Tennis

tennis ball
tennis racquet
net

tennis is a ball play, which is played with two or four players. The variant with two players calls itself single, the variant with four players calls itself doubles. A special case doubles is Mixed, with which male in each case and a female player per team begin against each other.

The opponents face each other on a playing field separated by a net and try, the tennis ball with the help of the tennis racquet in such a way into the opposing fieldto play that the opponent is not any more able to rewind it in regular way into the field.

In Germany becomes the tennis sport of the DTB, which German tennis federation, organizes, which divides itself in each case into regional organizations. Itorganize the league play enterprise, the tournaments, the Daviscupteam and train also tennis coaches.

Table of contents

history

the French forerunner of the today's play, Jeu de Paume (play with the flat hand), became in monastic yards, laterin ball play houses on a rectangular field easily. The players gave their indication at the side, by striking the ball over the net against a wall, which ran along the field. The spectators sat at the wall opposite. Lines dividedthe field in four 15 tariff (scarcely 40 centimeters) broad, parallel running strips to both line sides.

The English Sir Peter Breitenbach left itself its kind of tennis, which it called “Sphairistike”, to 1874 patents and set up rules. Until todayusual tennis developed, with new rules, with the first championships in Wimbledon (London) in July 1877.

Beginning of the thirties was introduced the professional tennis. This had the consequence that no more all tennis player in the large tournaments were allowed to participate.This changed only 1968, when the open tournaments were introduced. At this time also the today heavily doped tennis tournaments developed like US open or the French open.

The name “tennis” goes to centralEnglish term on the tenes and/or. tenetz back, that a similar ball play designated. The origin of this designation leaves itself again on the imperative Plural of frz. lead back tenir (hold). The call “Tenez!” - in the sense of “take, hold (the ball)!” - was original a breaking open playerprobably as warning for the fellow player meant.

counting method and other rules

a play goal

Ein Tennismatch
a Tennismatch

the goal with a tennis play are it to win the necessary number from sentences to. This is reached, by one thatBall into the field of the opponent plays rule-fairly in such a way the fact that these do not reach the ball any longer or it any longer to rewind cannot. It is to be noted that the ball with the tennis racquet must be struck and within the field (alsothe border lines belong to the field) to arise must, after it affected maximally once the soil. At the beginning of a ball change stands the impact in such a way specified, which into a special, smaller field, which must be played service court. If an impact irregularly, has the server was implemented a second chance. If this is not rule-conformal implemented again, the point is given to the Rückschläger. One calls this double errors. If with an otherwise rule-conformal impact the ball affects the net edge, then that becomesPlay without point departure broken off, and which must impact is repeated.

counting method

the complete play (also match called) is divided into the tennis into sentences, which consist again of several plays. A sentence is won if a playerwon 6 or 7 plays, whereby there are thereby different scenarios:

  • 6 plays are enough to the sentence gain, if the opponent won at the most 4 plays.
  • If it stands for 6:5 and the players lying in guidance wins the next play, then decidesthis the sentence with 7:5 for itself.
  • If it stands for 6:6, then a special play, must decide the Tie BREAK, the sentence. The winner of the Tie BREAK can book the sentence with 7:6 for itself.
  • A special arrangement steps with the Grand Slam- Tournaments (except US open) as well as the Davis Cup into force, with those in the crucial sentence (with the gentlemen in 5. , with the ladies in the 3.) no Tie BREAK is played, but 2 plays projection/lead to be attained to have. (The projection/lead rulegalt vor Einführung des Tie-Breaks vor einigen Jahren in jedem Satz.)

In einem normalen Spiel hat einer der Kontrahenten das Aufschlagrecht. The counting method within a play is 0, 15, 30, 40. A play is won, as soon as one the player 40Points reached, and afterwards the next point obtains.

An exception is the Spielstand 40:40, also beginning (“deuce”) mentioned. Here it is necessary to win two further points in order to decide the impact play for itself. If one after beginning thatthe Spielstand advantage (“Advantage” wins , is called next point). After advantage either the end of the play or again beginning follows.

The lost play of the breaking open is called BREAK (the impact advantage “was broken through”). Special meaning comes to the BREAK in the tennis: thatPlayer, who begins the ball change with the impact, has an advantage opposite the returnierenden player, since it can have pressure with a strong impact for the opponent. In the professional tennis thus a won service is rather the rule, a lostService the exception, whatever decides often the sentence. If a player could obtain by a following ball change a BREAK, then one speaks of a BREAK ball.

A match with the tennis is delivered generally over 2 profit rates. With larger tournamentsor in the final of such, with the gentlemen 3 profit rates are played. With seniors can instead of a crucial 3. Sentence also a Tie BREAK to be played. The ball change, which can lead to the play gain, is called match ball.

history thatCounting method

for this gives it to two versions.

With the version most frequently mentioned it is assumed that the counting method money-in-corrodes play bets on and in 14. Century in France decreases/goes back. Thus one set for example a bulk of denier, for that again a valuefrom 15 had denier. In a sentence, which often consisted at that time of four plays, 4 times 15 of “deniers” was thus set: 15 - 30 - 45 - 60. In 16. Century probably became from loud comfort and the shorter discussionbecause of “45” by “40” replaces.

The old-French Sol (late Sou) served as Münzeinheit. The Sol was in the Middle Ages the accounting unit for twelve Pfennig (old French: denier). 1266 were coined/shaped for the first time this unit in form of a silver coin, the “bulk of denier tournois”,the large Pfennig of route. This coin became in 14. Century several times after-coined/shaped - the value amounted to in each case 15 of deniers tournois, that is 15 Pfennig out route.

The second version refers to the lines on the playing field. EveryoneTimes, if a player made de with jeu paume one point, it moved a strip on and approached themselves so gradually the center of the field. The play began to the 0-Zoll-Linie. If a player won one point, he moved to15-Zoll-Linie forwards, then to the 30-Zoll-Linie and finally to the 45-Zoll-Linie. Then it had only won the play. Since one found the fact that this line the net was too close was carried back the last indication on a 40-Zoll-Linie.

“0” becomes “Love in English”counted. The origin of this expression is the Verballhornung of the French word “l'oeuf” (dt. “Egg”), which shows the form of the “zero”. Another origin could be more neither the expression “for love nor for money”, with which one does not play around “anything”.

[] If changes of rule

do not work on

it with the tennis, like with many other kinds of sport with a net in the center, a Zeitbegrenzung give there, it can last for a very long time, until a winner is certain. Therefore again and again rule proposed amendments are in the circulation, those the playmore attractively and the duration to make shorter are. Thus to the 1970ern the Tie BREAK was already introduced, so that particularly long sentences are avoided. Further there are the NO ADDs - rule (NO Advantage), with with a Spielstand of 40:40 the next pointon the play decides. This rule was not used however officially ever.

A reaction is to be recognized particularly with the hard place tennis. Since the ball changes last relatively briefly there, there are some considerations to make the ball changes more attractive and therebyto extend the play time again. With some tournaments already larger balls are used, which are to decrease the speed. Also over an increase of the net edge or the abolishment of the second impact one discussed, so that the impact speed is reduced. However such remainedSuggestions so far without result.

A further change is the so-called champions Tie BREAK. It is played like a normal Tie BREAK, ends however only at 10 instead of 7 points. Originally imported, around the older players the often fatiguing third sentence toosave (instead the third sentence is replaced to the champions by Tie BREAK), it is used in the meantime also with the active ones in the official play enterprise and on tournaments.

(reason) Schlagarten

first option

the ball that becomes on the sideImpact hand (with Rechtshänder thus the right body half, with a left-handed person left) after a drawing back movement ideal-proves about hüfthoch laterally before the body met and into the field of the opponent struck back. The first option places one with back hand and impact (see below) thatBasic impacts.

back hand

with the back hand is struck the ball on the impact hand in relation to lying side (with Rechtshänder thus left, left-handed people right). The impact arm must over the body pulled and the body the ballare against-turned, in order to meet the ball hüfthoch laterally before the body. Contrary to the first option the course of motion is more difficult by far more complex and the impact in the comparison to the first option to accomplish.

impact

also in the obstruction sport plays tennis oneRole, here a player with the impact

major item: Impact

the impact (English. “Service”) introduces the ball change. The ball is thrown into air and struck usually close of the highest point into the diagonally facing impact area of the opponent.

It is howevernot against the rules to carry the ball in another way than with the over head ball into the opposing field. Only this is the usually selected variant, there one with the over head ball (also Schmetterball called, English. “smash”) the highest speedwith the impact to produce can.

further impacts

Return

major item: Return

as Return (dt.: Impact setback) is designated the impact, which strikes back the impact of the opponent. There the impact (or also the Schmetterschlag - see below -) usuallythe hardest impact with the tennis, is it represents accordingly with difficulty the ball “retunieren” and back into the field of the opponent to strike.

Schmetterschlag

of the Schmetterschlag (English: Smash) is a ball struck in the play over head. The drawing back movementis similar thereby as with the impact.

passing impact

the passing impact (first option or back hand) marks an impact, with which at the net or cannot in the field standing opponent stationed the ball any longer reach.

praise

withOne tries praise to overcome the opponent in the field by means of a very highly struck ball. Thus that is to be regarded praise also as passing impact. If the impact is too flat or too briefly struck, the opponent can answer with a Schmetterschlagor the ball still erlaufen and rewind.

Volley

major item: Volley

as Volley (dt. Flugball) impacts are designated, which are rewound the approaching ball directly in air, thus still before its impact on the soil. Usually becomesthis impact near the net uses.

Halbvolley

here is exactly struck the ball if this hits the soil. This impact is used only in emergencies, there with this impact only heavily pressure on the opponentto be exercised can.

stop ball

this is a ball is so begun to cut that it only few centimeters behind the net “falls down”. A goal is it that the opponent cannot reach this ball fast enough. Are particularly effectiveStop balls if the opponent far behind the baseline is. If the stop ball attempt is however too long or if the ball jumps off too highly, then the opponent in the consequence has to make a good opportunity the point.

Volleystopball

here is set the stop ball from a Flugball. The impact requires ability and exact Timing. The difficulty consists to take and it behind the net platzieren the speed briefly to the ball in the art. This ability requiresmuch exercise. One speaks thereby also of ball feeling.

“Hechtvolley”

with this special form of the Volley one tries to reach and in the field of the opponent bring a passing impact still with the help of a jump to the side. This impact becameby Boris Becker admits. Originally a youth coach Beckers had developed this impact, in order to increase the range of new generation players at the net. Becker kept however this impact in its repertoire and set it for astonishing its opponents and the spectators alsowith international tournaments (e.g. 1985 successfully in Wimbledon).

impact variations

Topspin

major item: Topspin

the most frequent impact in the modern tennis. Topspin describes a forward rotation of the ball and makes a stronger and at the same time safer play possible,since the ball screws itself upward first. Ergo does not have to fly the ball on height of the net sufficient reserve over to the net. In the later Flugverlauf a Topspinball lowers itself more strongly than one without rotation.

Slice

This impact was in former times many more frequently used. Today it serves only as attack ball on the back hand side, or simply as emergency impact. Here the ball has a rotation of kind of rear wall. The consequence: The ball flies very flat over the net and jumps withauftreffen el mehr ab del kaum de Boden de la guarida del auf. Under the longer flying time, this impact can be used also to provide from a defensive situation time.

CROSS

major item: CROSS

a CROSS (dt.: crosswise) struck ball is a ball, which is played in diagonally in each case opposite lying corner of the place. Rechtshänder plays therefore a CROSS struck first option a rechtshändrigen opponent likewise on the first option (and/or. Back hand on back hand). Since the diagonal of the place is longeras the collateral line, can be struck harder and thus far flying balls CROSSes.

Longline

major item: Longline

a longline (dt.: along in relation to the line) struck ball is a ball, that in each case in lying corner of the placeis played, is called the ball flies parallel to the side from line. Rechtshänder therefore plays a longline struck first option a likewise rechtshändrigen opponent on the back hand (and/or. Back hand on first option). A longline struck passing impact (s.o.), that the side from line or scarcely beside it withImpact meets, is not for one at the net stationed players practically not to reach.

As

a As (English: Ace) is an impact, with which the struck ball could not be achieved by the opponent. A As can both alsofirst, and with the second impact to be obtained.

playing field

the rectangular playing field with the tennis is divided by the net into 2 halves. The playing field is 78 foot (23.77 meters) long (a playing field side thus accordingly 39Foot = 11.89 m). The width for the single is 27 foot (8.23 meters), for the double 36 foot (10.97 meters). The playing field is limited by lines, the baselines in such a way specified (cousin LINEs) and collateral lines (simmering LINEs). The lines are a component of thePlaying field. Even if the ball (only partial) falls on a line, then is it not “out”.

The baselines run parallel to the net, the collateral lines right-angled to it. Parallel to the net on both sides in the distance of 21 those are to foot (6.40 meters) Service lines. The surface between net and service lines is called unofficially also T-field, since form the impact center line, which divide the T-field into two equal large surfaces, and the service line a large T. The service line becomes corresponding also as T-line marks. The two surfaces of a T-field are called service courts.

The net is in the center 3 foot (0.914 meters) highly. The net rises up at both sides at least 3 foot (0.914 meters) beyond the valid playing field and must onthis place exhibit a height of 3,5 foot (1.06 meters).

The surface between baseline and fence has for instance a length from 18 to 21 foot (5.50 to 6.40 meters). The width of the surface between collateral line and fence is with approximately10 to 12 foot (3.04 to 3.66 meters).

The place is with the tennis either a sand -, lawns -, artificial turf -, carpet or hard place. In the free one sand places are prevailing, in resound become generally on a hard or alsoa granulates place easily.

players

see: List of tennis players


play strategies


Serve and Volley play with the Serve and Volley play goes the breaking open player to an impact immediately to the net, around from the opponent the only laboriously rewoundTo transform ball by a good Volley unattainablly for the opponent. This strategy was used in former times continuously, loses however increasingly in importance.


Baseline play with the baseline play both players at the baseline run and play the ball back and forth. Tryit a possibility to find by beginning to cut against the ball or through plays the direction of travel of the opponent on the other side of the playing field the ball transform in such a way that it becomes unattainable for the opponent.


Chip & load here becomethe opposing impact directly with an attack ball returns (chip). The returning player moves up then immediately to the net and tries then by Volley the point to make (load). This expiration becomes almost exclusively on 2. Impacts practices. Becomes this impact sequencemore clever assigned, it has a very much surprising effect on the opponent.

tournament enterprise

the professional tennis is determined by international tournaments, those the whole year over to take place and mostly in the K.O. - System to be out-played. The controlling body for these tournamentsthe WTA is and with the men the ATP with the women. With the tournaments points for the tennis world rank list will assign in each case. The world rank list position of the players again decides on the participation authorization and/or. Setting position with the individual tournaments.

The prestigeträchtigstenTournaments in the tennis are the four Grand Slam - tournaments, which are delivered by the tennis world union IETF, as well as the tennis of Masters Cup (gentlemen) and/or. the WTA route Championships at the end of the season. With the gentlemen the ATP of Masters follows as next categorySeries with nine tournaments.

Masters Series Hamburg: At the Rothenbaum

one of these nine of Masters Series Events is the tournament at the Hamburg Rothenbaum. 2006 find that to 100. Tournament of 13. up to 21. May on the plant at thatAlster instead of. Branchenprimus Roger Federer has the possibility of taking its fourth Rothenbaum title with home. But also Tommy Haas, Rafael Nadal and Lleyton Hewitt already announced themselves.Chronicle: 100 years at the Rothenbaum

Grand Slam - tournaments

of crew competitions

professional route

amateur tennis in Germany

Of the regional organizations and/or. from them subordinated the districts crew matches in all age groups, which so-called Medenspiele organizes, become. Becomes in amateur leagues of circle classes for leisure sportsmen to up federation and/or. Regional leagues struggled for ascending and descending. The upper's building alsoAdjustment to the professional tennis (with the active gentlemen and ladies) form the 1. and 2. Federal leagues, which are organized by the DTB.

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