the most distant mosque “. The aluminium-Aqsa-mosque became however at the earliest 50 years after thatConquest by the Arabs provides, thus decades after Mohammeds death. The mosque is meant and/or. the temple, which Salomo established once.

The temple mountain is the holiest place of the Jews, the third-holiest Islam and also for the Christianity of high importance.

history

Muslims, Christians and Jews connect the temple mountain with many important events in their religious excessive quantities.

Moriah

after genesis 22, 2 is called Moriah the country, in which the chosen is located the mountain by God, on which Abraham by God one instructed, itsTo bring son Isaak as fire victims. Only in the late chronicle text (2. Chronicle 3, 1) seems the name Moriah up. There it designates the mountain to build on the king Salomo the temple of God began. There might not be a doubt that with this name inthe narration of sacrificing Isaaks in all clarity to the temple mountain one alludes.

Aron/first temple

in the Bible is Aron (or Arauna) the Jebusiter of first owners of the temple mountain (2. Samuel 24.18-25) above Jerusalems. It had there a thresh place, the king David itfor 50 plumb bob silver bought, in order to establish an altar. Because David its hands in many wars with blood had besudelt, a building of temples was refused it, so that its more peaceful son Salomo this task approx. 950 v. Chr. fulfilled. This temple became 586 v. Chr. by Nebukadnezar II. and the Babylonier destroys. Starting from 521 v. Chr. - after end the Babylonian shank - a provisional temple with Persian assistance was again developed and 516 v. Chr. finished.

creation history at the temple mountain

after later rabbinischer view wears Godthis place the earth taken, out of which it formed Adam (some Christians have it later shifted after Golgatha). Here Abel, Melchisedech and Noach their victims would have brought Adam , late Kain .

Marienkirche/rock cathedral/aluminium-Aqsa-mosque

the eastRoman emperor Justinianhere a Marienkirche let build, which aluminium-Walid (705 - 715) to the aluminium-Aqsa-mosque converted.

(691), later the aluminium-Aqsa-mosque were established to the aluminium-Aqsa-mosque in Jerusalem after the Islamic conquest of Palestine. During the crusades was the temple mountain of 1099 - 1187 in the possession of the cross drivers, in the aluminium-Aqsa-mosque were the head office of the Templerordens. The present shape agitates Saladins and its successors from the changes after back conquest 1187.

today's temple mountain

in the first Israeli-Arab war (1948) became thatTemple mountain of shells partly destroys, in the following years by technical and financial assistance from Jordanian ones, Saudi Arabia and Egypt again developed.

In the six-day war (1967) Israeli soldiers arrived at the complaint wall (west wall of the Herodes), since this time for Jews again accessibleis. The temple mountain is administered by the Waqf, to which almost complete autonomy was granted.

controversy

many Israelis reject the “occupation” of the temple mountain Arab in their eyes. A small fundamentalist group with the name “Gläubige movement temple mountainand Eretz Israel “wants to establish the third Jewish temple on the temple mountain. This group is supported only by a minority of the Israeli public.

In the last years the Muslim Waqf began to build illegally a large underground mosque in the so-called stables Salomos.With large construction equipment one works, and important archaeological certifications of the Jewish past of the holy place are destroyed. Examinations of this range by Jewish archaeologists were forbidden by the Waqf.

Many archaeologists are afraid also that these work leads to the destabilization of the temple mountain and the complaint wall. In the autumn2002 a dent of approximately 70 cm in the southern brick-hurry the complex determined. One was afraid damage or a collapse of masonry ILS. Since the Waqf did not permit a detailed Israeli control, it came to an agreement with Israel that a group of Jordanian engineers the wall inOctober to examine could. After their appraisal center 2003 the appropriate repairs took place.

literature

  • Heribert penalty and George Kretschmar: Jerusalemer sanctifying around traditions, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1987
  • Werner Caskel: The rock cathedral and the Wallfahrt after Jerusalem, West German publishing house, Cologne, 1963
  • a further extensive listing of scientific literature to the Salomini temple to Jerusalem, Templer generally, Pope documents, crusades, the medal rule of the Templer as well as Israel/Jerusalem/Palestine [1]

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Temple mountain - word origin, synonyms and translations
 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)